Skip to main content

Full text of "Experiment station record"

See other formats


^ySr^^'^HiUfSSi  SS 

<      I          :f       A5 

\     **^             • 

i^^^S 

^i 

tK^ 

LM 

^  A-    .C  '^ 

.-■;.»:  ..-^-S^.,  I' 

-^y-jl' 


■'i-  -/ 


l-^J^^r^m^^V-;/^ 'X, 


WA 


'^4:^  ^.^  X 


V  30 


.♦», 


U.  S.  DEPARTMENT  OF  AGRICULTURE 

OFFICE    OF   EXPERIMENT   STATIONS 
A.  C.  TRUE,  DIRECTOR 


EXPERIMENT 

STATION 

RECORD 


VOLUME  XXX 

JANUARY- JUNE,  1914 


LIBRARY 

NEW  YORK 

BOTANICAL 

QAKDEW. 


WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT  PRINTING  OFFICE 

1914 


~A 


U.  S.  DEPARTMENT  OF  AGRICULTURE. 
Scientific  Bureaus. 

Weather  Bureau — C.  F.  Marvin,  Chief. 
Bureau  of  Anim4.l  Industry — A.  D.  Melvin,  Chief. 
Bureau  of  Plant  Industry — W.  A.  Taylor,  Chief. 
Forest  Service — H.  S.  Graves,  Forester. 
Bureau  of  Soils — Milton  WTiitney,  Chief. 
Bureau  of  Chemistry — C.  L.  Alsberg,  Chief. 
Bureau  of  Statistics — L.  M.  Estabrook,  Statistician. 
Bureau  of  Entomology — L.  O.  Howard,  Entomologist. 
Bureau  of  Biological  Survey — H.  W.  Henshaw,  Chief. 
Office  of  Public  Roads — L.  W.  Page,  Director. 


Office  of  Experiment  Stations — A.  C.  True,  Director. 


THE  AGRICULTURAL  EXPERIMENT  STATIONS. 


Alabama— 

College  Station:  Auburn;  J.  F.  Duggar.o 
Canebrake  Station:   Uniontown;  L.  H.  Moore.o 
Tuskegee  Station:  Tuskegee  Institute;  G.   W. 
Carver.o 

Alaska— iSi<fca;  C.  C.  Georgeson.b 

Arizona—  Tucson:  R.  H.  Forbes.o 

Arkansas — Fayetteville:  M.  Nelson.a 

California— ^erfccZey.-  T.  F.  Hunt.a 

Colorado— i^ort  Collins:  C.  P.  Gillette.o 

Connecticut— 

State  Station:  New  Haven;\^  „  ^    ,  . 

o^  ^-        c^  7E.  H,  Jenkms.a 

Storrs  Station:  Storrs;        f 

Delaware— iV^ewarfc/  H.  Hayw^ard.a 

Florida— Gainesville:  P.  H.  Rolfs.o 

Georgia— Experiment:  R.  J.  H.  De  Loach.o 

GvAiA-Islan-d  of  Guam:  A.  C.  Hartenbower.& 

Hawah- 

Federal  Station:  Honolulu;  B.  V.  Wilcox.b 
Sugar   Planters'    Station:    Honolulu;   H.    P. 
Agee.o 

Idaho— Moscow:  W.  L.  Carlyle.o 

Illinois—  Urbana:  E.  Davenport.o 

Indiana— La  Fayette:  A.  Goss.o 

lovf A— Ames:  C.  F.  Curtiss.o 

KAi>iSAS— Manhattan:  W.  M.  Jardine.o 

Kesivcky— Lexington:  J.  H.  Kastle.o 

LOUISLAlNA— 

State  Station:  Baton  Rouge;     \ 

Sugar  Station:  ^Md«6onParfc,„^  ,.  ^    , 
,T     ^,  >W.  R.  Dodson.o 

New  Orleans;  | 

North  La.  Station:  Calhoun;    J 

Maine— Orono;  C.  D.  "VVoods.o 

Marylani>— CoWc^e  Park:  H.  J.  Patterson.o 

Massachusetts— ^mfters^;  W.  P.  Brooks.o 

Michigan— £o5<  Lansing:  R.  S.  Shaw. a 

Minnesota—  University   Farm,  St.  Paul:  A.   F. 

Woods.a 

Mississippi— ^^rjCMttwrai  College:  E.  R.  Lloyd.o 

Missouri— 

College  Station:  Columbia;  F.  B.  Mumford.o 

Fruit  Station:  Mountain  Grove;  Paul  Evans.a 


a  Director. 


6  Special  agent  in  charge, 


Mont  Ay;  A— Bozeman:  F.  B.  Linfield.o 

Nebraska— imcoZn.'  E.  A.  Burnett.o 

Nevada— J2fr?o.'  S.  B.  Doten.o 

New  Hampshire— Dwrftam.-  J.  C.  Kendall.o 

New  Jersey — New  Brunswick:  J.  G.  Lipman.o 

New  Mexico— Sia^e  College:  Fabian  Garcia.o 

New  York— 

State  Station:  Geneva;  W.  H.  Jordan. « 
Cornell  Station:  Ithaca;  B.  T.  Galloway.* 

North  Carolina— 

College  Station:  West  Raleigh;\^  „.  _., 
State  Station:  Raleigh;  T'  ^^-  ^^S^''^''* 

North    'Dakota— Agricultural     College:    T.     P. 
Cooper.o 

Omo—  Wooster:  C.  E.  Thome.o 

Oklahoma— )S^?ZZM;a^er.-  L.  L.  Lewis.o 

Oregon— CormZZis;  A.  B.  Cordley.o 

Pennsylvania — 

State  College:  R.  L.  Watts.o 
State  College:  Institute  of  Animal  Nutrition; 
H.  P.  Armsby.a 

Porto  Rico— 

Federal  Station:  Mayaguez;  D.  W.  May. 6 
Sugar  Planters'   Station:  Rio  Piedras;  J.   T. 
Crawley.o 

Rhode  Island — Kingston:  B.  L.  HartweU.o 

South  Carolina— CZcmson   College:  J.  N,  Har- 
per.o 

South  Dakota— Brookings:  J,  W.  Wilson.o 

Tennessee— Znoit^iZZe.-  H.  A.  Morgan.o 

Texas— CoZZef^e  Station:  B.  Youngblood.o 

JjTAn—Logan:  E.  D.  Ball.o 

V^RisiONT-Burlington:  J.  L.  Hills.o 

Virginia— 

Blacksburg:Vf.  J.  Schoene.c 

Norfolk:  Truck  Station;  T.  C.  Johnson.** 

"Wasiiington- PttZZmaw.- 1.  D.  Cardiff.** 

West    Virginia— Morgantown:    E.    D.    Sander- 
son.a 

Wisconsin— Jfodison.-H.  L.  Russell.o 

Wyoming — Laramie:  H.  G.  Knight.o 
in  Charge.  c  Acting  director. 


II 


EXPERIMENT  STATION  RECORD, 

Editor:  E.  W.  ALLEN,  Ph.  D.,  Assistant  Director. 
Assistant  Editor:  H.  L.  Knight. 

EDITORIAL    DEPARTMENTS. 

Agricultural  Chemistry  and  Agrotechny — L.  W.  Fetzer,  Ph.  D.,  M.  D. 

Meteorology,  Soils,  and  Fertilizers]-.  *„-  m 

[R.  ^.  Trullinger. 

Agricultural  Botany,  Bacteriology,  Vegetable  Pathology|,„'  ^"  _^^^^'       •     • 

T^-    ij  r^  \J.  I.  SCHULTE. 

^'^'^'^■^Pia.  M.Tucker,  Ph.D. 

Horticulture  and  Forestry — E.  J.  Glasson. 

t:,     T        .  XT  AT  +  •*•     fC.  F.  Langworthy,  Ph.  D.,  D.  Sc. 

Foods  and  Human  Nutntion<Tx   t    t 

[H.  L.  Lang. 

Zootechny,  Dairying,  and  Dairy  Farming — H.  Webster. 

Economic  Zoology  and  Entomology — W.  A.  Hooker,  D.  V.  M. 

,;.  .     .  HT  J-  •     (W.  A.  Hooker. 

Veterinary  Medicme<-r    „,  ^^ 

''  [L.  W.  Fetzer. 

Rural  Engineering — R.  W.  Trullinger. 

Rural  Economics — B.  B.  Hare. 

Agricultural  Education — C.  H.  Lane. 

Indexes — M.  D.  Moore. 


CONTENTS  OF  VOLUME  XXX. 

EDITORIAL  NOTES. 

Page. 

The  letters  and  writings  of  Dr.  S.  W.  Johnson 1 

Rediscovered  ideals  for  agricultural  investigation 5 

Progress  of  studies  in  animal  nutrition 101 

Requirements  of  feeding  experiments 103 

Need  of  redirection  of  experimental  -work  in  animal  husbandry 106 

The  ''  Village  Moderne  "  at  the  Ghent  Exposition 301 

The  opportunity  of  the  agricultural  college  for  civic  betterment 305 

Journal  literature  of  agricultural  science 401 

The  essentials  of  a  scientific  paper 403 

Functions  of  criticism  in  agricultural  science 407 

The  agricultural  extension  act 601 

State  and  National  cooperation  in  agricultural  extension 605 

The  Louisville  conference  on  country-life  development 608 

Rural  sanitation — an  opportunity  for  extension  work 701 

Alabama  College  Station: 

Bulletin  174,  December,  1913 636 

Alabama  Tuskegee  Station: 

Bulletin  25,  October,  1913 19 

III 


IV  EXPEEIMENT  STATION  RECORD. 

Arkansas  Station:  Page. 

Bulletin  115,  September,  1913 336 

Bulletin  116,  January,  1914 533 

Circular  18,  July,  1913 534 

Circular  19,  September,  1913 657 

Circular  20,  December,  1913 739 

California  Station: 

Bulletin  240,  September,  1913 28 

Bulletin  241 741 

Bulletin  242,  Januar5%  1914 714 

Bulletin  243,  March,  1914 883 

Bulletin  244,  March,  1914 814 

Circular  106,  September,  1913 83 

Circular  107,  October,  1913 345 

Circular  108,  October,  1913 316 

Circular  109,  January,  1914 694 

Circular  110,  December,  1913 625 

Circular  111,  December,  1913 627 

Circular  112,  January,  1914 695 

Circular  113,  January,  1914 695 

Circular  114,  February,  1914 687 

Circular  115,  February,  1914 841 

Circular  116,  March,  1914 854 

Colorado  Station: 

Bulletin  190,  June,  1913 36 

Bulletin  191,  June,  1913 35 

Bulletin  192,  November,  1913 813 

Bulletin  193,  January,  1914 818 

Bulletin  194,  January,  1914 885 

Twenty-fifth  Annual  Report,  1912 197 

Connecticut  State  Station: 

Bulletin  179,  October,  1913 339 

Bulletin  180,  January,  1914 835 

Bulletin  181,  January,  1914 856 

Bulletin  182,  March,  1914 854 

Annual  Report  1913,  pt.  2 327 

Annual  Report  1913,  pt.  3 654 

Annual  Report  1913,  pt.  4 664 

Annual  Report  1913,  pt.  5 868 

Florida  Station: 

Bulletin  119,  November,  1913 55 

Bulletin  120,  January,  1914 528 

Bulletin  121,  February,  1914 648 

Georgia  Station: 

Bulletin  103,  January,  1914 517 

Circular  69,  August,  1913 697 

Circular  70,  January,  1914 635 

Circular  71,  January,  1914 626 

Guam  Station: 

Annual  Report,  1912 17, 37, 41, 68, 94 


CONTENTS.  V 

Hawah  Station:  Page. 

Bulletin  29,  December  1,  1913 445 

Bulletin  30,  December  31,  1913 419 

Bulletin  31,  January  17,  1914 420 

Bulletin  32,  March  26,  1914 841 

Annual  Report,  1913 813,  828,  838,  841,  852,  899 

Hawaiian  Sugar  Planters'  Station: 

Division  of  Agriculture  and  Chemistry  Bulletin  42,  1914 890 

Division  of  Agriculture  and  Chemistry  Bulletin  43,  1914 891 

Idaho  Station: 

Bulletin  78,  January,  1914 786 

Illinois  Station: 

Bulletin  165,  July,  1913 369,  370 

Circular  169,  September,  1913 467 

Indiana  Station: 

Bulletin  167,  October,  1913 767 

Bulletin  168,  November,  1913 769 

Bulletin  169,  August,  1913 169 

Bulletin  170,  December,  1913 518 

Bulletin  171,  February,  1914 738 

Circular  39,  July,  1913 41 

Circular  40,  September,  1913 71 

Circular  41,  September,  1913 576 

Circular  42,  January,  1914 875 

Twenty-sixth  Annual  Report,  1913 509,  518,  575,  585,  598 

Iowa  Station: 

Bulletin  137,  April,  1913 36 

Bulletin  138,  April,  1913 37 

Bulletin  139,  May,  1913 89 

Bulletin  140,  August,  1913 61 

Bulletin  141,  July,  1913 89 

Bulletin  142,  August,  1913 46 

Bulletin  143,  September,  1913 69 

Bulletin  144,  September,  1913 41 

Kansas  Station: 

Bulletin  188,  July,  1913 157 

Bulletin  189,  July,  1913 155 

Bulletin  190,  October,  1913 555 

Bulletin  191,  November,  1913 547 

Bulletin  192,  October,  1913 569 

Bulletin  193,  December,  1913 734 

Bulletin  194,  December,  1913 735 

Circular  31,  1914 734 

Circular  32 547 

Circular  33 346 

Circular  34 341 

Kentucky  Station: 

Bulletin  173,  August  1,  1913 60 

Bulletin  174,  September  1,  1913 20 

Bulletin  175,  October  31,  1913 770 

BuUetin  176,  November  30,  1913 772 


VI  EXPERIMENT  STATIOIST  RECORD. 

Louisiana  Stations:  Page. 

Bulletin  142,  October,  1913 50 

Feed  Stuffs  Report,  1912-13 565 

Fertilizer  Report,  1912-13 428 

Twenty-fifth  Annual  Report,  1912 655,  696 

Twenty-sixth  Annual  Report,  1913 899 

Maine  Station: 

Bulletin  215,  August,  1913 66 

Bulletin  216,  September,  1913 175 

Bulletin  217,  October,  1913 548 

Bulletin  218,  October,  1913 564 

Bulletin  219,  October,  1913 542 

Bulletin220,  November,  1913 854 

Bulletin  221,  December,  1913 873,  874,  875 

Maryland  Station: 

Bulletin  176,  April,  1913 659 

Bulletin  177,  May,  1913 676 

Bulletin  178,  October,  1913 642 

Twenty-fifth  Annual  Report,  1912 696 

Massachusetts  Station: 

Bulletin  146,  October,  1913 67 

Bulletin  147,  December,  1913 327 

Meteorological  Bulletins  299-300,  November-December,  1913 317 

Meteorological  Bulletins  301-302,  January-February,  1914 713 

Twenty-fifth  Annual  Report,  1912,  pt.  1 125, 

128, 131, 142, 147, 150, 151, 152, 154, 160, 176, 178, 197 

Twenty-fiffli  Annual  Report,  1912,  pt.  2 127, 

138, 139, 140, 141, 146, 148, 151, 153, 156, 175, 197 

Michigan  Station: 

Bulletin  272,  September,  1913 428 

Special  Bulletin  62,  September,  1913 482 

Special  Bulletin  63,  September,  1913 443 

Twenty-sixth  Annual  Report,  1913 624,  640,  642,  696 

Minnesota  Station: 

Bulletin  134,  April,  1913 86 

Bulletin  135,  July,  1913 94 

Bulletin  136,  December,  1913 591 

Bulletm  137,  February,  1914 738,  760 

Press  Bulletin  43,  September,  1913 394 

Mississippi  Station: 

Bulletin  162,  September,  1913 175 

Bulletin  163,  1913 639 

Missouri  Station: 

Bulletin  114,  October,  1913 772 

Bulletin  115,  November,  1913 768 

Research  Bulletin  7,  October,  1913 773 

Circular  66,  September,  1913 735 

Nevada  Station: 

Bulletin  80,  November,  1913 165 

New  Jersey  Stations: 

Bulletin  257,  November  30,  1912 324 

Bulletin  258,  November  30,  1912 325 

Bulletin  259,  September  18,  1913 327 


CONTENTS.  Vn 

New  Jersey  Stations — Continued.  Page. 

Circular  27 139 

Circular  28 138 

Circular  29 750 

Circular  30 739 

Thirty-third  Annual  Report,  1912 324, 

325,  326,  327,  331,  333,  342,  343,  344,  349,  352,  355,  361, 373,  374,  375, 389,  395 

New  Mexico  Station: 

Bulletin  88,  October,  1913 517 

Bulletin  89,  February,  1914 839 

New  York  Cornell  Station: 

Bulletin  334,  July,  1913 877 

Bulletin  335,  September,  1913 848 

Bulletin  336,  October,  1913 877 

Bulletin  337,  October,  1913 810 

Bulletin  338,  November,  1913 819 

Bulletin  339,  November,  1913 829 

Bulletin  340,  January,  1914 840 

Circular  21,  January,  1914 848 

Twenty-sixth  Annual  Report,  1913 899 

Memoir  2,  August,  1913 128 

New  York  State  Station: 

Bulletin  366,  August,  1913 68 

Bulletm  367,  October,  1913 49 

Bulletin  368,  November,  1913 358,  359 

Bulletin  369,  December,  1913 540 

Bulletin  370,  December,  1913 539,  540 

Bulletin  371,  December,  1913 520 

Bulletin  372,  December,  1913 899 

Circular  25,  April  25,  1913 853 

Circular  26,  January  12,  1914 821 

Circular  27,  January  20,  1914 822 

North  Carolina  Station: 

Bulletin  224,  January,  1914 843 

Bulletin  225,  February,  1914 894 

Bulletin  226,  March,  1914 831 

North  Dakota  Station: 

Bulletin  106,  October,  1913 338,  362,  363,  370,  380 

Special  Bulletin,  vol.  2,  No.  20,  October,  1913 639,  666,  691 

Special  Bulletin,  vol.  2,  No.  21,  November,  1913 617,  666 

Special  Bulletin,  vol.  2,  No.  22,  December,  1913 666 

Special  Bulletin,  vol.  3,  No.  1,  January,  1914 616,  667 

Special  Bulletin,  vol.  3,  No.  2,  January,  1914 668 

Special  Seed  Bulletin  2,  July,  1913 342 

Twenty-third  Annual  Report,  1912,  pt.  1 638,  696 

Twenty-tliird  Annual  Report,  1912,  pt.  2 665,  696 

Twenty-third  Annual  Report,  1912,  pt.  3 616, 

620,  622, 661, 663,  664, 671,  691,  696 

Ohio  Station: 

Bulletin  260,  April,  1913 25 

Bulletin  261,  June,  1913 817 

Wood-Usino:  Industries  of  Ohio,  1912 536 


VIII  EXPEKIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

Oklahoma  Station:  Page. 

Circular  19,  March,  1913 437 

Circular  20,  March,  1913 443 

Circular  21,  June,  1913 443 

Circular  22,  July,  1913 443 

Circular  23,  November,  1913 532 

Twenty-second  Annual  Report,  1913 568,  584, 593,  598 

Oregon  Station: 

Bulletin  115,  November,  1912 441 

Bulletin  116,  August,  1913 443 

Research  Bulletin  2,  July,  1913 152 

Pennsylvania  Station: 

Bulletin  124,  September,  1913 372 

Bulletin  125,  October,  1913 342 

Bulletin  126,  November,  1913 563 

Bulletin  127,  December,  1913 822 

Porto  Rico  Station: 

Bulletin  14,  March  19,  1914 818 

Porto  Rico  Sugar  Producers'  Station: 

Bulletin  5  (Third  Annual  Report,  1913),  August,  1913 340,  355,  356, 395 

Bulletin  6  (English  edition),  September,  1913 449 

Circular  3  (English  edition),  October,  1913 150 

Rhode  Island  Station: 

Bulletin  155,  June,  1913 71 

Inspection  Bulletin,  September,  1911 428 

Inspection  Bulletm,  October,  1911 428 

Inspection  Bulletin,  October,  1913 327 

Twenty-fifth  Annual  Report,  1912 510,  571,  586, 598 

South  Carolina  Station: 

Circular  11,  April,  1913 338 

Circular  12,  April,  1913 371 

Circular  13,  July,  1913 320 

Circular  14,  July,  19.13 346 

Circular  15,  July,  1913 357 

Circular  16,  July,  1913 357 

Circular  37,  July,  1913 346 

Circular  18,  July,  1913 346 

Circular  19,  October,  1913 335 

Circular  20,  October,  1913 625 

Circular  21,  November,  1913 643 

Circular  22,  December,  1913 645 

Twenty-sixth  Annual  Report,  1913 538, 545, 599 

South  Dakota  Station: 

Bulletin  146,  November,  1913 738 

Bulletin  147,  December,  1913 775 

Annual  Report,  1912 640, 697 

Tennessee  Station: 

Bulletin  100,  September,  1913 808 

Bulletin  101,  October,  1913 820 

Bulletm  102,  January,  1914 821 

Texas  Station: 

Bulletin  159,  July,  1913 468 

Bulletin  160,  July,  1913 428 

Bulletin  161,  September,  1913 420 


CONTENTS.  IX 

Utah  Station:  Page. 

Bulletin  123,  August,  1913 887 

Bulletin  124,  August,  1913 41 

Bulletin  125,  August,  1913 460 

Bulletin  12G,  August,  1913 72 

Bulletin  127,  August,  1913 177 

Bulletin  128,  November,  1913 442 

Bulletin  129,  November,  1913 549 

Bulletin  130,  January,  1914 639 

Bulletin  131,  March,  1914 829 

Circular  13 41 

Circular  14,  November,  1913 390 

Circular  15,  November,  1913 829 

Vermont  Station: 

Bulletin  174,  June,  1913 184 

Virginia  Station: 

Bulletin  203,  January,  1914 450 

Virginia  Truck  Station: 

Bulletin  9,  October  1,  1913 532 

Washington  Station: 

Bulletin  112,  October,  1913 383 

Bulletin  113,  December,  1913 568 

Popular  Bulletin  59 534 

Western  Washington  Station  Monthly  Bulletin,  vol.  1,  No.  1,  September, 

1913 197 

West  Virginia  Station: 

Bulletin  142,  November,  1913 839 

Inspection  Bulletin  2,  January,  1914 823 

Circular  4,  March,  1912 94 

Circular  6,  September,  1912 27 

Circular  7,  March,  1913 344 

Annual  Report  1912 38, 40, 49,  55,  71,  94 

Wisconsin  Station: 

Bulletin  232,  August,  1913 173 

Bulletin  233,  September,  1913 141 

Bulletin  234,  January,  1914 694 

Bulletin  235,  March,  1914 874 

Research  Bulletin  30,  February,  1914 867 

Research  Bulletin  31,  February,  1914 846 

Circular  of  Information  45,  September,  1913 470 

Wyoming  Station: 

Bulletin  101,  November,  1913 412 

Bulletin  102,  January,  1914 584 

Twenty-third  Annual  Report,  1913 619,  687,  697 

UNITED  STATES  DEPARTl^IENT  OF  AGRICULTURE  PUBLICATIONS 

ABSTRACTED. 

Journal  Agricultural  Research,  vol.  1,  No.  2,  November,  1913 41,  44,  52,  56,  83 

Journal  Agricultural  Research,  vol.  1,  No.  3,  December,  1913 349,  351,  354,  360 

Journal  Agricultural  Research,  vol.  1,  No.  4,  January,  1914 436, 440,  452, 453, 459 

Journal  Agricultural  Research,  vol.  1,  No.  5,  February,  1914 610,  628,  640,  643 

Journal  Agricultural  Research,  vol.  1,  No.  6,  March,  1914. .  801,  803,  844,  846, 855, 875 
Bulletin  2,  The  Fish-scrap  Fertilizer  Industry  of  the  Atlantic  Coast,  J.  W.  Tur- 

rentine 326 


X  EXPEKIMENT   STATION   KECORD. 

Page. 
Bulletin  3,  A  Normal  Day's  Work  for  Various  Farm  Operations,  H,  H.  Mowry. .  89 
Bulletin  4,  The  Reseeding  of  Depleted  Grazing  Lands  to  Cultivated  Forage    ,^ 

Plants,  A.  W.  Sampson [I  35 

Bulletin  5,  The  Southern  Com  Root-worm  or  Budworm,  F.  M.  Webster 56 

Bulletin  6,  The  Agricultural  Utilization  of  Acid  Lands  by  Means  of  Acid- 
tolerant  Crops,  F.  V.  Coville - 23 

Bulletin  7,  Agricultural  Training  Courses  for  Employed  Teachers,  E .  R .  Jackson        93 

Bulletin  8,  The  Western  Corn  Rootworm,  F.  M.  Webster 56 

Bulletin  9,  An  Economic  Study  of  Acacias,  C.  H.  Shinn 146 

Bulletin  10,  Progress  Report  of  Cooperative  Irrigation  Experiments  at  Califor- 
nia University  Farm,  Davis,  Cal.,  1909-1912,  S.  H.  Beckett 34 

Bulletin  11,  Forest  Management  of  Loblolly  Pine  in  Delaware,  Maryland,  and 

Virginia ,  W .  D .  S terre tt 446 

Bulletin  12,  Uses  of  Commercial  Woods  of  the  United  States,  H.  Maxwell 46 

Bulletin  13,  ^\^lite  Pine  Under  Forest  Management,  E.  H.  Frothingham 535 

Bulletin  14,  The  Migratory  Habit  of  House-fly  Larvae  as  Indicating  a  Favorable 

Remedial  Measure.— An  Account  of  Progress,  R.  H.  Hutchison 756 

Bulletin  15,  A  Sealed  Paper  Carton  to  Protect  Cereals  from  Insect  Attack,  W. 

B .  Parker 53 

Bulletin  16,  The  Culture  of  Flue-cured  Tobacco,  E.  H.  Mathewson 39 

Bulletin  17,  The  Refrigeration  of  Dressed  Poultry  in  Transit,  Mary  E.  Penn- 
ington et  al 71 

Bulletin  18,  A  Report  on  the  Phosphate  Fields  of  South  Carolina,  W.  H.  Wagga- 

man 27 

Bulletin  19,  The  Grape  Leafhopper  in  the  Lake  Erie  Valley,  F.  Johnson 547 

Bulletin  20,  The  Management  of  Sheep  on  the  Farm,  E.  L.  Shaw  and  L.  L. 

Heller 372 

Bulletin  21,  The  Commercial  Fattening  of  Poultry,  A.  R,  Lee 470 

Bulletin  22,  Game  Laws  for  1913,  T.  S.  Palmer  et  al 52 

Bulletin  23,  Vitrified  Brick  as  a  Paving  Material  for  Country  Roads,  V.  M. 

Peirce  and  C.  H.  Moorefield 86 

Bulletin  24,  Cottonwood  in  the  Mississippi  Valley,  A.  W.  Williamson 346 

Bulletin  25,  The  Shrinkage  in  Weight  of  Beef  Cattle  in  Transit,  W.  F.  Ward  and 

J .  E .  Downing 171 

Bulletin  26,  American  Medicinal  Flowers,  Fruits,  and  Seeds,  Alice  Henkel. . .  145 
Bulletin  27,  Bouillon  Cubes:  Their  Contents  and  Food  Value  Compared  with 

Meat  Extracts  and  Homemade  Preparations  of  Meat,  F,  C.  Cook 162 

Bulletin  28,  Experiments  in  Bulb  Growing  at  the  United  States  Bulb  Garden  at 

Bellingham,  P.  H.  Dorsett 145 

Bulletin  29,  Crew  Work,  Costs,  and  Returns  in  Commercial  Orcharding  in  W^est 

Virginia,  J.  H.  Arnold 144 

Bulletin  30,  Cereal  Investigations  at  the  Nephi  Substation,  P.  V.  Cardon 135 

Bulletin  31,  Behavior,  Under  Cultural  Conditions,  of  Species  of  Cacti  Known 

as  Opuntia,  D.  Griffiths 336 

Bulletin  32,  An  Example  of  Successful  Farm  Management  in  Southern  New 

York,  M.  C.  Burritt  and  J.  H.  Barron 193 

Bulletin  34,  Range  Improvement  by  Deferred  and  Rotation  Grazing,  A.  W. 

Sampson 334 

Bulletin  35,  Factors  Governing  the  Successful  Storage  of  California  Table 

Grapes,  A.  V.  Stubenrauch  and  C.  W.  Mann 345 

Bulletin  36,  Studies  of  Primary  Cotton  Market  Conditions  in  Oklahoma,  W.  A. 

Sherman  et  al 193 

Bulletin  37,  Nitrogenous  FertiUzers  Obtainable  in  the  United  States,  J.  W. 

Turrentine 126 


CONTENTS.  XI 

Page- 
Bulletin  38,  Seed  Selection  of  Egyptian  Cotton,  T.  H.  Kearney 138 

Bulletin  39,  Experiments  with  Wheat,  Oats,  and  Barley  in  South  Dakota,  M. 

Champlin 434 

Bulletin  40,  The  Mosaic  Disease  of  Tobacco,  H.  A.  Allard 450 

Bulletin  41,  A  Farm-management  Survey  of  Three  Representative  Areas  in 

Indiana,  Illinois,  and  Iowa,  E.  H.  Thomson  and  H.  M.  Dixon 490 

Bulletin  42,  The  Action  of  Manganese  in  Soils,  J.J.  Skinner,  M.  X.  Sullivan,etal.  823 
Bulletin  43,  American-grown  Paprika  Pepper,  T.  B.  Young  and  R.  H.  True. .       343 

Bulletin  44,  The  Blights  of  Coniferous  Nursery  Stock,  C.  Hartley 151 

Bulletin  45,  Experiments  in  the  Use  of  Sheep  in  the  Eradication  of  the  Rocky 

Mountain  Spotted  Fever  Tick,  H.  P.  Wood 162 

Bulletin  46,  A  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  the  Soils  of  Virginia  so  Far  Identified 

in  the  Soil  Survey 319 

Bulletin  47,  Lessons  for  American  Potato  Growers  from  German  Experiences, 

W.  A.  Orton 139 

Bulletin  48,  The  Shrinkage  of  Shelled  Corn  While  in  Cars  in  Transit,  J.  W.  T. 

Duvel  and  L.  Duval 337 

Bulletin  49,  The  Cost  of  Raising  a  Dairy  Cow,  CM.  Bennett  and  M.  O.  Coeper.      472 

Bulletin  50,  Possible  Agricultural  Development  in  Alaska,  L.  Chubbuck 491 

Bulletin  52,  The  Anthracnose  of  the  Mango  in  Florida,  S.  M.  McMurran 451 

Bulletin  53,  Object-lesson  and  Experimental  Roads,  and  Bridge  Construction, 

1912-13 386 

Bulletin  55,  Balsam  Fir,  R.  Zon 843 

Bulletin  56,  A  Special  Flask  for  the  Rapid  Determination  of  Water  in  Flour 

and  Meal,  J.  H.  Cox 506 

Bulletin  57,  Water  Supply,  Plumbing,  and  Sewage  Disposal  for  Country  Homes, 

R.  W.  Trullinger 690 

Bulletin  58,  Five  Important  Wild-duck  Foods,  W.  L.  McAtee 545 

Bulletin  59,  The  Tobacco  Splitworm,  A.  C.  Morgan  and  S.  E.  Crumb 550 

Bulletin  60,  The  Relation  of  Cotton  Buying  to  Cotton  Growing,  O.  F.  Cook.  . .  527 
Bulletin  62,  Tests  of  the  Waste,  Tensile  Strength,  and  Bleaching  Qualities  of 

the  Different  Grades  of  Cotton  as  Standardized  by  the  U.  S.  Government, 

N.A.Cobb 527 

Bulletin  63,   Factors  Governing  the  Successful  Shipment  of  Oranges  from 

Florida,  A.  V.  Stubenrauch  et  al 841 

Bulletin  64,  Potato  Wilt,  Leaf-roll,  and  Related  Diseases,  W.  A.  Orton 649 

Bulletin  65,  Cerebrospinal  Meningitis  ("Forage  Poisoning"),  J.  R.  Mohler.  .  . .  685 
Bulletin  66,  Statistics  of  Sugar  in  the  United  States  and  Its  Insular  Possessions, 

1881-1912,  F.  Andrews 736 

Bulletin  67,  Tests  of  Rocky  Mountain  Woods  for  Telephone  Poles,  N.  de  W. 

Betts  and  A.  L.  Heim 843 

Bulletin  68,  Pasture  and  Grain  Crops  for  Hogs  in  the  Pacific  Northwest,  B. 

Hunter 771 

Bulletin  69,  Cicuta,  or  Water  Hemlock,  C.  D.  Marsh,  A.  B.  Clawson,  and  H. 

Marsh 880 

Farmers'  Bulletin  561,  Bean  Growing  in  Eastern  Washington  and  Oregon,  and 

Northern  Idaho,  L.  W.  Fluharty 138 

Farmers'  Bulletin  562,  The  Organization  of  Boys'  and  Girls'  Poultry  Clubs, 

H.  M.  Lamon 395 

Farmers'  Bulletin  563,  The  Agricultural  Outlook 392 

Farmers'  Bulletin  564,  The  Gipsy  Moth  and  the  Brown-tail  Moth,  with  Sug- 
gestions for  Their  Control,  A.  F.  Burgess 549 

Farmers'  Bulletin  565,  Corn  Meal  as  a  Food  and  Ways  of  Using  It,  C.  F.  Lang- 
worthy  and  Caroline  L.  Hunt 557 


Xn  EXPERIMEKT  STATION  RECORD. 


Fanners'  Bulletin  566,  Boys'  Pig  Clubs,  W.  F.  Ward 395 

Farmers'  Bulletin  567,  Sugar-beet  Growing  Under  Irrigation,  CO.  Townsend.  529 
Farmers'  Bulletin  568,  Sugar-beet  Growing  Under  Humid  Conditions,  CO. 

Townsend ^29 

Farmers'  Bulletin  569,  Texas  or  Tick  Fever,  J.  B.  Mohler 884 

Farmers'  Bulletin  570,  The  Agricultural  Outlook 593 

Farmers'  Bulletin  571,  Tobacco  Culture,  W.  W.  Garner 737 

Farmers'  Bulletin  572,  A  System  of  Farm  Cost  Accounting,  C  E.  Ladd 793 

Press  Notice,  May  17,  1913,  A  Practical  Method  of  Preventing  the  Unnecessary 

Waste  of  Condemned  Milk 378 

List  of  Free  and  Available  Publications  of  the  U.S.  Department  of  Agricultiu-e 

of  Interest  to  Farm  Women 197 

Organization  and  Conduct  of  a  Market  Service  in  the  Department  of  Agri- 
culture, discussed  at  a  conference  held  at  the  Department  on  April  29,  1913.  197 
Organization  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture,  1913 197 

Bureau  op  Chemistry: 

Bulletin  162,  Proceedings  of  the   Twenty-ninth  Annual   Convention  of 
the  Association  of  Official  Agricultural  Chemists,  1912,  edited  by  W.  D. 

Bigelow  and  G.  O.  Savage 317 

Bureau  of  Entomology: 

Bulletin  123,  A  Preliminary  Report  on  the  Sugar-beet  Wireworm,  J.  E. 

Graf 758 

Bulletin  126,  The  Abutilon  Moth,  F.  H.  Chittenden 157 

Forest  Service: 

Forest  Fire  Protection  by  the  States,  edited  by  J.  G.  Peters 447 

Forest  Tree  Diseases  Common  in  California  and  Nevada,  E.  P.  Meinecke.  751 

Bureau  of  Plant  Industry: 

Distribution  of  Cotton  Seed  in  1914,  R.  A.  Oakley 436 

The  Forcing  and  Blanching  of  Dasheen  Shoots,  R.  A.  Young 442 

Inventory  of  Seeds  and  Plants  Imported,  April  1  to  June  30,  1912 730 

Bureau  of  Soils: 

Soils  of  the  United  States  (1913  edition),  C  F.  Marbut  et  al 19 

Weather  Bureau: 

Bulletin  Y,  The  Ohio  and  Mississippi  Floods  of  1912,  H.  C  Frankenfield..  417 

Bulletin  Mount  Weather  Observatory,  vol.  6,  pt.  2 317 

Bulletin  Mount  Weather  Observatory,  vol.  6,  pts.  3-4 713 

Monthly  Weather  Review,  Vol.  41,  Nos.  9-10,  September-October,  1913. .  416, 

418, 445 

Monthly  Weather  Review,  Vol.  41,  Nos.  11-12,  November-December,  1913.  713 

Abstract  of  Data  1,  Precipitation  in  the  Panhandle  Region  of  Texas 318 

Abstract  of  Data  2,  Precipitation  in  Western  Kansas 318 

Abstract  of  Data  3,  Annual  Precipitation  of  the  United   States  for  the 

years  1872  to  1907 318 

Abstract  of  Data  4,  Provisional  Statement  Regarding  the  Total  Amount  of 

Evaporation  by  Months  at  23  Stations  in  the  United  States,  1909-10 317 


ILLUSTRATION. 


Fig.  1.  Diagram  to  represent  the  number  of  broods  of  Hessian  fly  in  Kansas 
in  1908,  the  period  of  their  appearance,  and  the  sources  from  which 
they  came 158 


EXPERIMENT  STATION  RECORD. 

Editor:  E.  W.  ALLEN,  Ph.  D.,  Asdstant  Director. 
Assistant  Editor:  H.  L.  Knight. 


EDITORIAL   DEPARTMENTS. 

Agricultural  Chemistry  and  Agrotecliny — L.  W.  Fetzer,  Ph.  D.,  M.  D. 

Meteorology,  Soils,  and  FertLlizer8{W;  ^;  II^llinger. 

Agricultural  Botany,  Bacteriology,  Vegetable  Pathology/^'  ^-  f  J^d  ^'  ^^'  ^' 

^7i^^A   rv^^o/J-  I-  SCHULTE. 

Field  CropsJQ  ^^  Tucker,  Ph.  D. 

Horticulture  and  Forestry — E.  J.  Glasson. 

Foods  and  Human  Nutritionj^"  f^'  ^^^^«^^«^^^'  ^^-  ^^  ^-  ^^ 

Zootechny,  Dairying,  and  Dairy  Farming — H.  Webster. 
Economic  Zoology  and  Entomology — W.  A.  Hooker,  D.  V.  M. 
veterinary  Medicinej^- A.  Ho^OK.«. 

Rural  Engineering — R.  W.  Trullinger. 
Riual  Economics — B.  B.  Hare. 
Agricultural  Education — C.  H.  Lane. 
Indexes — M.  D.  Moore. 


LIBRAI 
NEW  Y(J 
SOTANK 

UAKUb 


CONTENTS  OF  VOL.  XXX,  NO.  i. 


Editorial  notes:  Page. 

The  letters  and  writings  of  Dr.  S.  W.  Johnson 1 

Rediscovered  ideals  for  agricultural  investigation 5 

Recent  work  in  agricultural  science 10 

Notes 95 

SUBJECT  LISTS  OF  ABSTRACTS. 


AGRICULTURAL   CHEMISTRY — AGROTECHNY. 

Principles  of  agricultural  chemistry,  Fraps 10 

About  the  pentosans,  Goy 10 

The  temperature  at  which  starch  granules  gelatinize,  Nyman 10 

The  chemistry  of  the  resins  of  the  Douglas  fir,  Frankforter  and  Brown 10 

The  investigation  of  the  chemical  action  of  bacteria,  Harden 10 

Progress  made  in  regard  to  the  fermentation  organisms  and  enzyms,  Koch 11 

In  regard  to  the  ferment  natiu-e  of  peroxidase,  Hesse  and  Kooper.' 11 

Cleavage  of  a  and  ;9  methyl  glucosid  by  Aspergillus  niger,  Dox  and  Neidi  r 11 

Determination  of  alkalis  in  silicates  -svith  calcium  chlorid,  Miikinen 11 

New  methods  for  the  examination  and  judgment  of  soils,  Konig 12 

The  determination  of  lime  in  cow  feces,  Dutcher 12 

Water  analysis  for  sanitary  and  technical  purposes,  Stocks 12 

Mineral  analysis  of  water 13 

Food  control  by  police  officials,  Bremer 13 

Rapid  method  for  determiiiin  g  fat  in  cacao  with  the  Zeiss  refractometer,  Richter.  13 

Changes  in  methods  for  succinic  and  malic  acids,  von  der  Heide  and  Schwenk.  13 

I 


n  CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Studies  in  regard  to  the  dry  substance  (total  solids)  of  milk,  Splittgerber 13 

The  conservation  of  samples  of  milk  destined  for  analysis,  Rocques 13 

The  preservation  of  milk  samples  destined  for  analysis,  Deniges 14 

The  detection  of  peanut  oil  in  olive  oil,  Adler 14 

Detection  of  peanut  oil  in  olive  oil  according  to  Franz-Adler  method,  Liiers. . .  14 

Technical  accounting  and  chemical  control  m  sugar  manufacture,  Davoll,  jr. ..  14 

The  sugar  content  of  maize  stalks,  Blackshaw 14 

Objectionable  nitrogenous  compounds  in  sugar-cane  juice,  Zerban 15 

Practical  results  by  determining  injurious  nitrogen  in  sugar  beets,  Friedl 15 

Inversion  of  saccharose  and  the  changes  of  feed  beets  during  storage,  Jekelius.  15 

Manufacture  of  a  sugar-beet  flour  (beet  meal),  and  its  use,  Aulard 15 

Composition  of  api)les  and  pure  ciders  of  the  lower  Seine  regions,  Brioux 16 

Cider  vinegar  and  its  making,  O'Gara 16 

The  composition  of  pure  vdne  from  American  native  grapes,  Alwood 16 

The  alcohol  industry  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  Gibbs 16 

The  cooperative  manufacture  of  casein,  Dornic 16 

Synthetic  tannin,  Chase 16 

The  effect  of  "lime-sulphur"  spray  manufacture  on  the  eyesight,  Withrow 16 

METEOROLOGY — WATER. 

Syllabus  on  meteorological  information  and  agricultural  practice,  Shaw 16 

"Surface "  climate.  Balls 17 

Meteorological  conditions  in  a  field  crop,  Balls 17 

Meteorological  yearbook  for  1913 17 

Temperature  records,  Thompson 17 

Rain  and  its  measurement,  Dumas 17 

Conservation  of  rainfall,  Spillman 17 

Surface  water  of  South  Atlantic  and  Gulf  of  Mexico  basins,  Hall  and  Pierce. . .  17 

Geology  and  ground  waters  of  Florida,  Matson  and  Sanf ord 17 

Surface  water  supply  of  Ohio  River  basin,  1911,  Horton,  Hall,  and  Jackson 18 

The  Ohio  Valley  flood  of  March- April,  1913,  Horton  and  Jackson 18 

Geology  and  water  resources  of  Sulphur  Spring  Valley,  Ariz 18 

Ground  water  in  Boxelder  and  Tooele  counties,  Utah,  Carpenter 18 

Pollution  of  underground  waters  with  sewage  through  fissures  in  rocks,  Albert.  19 

The  sewage  sludge  problem  and  its  solution,  Grossmann 19 

SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 

Soils  of  the  United  States,  Marbut,  Bennett,  and  Lapham 19 

A  study  of  the  soils  of  Macon  County,  Alabama,  and  their  adaptability,  Carver.  19 

The  gullied  lands  of  west  Tennessee,  Purdue 19 

The  sulphur  content  of  some  typical  Kentucky  soils,  Shedd 20 

Analysis  of  coconut  soils,  De  Verteuil : 20 

Some  Lybian  soils,  Maugini 20 

The  alkaline  soils  in  Egypt  and  their  treatment,  Moss^ri 21 

The  movements  of  soil  water  in  an  Egyptian  cotton  field,  Balls 21 

The  water  balance  and  losses  of  plant  food  in  soils,  von  Seelhorst  et  al 21 

A  new  method  of  measuring  the  capillary  lift  of  soils,  Lynde  and  Dupre 22 

Efficiency  of  soil  constituents  as  semipermeable  membranes,  Lynde  and  Dupr4.  23 

Action  of  hydroxyl  ions  on  clay  soils  in  connection  with  marling,  Rohland 23 

The  properties  of  so-called  soil  zeolites,  Blanck 23 

Factors  in  the  maintenance  of  permanent  fertility  of  the  soil,  Fippiu 23 

Agricultural  utilization  of  acid  lands  by  acid-tolerant  crops,  Coville 23 

Formation  of  nitrates  iu  soil  after  freezing  and  thawing,  Lyon  and  Bizzell 23 

The  accumulation  of  green  manure  nitrogen  in  sandy  soils,  von  Seelhorst  et  al. .  24 

Manures  and  fertilizers,  Wheeler 24 

Experiments  -^^dth  fertilizers,  manure,  lime,  and  floats,  Thome  and  Mohn 25 

The  preservation  of  cattle  manure 25 

The  effects  of  fertilizers  other  than  that  of  adding  plant  food,  Van  Slyke 26 

The  nitrogen  content  of  night  soil  from  the  city  of  Florence,  Passerini 26 

Tests  of  the  nitrogen  of  "Poudro,"  de  Molinari  and  Ligot 26 

Production  of  artificial  fertilizers  from  nitrogen  of  the  air,  Bencke 26 

How  can  the  dusty  condition  of  lime  nitrogen  be  lessened?    Stutzer 26 

Decrease  of  available  phosphoric  acid  in  mixtures  with  cyanamid,  Brackett  et  al .  26 

Fertilizer  analysis,  Mitscherlich  and  Simmermacher 26 

A  report  on  the  phosphate  fields  of  South  Carolina,  Waggaman 27 


CONTENTS.  in 

Page. 

Thomas  slag,  its  preparation  and  use,  Wagner 27 

Analyses  of  Thomas  slag  from  different  sources,  von  Feilitzen  and  Lugner 27 

Kelp  and  other  sources  of  potash,  Cameron 27 

Lime,  Hite 27 

On  the  influc  ace  of  the  ratio  of  lime  to  magnesia  on  plants,  Loew 27 

Is  silica  an  inQ-'=!pensable  constituent  of  plant  food?    Lundie 27 

Commercial  fertilizers,  Burd 28 

AGRICULTURAL   BOTANY. 

On  the  chemical  organization  of  the  cell,  Ruhland 28 

Significance  of  character  of  electrical  charge  for  passage  of  colloids.  Kuhland . .  28 

Fermentation  of  some  cyclic  series  compounds  and  formation  f)f  humus,  Perrier.  28 

Necessity  of  bacterial  association  for  Chondromyccs  crocatus,  Pinoy 28 

A  mud  suckino  device  for  obtaining  soil  microflora  and  microfauna,  Perfyl'ev. .  28 

Studies  in  Indian  to])accos. — III,  Inheritance  in  Nicotiana  tabacum,  Howard.. .  29 

Flowering  of  Geranium  robertianum  under  various  physical  conditions.  Stager. .  29 

Relation  between  tuberization  and  infestation  by  endophytic  fungi,  Bean 29 

Influence  of  radioactivity  on  vegetation,  \'acher 29 

Some  recent  studies  on  germination,  Lehmann 30 

Germination  of  potato,  Cou\Teur 30 

Transpiration  and  osmotic  pressure  in  mangroves,  von  Faber 30 

The  distribution  of  temperature  in  living  plants,  Dupont 30 

Wind  and  the  plant  world;  a  study,  Kroll 30 

Presence  and  persistence  of  hydrocyanic  acid  in  grains  in  hot  regions,  Raybaud .  30 

Demonstration  and  localization  of  nitrates  and  nitrites  in  plants,  Klein 30 

Assimilation  of  nitric  acid  and  deposit  of  manganese  in  plants,  Houtermans. . .  30 

Significance  of  deposits  in  plants  in  *>iutions  of  manganese  salts,  Acqua 31 

Deposits  in  plant  tissues  duo  to  culture  in  manganese  nitrate  solution,  Boselli. .  31 

Influence  of  nitrates  on  toxicity  toward  fungus  spores,  Hawkins 31 

The  action  of  sodinm  sulphate  as  affecting  growth  of  plants,  Haselhoff 31 

Atmospheric  impurities  near  an  industrial  city,  Crowther  and  Steuart 32 

Influence  of  tar,  particularly  tarred  streets,  on  vegetation,  Claussen 32 

FIELD   CROPS. 

Study  of  farm  practice  versus  field  experiments,  Spillman 32 

Determination  of  probal)le  error  in  field  experiments,  Hamoth 32 

Determinations  of  probable  errors  in  field  experiments,  Alexandrowitsch 83 

Determination  of  probable  errors  in  field  experiments,  Hamoth 33 

Methods  of  testing  varieties,  Kostecki 33 

Variety  tests  of  field  crops,  Lemmermann  et  al 33 

Electroculture,  Escard 33 

Observations  on  some  new  methods  of  growing  cereals,  Remy  and  Kreplin 33 

Dominant  and  recessive  characters  in  barley  and  oat  hybrids,  Thatcher 33 

[Fertilizer  experiments],  de  Jong 34 

Cooperative  irrigation  experiments  at  Davis,  Cal.,  1909-1912,  Beckett 34 

The  reseeding  of  depleted  grazing  lands  to  cultivated  forage  plants,  Sampson. . .  35 

A  note  on  two  textile  plants  from  the  Belgian  Kongo,  Mestdagh 35 

Alfalfa  seed  production,  Blinn 35 

Alfalfa  management  in  Iowa,  Hughes 36 

Experiments  with  Turkestan  alfalfa  in  Hungary,  Grarfas 36 

A  new  two-rowed  winter  barlej',  Neumann -.■•-•. ^^ 

A  mutation  in  a  pure  line  ot  Hordeum  distichum,  Kiessling 36 

Variation  studies  in  brome  grass,  Keyser 36 

On  the  presence  of  hydrocyanic  acid  in  wliite  clover,  Mirande 36 

Silver  King. — A  corn  for  northern  Iowa,  Hughes 37 

Com  culture  in  North  Carolina,  Burgess 37 

Notes  on  com  growing  in  Guam,  Thompson -  - 37 

Twelfth  report  of  Indiana  Com  Growers'  Association,  edited  by  Christie 37 

Fourtli  annual  report  of  the  Ontario  Com  Growers'  Association,  Duff 37 

Rubelzui  cotton:  A  new  species  of  Gossypium  from  Guatemala,  Lewton 37 

The  cotton  of  the  Hopi  Indians:  A  new  species  of  Gossypium,  Lewton 37 

Experiments  on  the  retting  of  flax,  Ringelmann 37 

Potassium  fertilizer  for  hops,  Neumann 37 

Seed  varieties  of  Lupinus  angustifolius  and  L.  luteua,  Kajanus 38 


IV  CONTENTS. 

Page. 

African  Baanioe,  Henry,  Yye«,  wid  Ammaon 38 

Vegetative  experiments  with  88  varieties  of  oats,  Schneider 38 

Breeding  and  seed  production  of  tho  Rcht«l  Mountain  oats,  Raum 38 

Wild  plantain  fiber  from  India 38 

Variety  [and  manurial]  teats  of  potatoes,  Dacy -^ 38 

Pointers  on  the  growing  and  selection  of  types  of  eating  potatoes,  Schiftan 39 

Experiments  in  the  defoliation  of  sugar  beets,  Strohmer,  Briem,  and  Fallada. .  39 

Small  beet  seed,  Briem 39 

The  size  of  the  seed  ball  of  beets,  Plahn-Appiani 39 

The  value  of  bees  to  seed  beet  growing,  Vaailieff 39 

The  manuring  of  sugar  cane  at  Samalkota,  1902-1912,  Hilson 39 

The  culture  of  flue-cured  tobacco,  Mathewson 39 

The  U  telo,  a  plant  with  oleaginous  seeds,  Mestdagh 39 

On  the  selection  of  a  type  of  wheat  resistant  to  severe  winters,  Kolkunov 40 

Portuguese  varieties  of  wheat  and  their  improvement,  Klein 40 

Clover  and  grass  seeds,  Boerger 40 

Seed  tests,  Hiltner  et  al 40 

HOBTIOTJLTURB . 

Grarden  farming,  Corbett 40 

Pomology,  horticulture,  and  viticulture,  Reimers 40 

Report  of  field  work  by  the  horticultural  department  during  1911,  Dacy 40 

[Fruit  trees  in  Paraguay],  Bertoni 41 

Wild  fruits  of  Paraguay,  Bertoni 41 

The  pubescent-fruited  species  of  Prunus  of  the  Southwestern  States,  Mason. . .  41 

Fruit  variety  testa  on  the  Southern  Utah  Experiment  Farm,  Ballantyne 41 

Orchard  notes,  Thompson 41 

Fruit  for  exhibition,  Batchelor 41 

Box  packing  of  apples.  Palmer 41 

Packing  Indiana  apples.  Palmer 41 

Cold  stoia^e  for  Iowa-grown  apples,  Greene 41 

The  Amencan  peach  orchard,  Waugh 42 

Maurer's  gooseberry  book,  Maurer 42 

The  practice  of  grape  growing. — I,  The  technique  of  grape  grafting,  Wanner. . .  43 

Influence  of  various  grape  stocks  on  the  harvest,  Faes  and  Porchet 43 

The  sexual  elements  of  grape  hybrids,  Gard 43 

Variability  of  the  coffees  grown  in  the  Dutch  East  Indies,  Cramer 43 

First  reports  on  selection  testa  of  Robusta  coffee.  Van  Hall 43 

On  the  tarring  of  pruning-wounds  in  tea  plants,  Bernard  and  Deuss 43 

Tea  manuring  experiments,  Bernard  and  Deuss 43 

Leucasna  glauca  as  a  green  manure  for  tea,  Bernard 43 

Individual  variation  in  the  alkaloidal  content  of  belladonna  plants,  Sievers. . .  44 

Rose  geranium  culture,  Charabot  and  Gatin 44 

FORESTRY. 

Forestry,  Hausrath 44 

Forestry,  Kostlan 44 

Logging,  Bryant 44 

Work  of  the  Dominion  Forestry  Branch,  Campbell 44 

[Report  of  the]  committee  on  forests,  Leavitt  et  al 45 

Forest  policy  of  British  Columbia,  Ross 45 

Avondale  Forestry  Station,  Forbes 45 

Report  on  forest  statistics  of  Alsace-Lorraine 45 

The  sun  energy  in  the  forest,  Wagner 45 

The  influence  of  aquatic  mediums  on  the  roots  of  trees,  Bondois 45 

Florida  trees.  Small 45 

The  forests  of  the  Far  East,  Hofmann 45 

Some  Douglas  fir  plantations.— II,  Cochwillan  wood,  North  Wales,  Thomson. .  46 

The  structure  of  the  wood  of  East  Indian  species  of  Pinus,  Groom  and  Riishton.  46 

The  kapok  trees  of  Togo,  Ulbrich 46 

The  "wood-oil"  trees  of  China  and  Japan,  Wilson 46 

Tagua,  vegetable  ivory,  Albes 46 

Uses  of  beech,  birches,  and  maples,  Maxwell 46 

The  wood-using  industries  of  Iowa,  Maxwell  and  Harris 46 

Forest  products  of  Canada,  1912,  Lewis  and  Boyce 46 

To  get  long  life  from  untreated  timber  in  trestles 47 


CONTEin».  V 

DISEASES    OF  PLANTS. 

Page. 

Smut  diseaece  of  cultivated  plai.  ta,  their  cause  and  control,  GQbsow 47 

Further  cultures  of  heteroecious  rusts,  I<Ya«er 47 

Contributions  on  fungus  diseasea  of  plants  appearing  in  1912-13,  Riehm 47 

Diseases  of  agricultural  crops,  1912,  Lind,  Rostrup,  and  Ravn 47 

Work  of  phytopathological  section  of  station  in  Stockhohn,  1912,  ErikBson 47 

Work  of  the  observatory  of  phytopathology  in  Turin,  Voglino 47 

Plant  diseases,  Davy 47 

Some  fungi  parasitic  on  tropical  plants.  Griffon  and  Maublanc 48 

Fungus  diseases  of  potato  in  Australia  and  their  treatment,  McAlpine 48 

Bacterial  disease  of  potatoes,  Osbom 48 

Biology  of  potato  plant  with  particular  reference  to  leaf  roll,  Reitmair 48 

Recent  researches  as  to  the  cause  of  potato  leaf  roll,  Sorauer 48 

The  persistence  of  the  potato  late-blight  fungus  in  the  soil,  Stewart 49 

Does  winter  kill  potato  blight  in  the  soil?     Hall 40 

Potato-spraying  experiments  in  1911,  Giddings 49 

Ufra  disease  of  rice,  Butler 49 

Notes  on  sereh  disease  of  sugar  cane,  Ashby 49 

Rangpur  tobacco  wilt,  Hutchinson 50 

Diseases  of  the  tomato  in  Louisiana,  Edgerton  and  Moreland 50 

Apple  leaf  spot 50 

Peach  leaf-curl  fungus:  Further  tests  with  copper  compounds,  Quinn 50 

Comparative  experiments  with  sprays  against  leaf  cast  of  grape,  Bretschneider.  50 

A  disease  of  cacao  trees  due  to  Lasio  diplodia  theobromss,  Berthault 50 

Nematode  worms  and  mottled  leaf,  Hodges 51 

Two  fungi  as  causal  agents  in  gummosis  of  lemon  trees  in  California,  Fawcett. .  51 

Two  fungus  parasites  of  Agati  grandijlora,  Foex 51 

The  structure  and  systematic  position  of  Mapea  radiata,  Maire 51 

A  new  species  of  Endothia,  Petri. 52 

More  on  black  canker  of  chestnut  in  reply  to  L.  Petri,  Briosi  and  Farneti 52 

Critical  confiiderations  on  black  canker  of  chestnut,  Petri 52 

Three  undescribed  heart  rots  of  hardwood  trees,  especially  of  oak.  Long 52 

ECONOMIC   ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY. 

Principles  of  economic  zoology,  Daugherty 52 

Game  laws  for  1913,  Palmer,  Bancroft,  and  Eamshaw 52 

Bibliography  of  Canadian  zoology  for  1911 ,  Lambe 52 

Bibliography  of  Canadian  entomology  for  1911,  Hewitt 52 

Forty- third  annual  report  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Ontario,  1912 52 

Insects  of  the  year  in  British  Columbia,  Cunningham 53 

Unusual  insect  attacks  on  fruit  trees  and  bushes  in  1912,  Theobald 53 

Report  of  economic  zoology  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1912,  Theobald. .  53 

A  sealed  paper  carton  to  protect  cereals  from  insect  attack,  Parker 53 

Spontaneous  septicemia  in  the  cockchafer  and  sUkworm,  Cliatton 53 

The  coccobacilli  infections  of  insects,  Picard  and  Blanc 54 

Locust  bacterial  disease,  Lounsbury 54 

Fungus  diseases  of  scale  insects  and  white  fly,  Rolfs  and  Fawcett 55 

A  study  of  caprification  in  Ficus  nota,  Baker 55 

A  systematic  outline  of  the  Reduviidce  of  North  America,  Fracker 55 

The  British  species  of  the  genus  Macrosiphum,  I  and  II,  Theobald 55 

Report  of  the  entomologists,  Rumsey  and  Peairs 55 

The  so-called  aerostatic  hairs  of  certain  lepidopterous  larvae,  Riley 55 

The  parthenogenesis  and  oviposition  of  the  potato  tuber  moth,  Picard 55 

The  Phoridaj  in  the  United  States  National  Museum,  Msdloch 56 

New  genera  and  species  of  muscoid  flies  from  South  America,  Townsend 56 

Meroden  equcstris  m  southern  British  Columbia,  Norman 56 

The  southern  corn  rootworm,  or  budworm,  Webster 56 

The  western  com  rootworm,  Webster 56 

The  coconut  leaf-miner  beetle,  Promecotheca  cumingii,  Jones 56 

The  occurrence  of  a  cotton  boll  weevil  in  Arizona,  Pierce 56 

Life  history  of  Otiorhynchus  ovafns,  Treherne 58 

Annual  report  of  the  Bee-Keepers'  Association  of  Ontario,  191 2 59 

The  Bombidae  of  the  New  Worid,  II,  Franklin 59 

Studies  in  the  wood  wasp  superfamily  Oryssoidea,  with  new  species,  Rohwer . .  59 

A  study  in  insect  parasitism,  Webster 59 


VI  CONTENTS. 

Pago. 

A  revision  of  the  Ichneumoiiidae,  with  new  genera  and  species,  Morley 59 

Descriptions  of  new  Hymenoptera,  V,  Crawford 59 

Descriptions  of  new  family,  genera,  and  species  of  ichneumon  flies,  Viereck. . .  59 

Notes  on  sawflies,  with  descriptions  of  new  species,  Rohwer 60 

The  life  history  of  Ixodes  angustus,  Hadwen 60 

POODS — ^HUMAN   NUTEITION. 

The  municipal  abattoir,  Allen  and  McFarlin 60 

Emaciation  in  meat  inspection,  Gruttner 61 

Succinic  acid  in  meat  extracts  and  in  fresh  meat,  Einbeck 61 

Muscle  extractives.— XIV,  Carnosin  and  carnosin  nitrate,  Gulewitsch 61 

Muscle  extractives.— XV,  In  horseflesh,  Smorodinzew 61 

Fish  milt  as  human  food,  Konig  and  Grossfeld 61 

Fish  roe  as  human  food,  Konig  and  Grossfeld 61 

Lacto — a  frozen  dairy  product,  Mortensen  and  Hammer 61 

Composition  and  nutritive  value  of  "taralli,"  a  special  bread,  Cutolo 62 

A  digestion  experiment  with  banana  meal,  Kakizawa 62 

On  the  nature  of  the  sugars  found  in  the  tubers  of  arrowhead,  Miyake 63 

Factors  affecting  the  culinary  quality  of  potatoes,  Butler  et  al 63 

Chemistry  of  the  household,  Dodd 63 

Handbook  of  hygiene. — III,  Food  and  nutrition,  edited  by  Weyl 63 

A  further  contribution  to  the  knowledge  of  beri-beri,  Caspar!  and  Moszkowski. .  63 

A  typhoid  outbreak  apparently  due  to  polluted  water  cress 64 

Lessons  from  a  probable  water  cress  typhoid  outbreak 64 

Relation  of  growth  to  chemical  constituents  of  diet,  Osborne  and  Mendel 64 

Studies  on  the  metabolism  of  ammocium  salts,  I,  II,  III 64 

The  amount  of  indol  obtained  from  different  proteids,  von  Moraczewski 65 

Influence  of  diet  on  indol  and  indican,  von  Moraczewski  and  Herzfeld 65 

Influence  of  starvation  on  creatin  content  of  muscle,  Myers  and  Fine 65 

Influence  of  carbohydrate  feeding  on  creatin  content  of  muscle,  Myers  and  Fine .  65 

Calorimetry  of  the  work  of  the  kidneys,  Tangl 65 

A  calorimeter  for  small  animals,  Tangl 66 

Micro-calorimeter  for  determination  of  heat  production  of  bacteria,  von  Korosy.  66 

ANIMAL   PEODUCnON. 

The  measurement  of  the  intensity  of  inbreeding.  Pearl 66 

A  contribution  toward  an  analysis  of  the  problem  of  inbreediag.  Pearl 67 

The  feeding  of  farm  ainmals,  Kellner 67 

The  development  of  agricultural  feeding  knowledge,  Honcamp 67 

Results  of  nucleiQ  feeding  of  animals 67 

[The  value  of  calcium  chlorid  in  animal  production],  Emmerich  and  Loew 67 

On  the  values  of  feeding  materials,  Mach. 67 

Inspection  of  commercial  feeding  stuffs.  Smith  and  Beals 67 

Inspection  of  feeding  stuffs 68 

Blood  relationship  of  animals  as  displayed  in  tlie  serum  proteins,  II,  Woolsey . .  68 

Notes  on  native  live  stock,  Thompson 68 

Color  inheritance  ia  swine.  Smith 69 

Hogging  down  corn. — A  successful  practice,  Eward,  Kennedy,  and  Kildee. . .  69 

Horse  breeding  and  Mendelism,  Motloch 70 

The  inheritance  of  coat  color  in  horses,  Anderson 70 

Horse  breaking  in  Argentina 71 

Inheritance  in  poultry.— I,  Constitution  of  the  White  Leghorn,  Hadley  et  al. . .  71 

[Inbreeding],  Robinson 71 

Report  of  the  poultryman,  Atwood 71 

Report  of  poultry  conditions  in  Indiana,  Philips 71 

The  refrigeration  of  dressed  poultry  in  transit,  Pennington  et  al 71 

DAIRY  FARMING DAEttYING. 

First,  second,  and  third  crop  alfalfa  hay  for  milk  production,  Carroll 72 

Manuring  for  milk,  Wakerley 73 

Winter  feeding  of  dairy  cows.  Mackintosh 73 

The  original  St.  Lambert  Jerseys.— An  account  of  their  breeding,  Clark 73 

A  comparison  of  Red  Danish,  Jersey,  and  Dano-Jersey  cattle,  Dunne 73 


CONTENTS.  Vn 

Page. 

Milking  capacities  of  the  Trinidad  government  farm  cows,  Slirewsbury 74 

Dairying  in  Jamaica,  Cousins 74 

Report  of  state  dairy  bureau  [for  biennial  period  ending  November  30,  1912]..  74 

Quarterly  report  of  dairy  and  food  commissioner  of  Virginia,  Saunders 74 

Michigan's  new  milk  and  cream  law,  Kirby 74 

Milk  and  cream  testing,  Dean 74 

Butter  making,  Dean 75 

Some  butter-making  experiments  and  analyses,  Crowe 76 

Cheddar  cheese  investigations  and  experiments,  Dean 76 

Caerphilly  cheese,  Davies 77 

VETERINARY    MEDICINE. 

Protective  ferments  of  the  animal  organism,  Abderhalden 77 

Investigations  m  regard  to  strept  »lysin,  von  Hellens 78 

Regulations  governing  live  stock  sanitary  control  in  Tennessee,  1913-14 78 

The  results  of  meat  inspection  in  Brunswick,  1905-1911,  Sander 78 

Conditions  influencing  transmission  of  East  Coast  fever,  Nuttall  and  Hindle.. .  79 

Piroplasmosis,  Nuttall 79 

Therapeutic  action  of  yeast  in  alimentary  multiple  polyneuritis,  Barsickow.  . .  79 

Cultivation  of  the  rabies  organism,  Williams 79 

The  parasite  of  rabies,  Bartholow 79 

Note  on  rinderpest,  Oliver 79 

The  morphology  of  Trypanosoma  simise  n.  sp.,  Bruce  et  al 79 

Trypanosoma  siviix  n.  sp.,  II,  III,  Bruce  et  al 79 

Trypanosoma  capric,  Bruce  et  al 80 

Trypanosomes  in  the  blood  of  wild  animals  in  Nyasaland,  Bruce  et  al 80 

Morphology  of  strains  of  the  trypanosome  causing  disease  in  man,  Bruce  et  al. .  80 

Studies  on  the  biochemistry  and  chemotherapy  of  tuberculosis,  IV,  V.  VI.  .  . .  80 

Pulmonary  tuberculosis  induced  by  inhalation,  Grysez  and  I'etit-Dutaillis 82 

New  researches  upon  inhalation  tuberculosis,  Chauss^ 82 

Experimental  pulmonary  tuberculosis  in  the  dog,  Lewis  and  Montgomery 82 

Milk-borne  tuberculosis  with  special  reference  to  legislation,  Delepine 82 

Combating  bovine  tuberculosis  with  special  reference  to  diagnosis,  von  Ostertag.  82 

Introduction  and  spread  of  cattle  tick  and  tick  fever  in  Australia,  Gilruth 82 

The  hypodermic  aft'ection  of  cattle. — The  ox  warble,  Coppens 83 

Bush  sickness  investigations,  Reakes  and  Aston 83 

Vaccination  against  gangrenous  mammitis  in  sheep  and  goats,  Bridre 83 

Directions  for  using  antihog  cholera  serum,  Mitchell 83 

Virulent  anthrax  bacilli  in  the  saliva  of  an  affected  horse,  Arntz 83 

The  bacteriology  and  vaccine  therapy  of  distemper  in  horses,  Lintz 83 

The  diagnosis  of  dourine  by  complement  fixation,  Mohler,  Eichhorn,  and  Buck.  83 

RURAL   ENGINEERING. 

Pumping  plants,  Kelton 85 

Details  and  design  of  headgates,  Etcheverry 85 

Inverted  siphon  construction,  Etcheverry 85 

Land  clearing,  McGuire 86 

Vitrified  brick  as  a  paving  material  for  country  roads,  Peirce  and  Moorefield  . .  86 

The  production  of  sand  and  gravel  in  1912,  Stone 87 

Tests  of  the  strength  of  cement 87 

Test  of  a  kerosene  oil  engine.  Wile 88 

Comparison  of  cost  of  fuel  for  engines  and  electric  motors,  Kritzer 88 

Wind  power,  Vogdt 88 

Electricity  on  the  western  farm 88 

Traction  farming  and  traction  engineering,  Stephenson 89 

The  care  and  repair  of  rubber  belts,  Moore 89 

The  construction  of  creameries,  Mortensen  and  Davidson 89 

Modem  silo  construction,  Davidson 89 

RURAL   ECONOMICS. 

A  normal  day's  work  for  various  farm  operations,  Mowry 89 

A  grass  holding  at  a  profit,  and  the  cheap  cottage  problem,  Buchanan 90 

Laiid  tenure  in  England  and  Norway,  Sundt 90 


Vm  CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Iriali  agricultural  laborera,  1912 90 

Persons  engaged  in  agricultural  pursuits  in  Prussia,  Hagmann 90 

Depopulation  of  rural  districts  in  France,  Hunt 91 

Condition  of  Danish  agriculture  during  1911 91 

[Area,  population,  agricultural  production,  etc.,  in  Canada,  1911-12] 91 

AGRICULTURAL   EDUCATION. 

Report  of  the  temporary  educational  commission  of  North  Dakota 92 

Report  of  committee  on  agricultural  education,  Finegan 92 

Fourth  report  of  the  district  agricultural  schools  of  Georgia,  Stewart 92 

Scientific  farming  on  elaborate  scale  in  the  common  schools,  Minear 92 

People's  high  schools  in  Denmark,  Rathmann 93 

The  girls'  agricultural  school  at  Berlaer,  Per\der 93 

Methods  in  agricultural  schools,  Snedden 93 

Problems  in  the  administration  and  teaching  of  agriculture,  Bricker 93 

The  redirection  of  the  rural  school.  Hart 93 

Agricultural  training  courses  for  employed  teachers,  Jackson 93 

Subject  matter  in  nature  study  and  elementary  agriculture 94 

Nature  study  and  agriculture 94 

Woodworking  exercises  for  the  agricultural  school  shop.  White 94 

Demonstration-lectures  in  domestic  science,  sewing,  and  nursing 94 

Sending  the  college  to  the  State 94 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Annual  Report  of  Guam  Station,  1912 94 

Annual  Report  of  West  Virginia  Station,  1912 94 

A  list  of  bulletins  available  for  general  distribution 94 

Prom  the  letter  files  of  S.  W.  Johnson,  edited  by  Osborne 94 


LIST  OF  EXPERIMENT  STATION  AND   DEPART- 
MENT PUBLICATIONS  REVIEWED. 


Stations  in  the  United  States. 

Alabama  Tuskegee  Station:  rage. 

Bill.  25,  Oct.,  1913 19 

California  Station: 

Bui.  240,  Sept.,  1913 28 

Circ.  106,  Sept.,  1913 83 

Colorado  Station: 

Bui .  190,  June,  1913 36 

Bui.  191,  June,  1913 35 

Florida  Station: 

Bui.  119,  Nov.,  1913 55 

Guam  Station: 

An.  Rpt.  1912 17,37,41,68,94 

Indiana  Station: 

Circ.  39,  July,  1913 41 

Circ.  40,  Sept.,  1913 71 

Iowa  Station: 

Bui.  137,  Apr.,  1913 36 

Bui.  138,  Apr.,  1913 37 

Bui.  139,  May,  1913 89 

Bui.  140,  Aug.,  1913 61 

Bui.  141,  July,  1913 89 

Bui.  142,  Aug.,  1913 46 

Bui.  143,  Sept.,  1913 69 

Bui.  144,  Sept.,  1913 41 

Kentucky  Station: 

Bui.  173,  Aug.  1,  1913 60 

Bui.  174,  Sept.  1,  1913 20 

Louisiana  Stations: 

Bui.  142,  Oct.,  1913 oO 

Maine  Station: 

Bui.  215,  Aug.,  1913 66 

Massachusetts  Station: 

Bui.  146,  Oct.,  1913 67 

Minnesota  Station: 

Bui.  134,  Apr.,  1913 86 

Bui.  135,  July,  1913 94 

New  York  State  Station: 

Bui.  366,  Aug.,  1913 68 

Bui.  367,  Oct.,  1913 49 

Ohio  Station: 

Bui.  260,  Apr .^  1913 25 

Rhode  Island  Station: 

Bui.  155,  June,  1913 71 

Utah  Station: 

Bui.  124,  Aug.,  1913 41 

Bui.  126,  Aug.,  1913 72 

Circ.  13 41 

West  Virginia  Station: 

Circ.  4,  Mar.,  1912 94 

Circ.  6,  Sept.,  1912 27 

An.  Rpt.  1912....  38, 40,  49,  55,  71,  94 


U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Jour.  Agr.  Research,  vol.  1,  No.  2,     Paga. 
Nov.,  1913 41,44,52,56,83 

Bui.  3,  A  Normal  Day's  Work  for 
Various  Farm  Operations,  H.  H. 
Mowry 89 

Bui.  4,  The  Reseeding  of  Depicted 
Grazing  Lands  to  Cultivated 
Forage  Plants,  A.  W.  Sampson..         35 

Bui.  5,  The  Southern  Com  Root- 
worm,  or  Budworm,  F.  M. 
Webster 56 

Bui.  6,  The  Agricultural  Utiliza- 
tion of  Acid  Lands  by  Means  of 
Acid-Tolemnt  Crops,  F.  V. 
Coville 23 

Bui.  7,  Agricultural  Training 
Courses  f5r  Employed  Teachers, 
E.R.Jackson 93 

Bui.  8,  The  Western  Corn  Root- 
worm,  F.  M.  Webster 56 

Bui.  10,  Progress  Report  of  Co- 
operative In-igation  Experiments 
at  California  University  Farm, 
Davis,  Cal.,  1909-1912,  S.  H. 
Beckett 34 

Bui.  12,  Uses  of  Commercial  Woods 
of  the  United  States,  H.  Maxwell         46 

Bui.  15,  A  Sealed  Paper  Carton  to 
Protect  Cereals  from  Insect  At- 
tack, W.  B.  Parker 53 

Bui.  16,  The  Culture  of  Flue-Cured 
Tobacco,  E.  H.  Mathewson 39 

Bui.  17,  The  Refrio^eration  of 
Dressed  Poultiy  in  Transit, 
Mary  E.  Pennington  et  al 71 

Bui.  18,  A  Report  on  the  Phosphate 
Fields  of  South  Carolina,  W.  H. 
Waggaman 27 

Bui.  22,  Game  Laws  for  1913,  T.  S. 

Palmer  etal 52 

Bui.  23,  Vitrified  Brick  as  a  Paving 
Material  for  Country  Roads, 
V.  M.  Peirce  and  C.  H.  Moore- 
field 86 

Bureau  of  Soils: 

Bui.  96,  Soils  of  the  United 
States  (1913  ed.),  C.  F.  Marbut 
etal 19 

IX 


EXPERIMENT  STATION    RECORD. 

Vol.  XXX.  January,  1914.  No.  1. 


Not  to  know  something  of  the  history  of  one's  specialty  is  to  miss 
much  of  the  intimate  and  sympathetic  feeling  toward  it  which  comes 
through  acquaintance.  Not  to  know  the  toilsome  and  often  dis- 
heartening path  along  which  the  science  of  agriculture  tra^tiled  in  its 
early  days  in  this  country  is  to  lack,  not  only  an  intelligent  apprecia- 
tion of  what  has  actually  been  accomplished  in  a  half  century,  but  an 
insight  into  the  manner  in  which  it  came  about.  It  is  to  miss  much 
of  the  broader  interest  of  the  subject,  and  much  of  the  pride  and  sat- 
isfaction in  its  pursuit. 

For  the  young  man  especially  such  an  insight  is  a  part  of  educa- 
tion and  preparation  for  this  field.  It  helps  to  give  a  proper  attitude 
and  sense  of  proportion,  as  well  as  enable  just  estimates.  It  is  not 
necessary  to  live  in  the  past  to  enjoy  familiarity  with  it  or  to  trace  the 
unfolding  and  development  of  a  new  idea ;  and  the  man  who  devotes 
some  attention  to  it  is  in  no  sense  pursuing  a  dead  subject.  While  he 
is  broadening  his  sympathies  and  acquaintanceship  he  is  strengthen- 
ing his  own  grasp  and  conception.  Not  infrequently  the  lack  of 
originality  is  disclosed  of  some  things  cherished  as  new,  and  again 
the  relatively  small  advancement  which  has  been  made  in  some  lines 
is  brought  forcibly  home. 

The  lives  of  the  leading  pioneers  in  this  field  contain  much  that  is 
of  interest  and  worthy  of  knowing.  To  know  them  and  their  envi- 
ronment more  intimately  increases  respect  for  what  they  did  and  for 
the  ideals  they  stood  for  and  strove  to  propagate.  Naturally  they 
did  hot  fully  attain  to  these  ideals,  else  their  work  and  influence 
would  not  have  been  so  potent  and  we  would  not  be  where  we  now 
are,  for  the  man  who  overtakes  his  ideals  ceases  to  be  a  factor  in 
progress.  Ignorance  is  prone  to  judge  these  early  workers  unfairly 
by  what  they  did  not  do,  and  to  underestimate  the  true  nature  of  their 
service,  because  it  overlooks  the  hindrances  that  stood  in  their  path, 
and  has  no  intelligent  realization  of  the  determination,  the  self- 
supplied  encouragement,  and  the  personal  effort  which  their  work 
represents.  It  is  knowledge  of  the  environment  that  enables  a  true 
perspective. 


2  EXPERIMENT   STATION  EEOOBD. 

The  history  of  the  movement  which  has  brought  science  to  the  aid 
of  agriculture  has  not  be^n  written,  and  its  records  are  fragmentary 
and  disconnected.  Hence  each  effort  in  that  direction  is  a  welcome 
contribution. 

The  letters  and  papers  of  the  late  Dr.  Samuel  W.  Johnson,  for 
many  years  director  of  the  Connecticut  State  Station,  have  recently 
been  brought  together  and  published  by  his  daughter,  in  a  volume  of 
much  historic  interest.  The  preservation  and  publication  of  this  ma- 
terial is  a  matter  for  congratulation,  and  its  editor  has  placed  her 
readers  under  many  obligations  for  the  interesting  and  highly  in- 
structive volume  she  has  produced.  It  pertains  to  a  period  whose 
participants  are  rapidly  passing  and  mostly  gone. 

The  book  is  at  once  a  biography  of  a  man  and  a  history  of  a  move- 
ment. As  a  biography  it  is  most  satisfactory  and  entertaining,  the 
remarkable  extent  to  which  Dr.  Johnson's  private  and  official  corre- 
spondence was  preserved  giving  an  intimate  view  of  the  man  and  his 
work  rarely  possible.  The  interpolations  and  explanatory  matter 
supplied  by  the  editor  serve  to  make  the  volume  in  a  large  degree  a 
connected  and  faithful  record  of  the  progress  of  events  in  bringing 
science  to  the  benefit  and  protection  of  the  farmer. 

The  letters  cover  the  period  from  1848,  when  the  interest  of  the 
schoolboy  in  agricultural  matters  and  in  chemistry  were  crystalliz- 
ing and  his  aspirations  being  put  on  paper,  to  near  the  close  of  his 
life.  They  include  correspondence  with  his  intimate  friend  Dr. 
F.  H.  Storer  of  Bussey  Institution,  with  Dr.  Evan  Pugh,  a  fellow 
student  at  Leipsic,  who  afterwards  went  to  the  new  Pennsylvania 
State  College,  with  Mr.  Luther  Tucker  of  Albany,  editor  of  the  Coun- 
try Gentleman^  who  lent  much  encouragement  to  Dr.  Johnson's  am- 
bitions. Dr.  G.  C.  CaldweU  of  Cornell,  Dr.  E.  W.  Hilgard  of  Cali- 
fornia, Dr.  George  H.  Cook  of  New  Jersey,  Dr.  Peter  Collier,  later  of 
the  Geneva  Station,  Dr.  Charles  W.  Eliot  of  Harvard,  President 
W.  S.  Clark  of  Massachusetts,  Sir  John  Lawes,  Julius  von  Liebig, 
and  many  other  notable  persons. 

These  letters  present  a  striking  illustration  of  the  slowness  with 
which  the  idea  that  science  has  a  vital  and  practical  value  to  agricul- 
ture took  hold  in  this  country,  and  show  how  difficult  it  was  to  secure 
encouragement  or  support  for  a  career  in  that  field  a  half  century  ago. 
After  he  had  determined  to  enter  it  Mr.  Johnson  went  to  Yale  in  1850 
and  again  in  1852,  teaching  in  the  meantime  to  acquire  funds,  and 
spent  the  years  from  1853  to  1855  in  advanced  study  abroad.  During 
this  time  he  attracted  attention  to  himself  by  his  writings  on  agri- 
cultural matters,  in  which  he  strongly  presented  by  word  and  illus- 
tration the  benefits  to  be  derived  from  agricultural  investigation  and 
the  desirability  of  public  provision  for  it.     Mr.  Tucker  w^as  anxious  to 


EDITORIAL.  3 

see  a  place  made  for  him  in  New  York,  and  there  was  correspondence 
about  positions  elsewhere,  but  no  opening  presented  itself  on  his 
return  and  he  was  obliged  to  accept  a  teaching  position  at  the  new 
Yale  Scientific  School,  affording  no  direct  agricultural  connection. 
He  considered  the  plan  of  opening  an  agricultural  school,  and  at  one 
time  corresponded  with  Pugh  with  reference  to  associating  him  with 
the  project,  as  opportunities  for  developing  agricultural  work  did 
rot  materialize. 

In  1855  the  New  York  State  Agricultural  Society,  largely  through 
Mr.  Tucker,  proposed  to  fit  up  a  laboratory  and  invited  him  to  become 
its  chemist.  It  was  explained,  however,  that  the  office  carried  no 
remuneration  excepting  the  fees  for  agricultural  analyses,  etc.,  which 
with  writing  for  the  press  it  was  suggested  "  might  yield  a  living 
compensation."  This  society  was  probably  the  first  to  take  such  an 
advanced  step,  but  the  outlook  was  not  sufficiently  encouraging  and 
Dr.  Johnson  temporarily  rejected  it.  Later  he  made  an  effort 
through  the  society  to  secure  an  endowment  for  an  experiment  sta- 
tion in  that  State,  but  this  failed  of  support,  as  did  the  movement 
for  an  agricultural  college  in  New  York  in  which  he  hoped  to  have 
a  part. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  in  this  connection  that  Liebig,  under  whom 
Dr.  Johnson  had  studied  in  Munich,  strongly  considered  coming  to 
this  country  if  he  could  receive  suitable  encouragement.  A  corre- 
spondent wrote  in  1856 :  "  He  has  almost  made  up  his  mind  to  go  to 
the  United  States  and  set  up  a  model  farm  and  agricultural  school, 
provided  one  of  the  States  will  furnish  him  with  the  lands  and 
funds." 

Meanwhile,  although  much  occupied  with  his  duties  as  instructor 
in  chemistry  at  Yale,  Dr.  Johnson  found  time  for  some  agricultural 
analysis  and  wrote  a  series  of  articles  for  an  agricultural  paper  which 
served  to  introduce  him  to  the  State  Agricultural  Society,  and  re- 
sulted in  his  being  appointed  chemist  to  the  society  in  1856.  This 
gave  him  an  affiliation  and  a  constituency,  but  quite  limited  oppor- 
tunity. It  was  not  until  twenty  years  later  that  he  realized  the 
dream  of  his  youth,  and  as  the  head  of  the  sole  American  experiment 
station  Avas  able  to  center  his  efforts  on  agricultural  work. 

All  through  the  writings  of  these  earlier  years  we  get  glimpses  of 
a  longing  for  the  opportunity  to  give  himself  largely  to  agricultural 
research.  "  It  is  a  source  of  deep  and  continual  regret,"  he  writes, 
that  his  efforts  in  the  field  of  agriculture  "  have  been  mostly  confined 
to  editing  and  communicating  the  results  of  the  labors  of  others." 
In  the  preface  to  his  book  on  How  Crops  Grow,  in  1870,  he  offered 
an  apology  "  for  being  a  middleman  and  not  a  producer  of  the  price- 
less commodities  of  science,"  which  position  he  attributed  to  lack  of 
opportunity. 


4  EXPEEIMENT   STATION   EECOBD. 

Fertilizer  inspection  and  fertilizer  control  naturally  figured  con- 
spicuously in  the  early  agricultural  work.  The  use  of  fertilizers  was 
rapidly  coming  into  practice  in  the  early  fifties.  They  were  not  al- 
ways intelligently  made,  for  not  very  much  was  known  of  values,  and 
the  claims  put  forth  for  them  were  often  exorbitant  as  well  as  their 
cost.     Here  many  farmers  felt  a  real  need  for  assistance. 

Dr.  Johnson  began  discussing  these  matters  in  the  agTicultural 
press  in  1853,  while  yet  a  student  at  Yale.  He  iterated  and  reiterated 
the  necessity  of  chemical  analysis  as  the  only  basis  for  judging  of  the 
composition  of  a  fertilizer,  the  reliability  of  accurate  analyses  as  a 
guide  to  values,  and  the  importance  to  the  community  of  a  regular 
system  of  analysis  of  all  commercial  fertilizers  as  a  safeguard  against 
fraud  as  well  as  against  the  self-deception  of  ignorance.  In  1856 
he  introduced  the  method  of  calculating  the  "  valuation  "  per  ton  on 
the  basis  of  the  commercial  values  of  the  constituents,  in  the  principle 
of  which  he  was  a  strong  believer. 

His  systematic  inspection  of  fertilizers  dated  from  his  appointment 
as  chemist  to  the  State  Board  of  Agriculture  in  1856.  In  his  first 
report  he  said :  "  It  is  vastly  pleasanter  to  suppose  that  frauds  are 
mistakes  rather  than  willful  attempts  to  cheat ;  but  it  is  of  the  utmost 
importance  to  know  whether  we  are  liable  to  be  intentionally  as  well 
as  accidentally  imposed  upon."  The  condition  of  the  trade  at  that 
time  is  illustrated  by  the  statement  in  this  first  report  that  "  of  all 
the  superphosphates  I  analyzed  last  year  not  one  came  up  to  a  reason- 
able standard  of  quality,"  and  "  of  all  the  other  high-priced  manufac- 
tured manures  which  have  been  twice  analyzed  not  one  has  main- 
tained a  uniform  composition." 

It  is  difficult  at  the  present  time  to  realize  the  novelty  of  the  under- 
taking. The  rights  of  business  men  to  make  and  sell  what  they  chose 
in  any  line  was  undisputed,  and  the  public  was  without  protection 
except  at  individual  expense.  The  principles  he  announced  were  new 
to  business  generally,  and  as  applied  to  fertilizers  they  were  largely 
new  to  many  of  the  manufacturers  as  they  were  to  the  public.  They 
subjected  him  to  criticism  and  misrepresentation  on  the  one  hand,  and 
brought  him  encouragement  and  support  on  the  other.  In  1869 
Dr.  George  H.  Cook,  of  New  Jersey,  wrote  him :  "  The  circulation  of 
such  reports  as  that  of  yours  on  fertilizers  will  be  of  great  use,  and  I 
hope  you  will  be  allowed  to  continue  making  full  and  fearless  reports 
on  the  worthless  manures  which  are  so  common  in  the  market." 
Many  others,  including  practical  farmers,  expressed  their  apprecia- 
tion and  hope  that  he  would  not  be  stifled  in  his  efforts.  Fortunately 
he  was  able  to  maintain  his  position.  His  work  brought  inquiries 
from  all  parts  of  the  country. 

Very  naturally  from  the  interest  surrounding  this  subject,  the  agi- 
tation for  experiment  stations,  and  especially  the  first  station  in  Con- 


EDITORIAL.  5 

necticut,  was  bound  up  with  the  history  of  fertilizer  inspection.  It 
furnished  a  stimulus,  and  in  some  instances  overshadowed  all  other 
purposes  of  such  an  institution.  One  of  the  men  most  instrumental 
in  securing  the  new  station  is  quoted  as  intimating  that  "  the  purpose 
of  this  station  was  for  the  analysis  of  commercial  fertilizers  alone;" 
and  the  sentiment  is  further  shown  by  the  resolutions  of  a  farmers' 
club,  which  stated  substantially  that  they  would  patronize  no  manu- 
facturer or  dealer  who  was  not  willing  to  put  his  wares  under  the 
control  of  such  an  institution. 

These  views  were  not  in  accord  with  Dr.  Johnson's  ideas  as  to  the 
full  function  of  an  experiment  station  or  the  methods  of  exercising 
a  fertilizer  control.  He  opposed  any  atttinpt  on  the  part  of  the  sta- 
tion to  formally  control  the  output  of  manufacturers  or  storehouses, 
but  held  the  most  effectual  plan  to  be  the  taking  of  samples  of  the 
goods  as  offered  for  sale,  and  making  the  analyses  public.  This  will 
be  recognized  as  the  form  which  ultimately  prevailed  and  has  been 
generally  adopted. 

It  is  interesting  to  read,  at  this  period,  of  systematic  work  among 
farmers  akin  to  some  of  the  present  features  of  extension  work.  In 
1859  Dr.  Johnson  wrote,  "  I  am  on  a  month's  tour  among  the  farmers 
of  Connecticut  and  expect  to  speak  every  evening  of  the  week  except 
Saturday  and  Sunday."  In  the  following  year  he  took  prominent 
part  in  a  course  of  agricultural  lectures  at  New  Haven,  arranged  by 
Prof.  J.  A.  Porter,  which  fully  five  hundred  persons  came  to  Xew 
Haven  to  attend, — a  forerunner  of  the  short  courses.  He  wrote  many 
popular  articles  for  the  agricultural  press,  and  through  the  columns 
of  a  leading  New  York  daily  he  reached  a  wide  audience  in  the  early 
seventies,  his  articles  and  discussions  of  agricultural  matters  attract- 
ing attention  from  the  first. 

The  high  character  of  Dr.  Johnson's  scientific  ideals  and  standards, 
and  his  advanced  conceptions  of  the  kind  of  work  of  most  permanent 
value  to  agriculture,  as  shown  by  his  earlier  writings,  are  especially 
worthy  of  note.  Although  these  could  not  be  fully  carried  out,  on 
account  of  conditions  of  the  times,  they  were  in  evidence  notwith- 
standing, and  they  served  to  give  him  a  recognized  leadership  in 
agricultural  thought.  The  passage  of  years  brings  out  more  clearly 
the  advanced  position  which  he  occupied.  His  writings  of  sixty 
years  ago  are  interesting  reading  and  entirely  applicable  to-day. 
Their  obscure  publication  has  hidden  them.  The  pity  is  that  we 
haven't  long  ago  had  the  benefit  of  the  light  they  shed. 

Early  in  his  career,  before  he  had  entered  college,  in  a  contribution 
to  an  agricultural  paper  he  made  a  plea  for  "  reason  and  labor  with- 
out prejudice  "  in  scientific  work :  "  It  becomes,"  he  said,  "  the  interest 
as  well  as  the  duty  of  him  who  would  bring  science  to  the  aid  of 
agriculture  to  make  every  labor  as  complete  as  possible,  and  especially 


6  EXPEKIMENT   STATION   KECORD. 

to  avoid  the  dogmatic  introduction  or  support  of  untested  theories, 
and  the  narrow-minded  ignorance  which  entertains  the  possibility  of 
making  any  one  discovery  which  shall  remedy  the  failings  of  the 
present  practice," — good  advice  for  the  present  day,  and  still  needed. 

In  an  article  in  the  Country  Gentleman  in  1854,  he  declared  that 
"  what  agriculture  most  needs  is  the  establishment  of  its  doctrines — 
not  the  proposition  of  fancies,  or  of  facts  which  hold  good  for  this  or 
that  township,  but  the  evolution  of  a  general  theory  applicable  every- 
where. .  .  .  The  basis  of  doctrine  will  not  rapidly  unfold  itself.  It 
must  be  unfolded.  If  agriculturists  would  know,  they  must  inquire. 
The  knowledge  they  need  belongs  not  to  revelation  but  to  science, 
and  it  must  be  sought  for  as  the  philosopher  seeks  other  scientific 
truth."  Some  of  this  sounds  quite  modern.  As  he  well  realized,  the 
method  and  essentials  of  agricultural  investigation  are  only  different 
in  land  and  not  in  nature  from  those  in  other  branches  of  inquiry. 
We  have  had  to  learn  this,  and  the  expensive  lesson  that  short  cuts 
are  disappointing.  Much  of  the  purely  local  testing  and  experiment- 
ing is  now  recognized  as  extension  instead  of  investigation. 

In  1856  Dr.  Johnson  delivered  a  lecture  before  the  New  York  State 
Agricultural  Society,  on  The  Relations  Which  Exist  Between  Sci- 
ence and  Agriculture.  This  is  a  truly  remarkable  address,  which 
deserves  to  be  preserved  but  had  been  largely  lost  to  the  present  gen- 
eration until  brought  to  light  by  the  publication  of  this  volume.  It 
foreshadowed  the  spirit  as  well  as  the  method  and  the  position  of  the 
agricultural  experiment  station. 

In  this  address  he  explained  why  up  to  that  time  agriculture  had 
not  profited  from  the  applications  of  science  to  the  same  extent  that 
the  manufacturing  arts  had.  Aside  from  the  inherent  difficulty  of 
the  subject,  one  reason  was  "  the  lamentable  circumstance  that  our 
agriculture  is  so  barren  of  facts — I  mean  that  kind  of  facts  which 
only  can  form  the  foundation  of  science ;  I  mean  complete  facts.  .  .  . 
The  first  thing  to  be  done  is  to  multiply  facts."  And  he  outlined  the 
way  in  which  these  scientific  facts  were  to  be  acquired,  in  a  manner 
so  sound  and  clear  that  they  are  worth  quoting  at  this  time. 

The  establishment  of  facts,  he  explained,  "  is  accomplished  by  ob- 
servation and  experiment.  Ordinary  observation  takes  cognizance 
of  what  transpires  in  the  usual  course  of  nature.  Experiment  is  that 
refined  instrument  of  modern  research  which  interferes  with  the  ordi- 
narj^  course  of  nature,  and  compels  her  to  unusual  manifestations." 
But  experiment  requires  skill  and  direction,  and  keenness  of  percep- 
tion. The  great  secret,  as  he  said,  is  to  know  where  to  look.  "  The 
empiric  experiments  at  a  venture,  without  any  probability  to  guide 
him.  His  haphazard  trials  often  reveal  new  facts,  but  he  rarely  con- 
tributes largely  to  scientific  progress  because  he  makes  haphazard 
experiments,  because  he  does  not  reason. 


EDITORIAL.  7 

"The  philosopher  experiments  with  an  object  in  view,  and  dis- 
tinctly in  view.  ...  He  first  collects  and  collates  all  the  facts  known 
with  regard  to  it.  He  then  seeks  to  construct  a  consistent  explana- 
tion of  these  various  facts.  It  may  be  that  he  finds  it  impossible  to 
do  this.  Then  he  must  verify  the  facts ;  perhaps  some  are  false  or  he 
sees  them  from  an  insufficient  point  of  view,  or  he  must  collect  more 
of  them  by  extending  his  observations,  it  may  be  by  experiment.  He 
shortly  is  enabled  to  form  a  hypothesis,  to  frame  a  theory  which 
promises  to  account  for  the  facts.  Yet  it  is  not  a  hypothesis  but 
truth  he  seeks,  and  now  he  begins  to  test  his  theory.  Every  deduc- 
tion which  he  can  draw  from  it  must  prove  true,  else  the  theory  is 
false.  He  therefore  unites  the  conditions  which  his  theory  indicates 
will  produce  a  given  prevised  result.  If  the  result  follow,  his  theory 
is  confirmed,  otherwise  it  must  be  rejected  and  a  new  one  formed  and 
similarly  proved.  Here  is  where  experiment  assumes  its  chief  dig- 
nity and  value.  Here  it  must  be  suggested  by  reason  or  it  can  not  be 
expected  to  answer  any  good  purpose.  Here  if  rationally  devised 
and  skillfully  executed  it  must  reveal  a  truth,  and  though  the  truth 
be  negative  it  is  not  the  less  valuable,  for  every  new  negative  result 
limits  witliin  narrower  bounds  the  space  wherein  positive  truth  is  to 
be  sought." 

This  description  leaves  little  to  be  added.  It  shows  how  deep  was 
his  insight  into  the  method  of  science  and  how  thorough  his  prepa- 
ration for  investigation  in  it  some  twenty  years  before  the  first  station 
was  achieved. 

As  to  the  requirements  of  experimental  work  in  order  to  make  it 
of  value,  Dr.  Johnson  mentions  that  at  that  time  (1856)  several  ex- 
perimental farms  had  been  established  in  the  country,  but  states  the 
results  of  their  experiments  had  no  general  or  permanent  worth,  for 
"  they  have  not  been  made  with  more  insight,  nor  have  they  been  cal- 
culated to  clear  up  more  doubts,  than  the  single  experiments  carried 
out  here  and  there  by  private  individuals."  Although  executed  with 
more  care,  "  this  has  been  so  much  more  labor  lost,"  for  '"  the  large 
share  of  the  problems  that  are  now  needing  solution  require  the  lab- 
oratory and  farm  to  unite  their  resources.  ...  As  mere  practice  is 
deficient  in  all  that  belongs  to  the  province  of  science  to  suggest,  so 
science  alone  lacks  that  which  practice  is  naturally  fitted  to  supply ; 
each  is  the  complement  of  the  other;  rational  agriculture  is  the  result 
of  their  union."  He  described  the  European  experiment  stations  as 
^'  intended  to  make  science  practical  and  practice  scientific." 

The  essentials  and  distinctions  here  outlined  so  clearly  had  to  be 
learned  by  the  American  stations  at  heavy  cost  after  the  system  was 
established  more  than  thirty  years  later. 

In  a  later  article  Dr.  Johnson  gave  this  rule  for  testing  theories: 
•*'  The  best  method  of  attaining  truth  is  to  endeavor  earnestly  but  hon- 

25842°— No.  1—14 2 


8  EXPEEIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

estly  to  disprove  what  appears  to  be  true.  .  .  .  The  only  way  to  be 
certain  you  have  got  at  the  truth  is  to  go  counter  to  the  current  of 
self-complacency.  If  you  can  sit  down  deliberately  with  your  sup- 
posed facts  and  with  your  theories,  and  try  by  every  imaginable  test 
to  find  where  they  do  not  harmonize  or  where  they  do  not  satisfy 
strict  logic,  then  and  not  until  then  can  you  be  pretty  certain  that 
you  stand  fair  and  square  on  that  subject."  And  he  adds  that  it  is 
not  the  novelty  or  the  glory  of  discovery,  but  the  genuineness  of  dis- 
covery, that  is  of  first  importance ! 

But  although  Dr.  Johnson  had  these  high  standards  for  agricul- 
tural investigation  and  realized  the  great  need  for  work  of  such  per- 
manent character,  he  did  not  let  this  stand  in  the  way  of  his  useful- 
ness. He  was  wise  enough  and  zealous  enough  to  patiently  set  his 
hand  to  what  he  could  secure  interest  and  support  for,  and  hence  in 
the  early  days  much  of  his  work  was  the  routine  analysis  of  ferti- 
lizers and  other  materials — ^work  which  needed  to  be  done  at  that 
period  and  which  served  to  develop  confidence  and  support  for  other 
lines  and  for  larger  undertaldngs. 

An  interesting  sidelight  on  the  times  and  showing  his  genuine  con- 
cern for  the  farmers'  welfare  is  his  caution  to  them,  as  early  as  1854, 
against  too  blind  confidence  in  all  that  was  recommended  in  the  name 
of  science.  "  Let  him  beware  of  false  lights  which  are  nowadays 
hanging  out  in  abundance;  let  him  beware  of  taking  advice  from 
two  dangerous  characters — the  conceited  farmer  who  knows  a  little 
science,  and  the  officious  philosopher  who  knows  a  little  farming." 
Combating  the  popular  notion  of  the  great  value  of  soil  analysis  as 
a  guide  to  the  farmer,  he  sums  up  the  case  thus :  "  Soil  analysis  at 
best  is  a  chance  game;  and  where  one  wins  a  hundred  may  lose.  A 
soil  analysis  is  always  interesting,  often  valuable,  rarely  economical." 

A  little  later  he  admonished  the  farmers  of  his  State  to  beware  of 
setting  experience  in  opposition  to  scientific  truth,  and  in  order  that 
what  he  wrote  might  be  read  he  headed  the  article  "American 
Guano."  Contrasting  experience  and  science  he  declared  with  em- 
phasis that  there  is  no  antagonism  between  the  two  except  in  error, 
experience  being  "many  times  unsuspecting,  blind,  or  prejudiced." 
"  Science  is  but  another  and  the  true  name  for  all  that  is  good  in  the 
experience  of  all  men.  .  .  .  Common  experience  is  the  native  rank 
but  wild  growth  of  knowledge.  Science  is  its  trained  and  cultivated 
development." 

At  the  present  day  agricultural  education  is  emphasizing  these 
truths,  and  is  making  common  experience  more  reliable,  because  more 
enlightened  and  less  "  unsuspecting,  blind  or  prejudiced." 

A  recent  writer  has  said  that  unless  the  student  or  investigator  of 
scientific  problems  has  in  his  conception  some  infusion  of  the  divine 


EDITORIAL.  9 

fire,  his  work  never  rises  above  the  humdrum  and  the  commonplace. 
"  He  must  at  times  feel  his  heart  burn  within  him  as  he  walks  the 
ways  of  his  chosen  calling."  No  one  can  read  the  letters  and  the 
papers  of  Dr.  Johnson  without  realizing  that  he  had  the  infusion  of 
divine  fire,  and  that  many  times  his  heart  must  have  burned  within 
him  with  zeal  for  his  chosen  subject. 

But  it  took  a  man  of  more  than  enthusiasm  to  write  as  he  did  of 
the  future  of  the  agricultural  experiment  station  and  its  far-reaching 
influence.  It  required  vision  and  conviction  to  labor  patiently  for 
its  coming,  and  to  contend  that  the  discovery  of  the  new  would  vital- 
ize the  old  in  agriculture,  would  broaden  the  intellectual  life  of  the 
farmer,  replace  mechanical  actions  and  prejudice  with  reason,  and 
bring  the  farmers  and  the  agricultural  colleges  closer  together — 
prophesies  which  he  lived  to  see  fulfilled. 

It  would  be  a  careless  reader  who  did  not  gain  from  these  writings 
a  clearer  insight,  a  higher  purpose,  and  an  enthusiasm  for  a  kind  of 
work  that  shall  endure.  They  carry  an  inspiration  and  a  stimulus 
for  the  rising  investigator,  not  only  to  continue  the  work  of  agri- 
cultural investigation,  but  to  make  the  most  of  the  larger  opportunity 
to  attain  the  ideals  which  he  propagated  at  that  early  period. 


RECENT  WORK  IN  AGRICULTURAL  SCIENCE. 


AGRICULTURAL  CHEinSTRY— AGROTECHNY. 

Principles  of  agricultural  chemistry,  G.  S.  Fraps  (Easton,  Pa.,  and  London, 
1913,  pp.  493,  figs.  94). — This  book  is  adapted  for  the  uses  of  the  student  and 
those  wishing  an  introduction  to  the  field  of  agricultural  chemistry,  as  well  as 
for  a  reference  book.  It  is  plentifully  illustrated  with  reproductions  of  photo- 
graphs taken  chiefly  from  experiment  station  literature  and  that  of  the  United 
States  Department  of  Agriculture.  Considerable  attention  is  given  to  the  chem- 
istry relating  to  problems  of  both  plant  and  animal  physiology. 

The  chapter  headings  are  as  follows :  Essentials  of  plant  life';  the  plant  and 
the  atmosphere ;  origin  of  soils ;  physical  composition  and  classes  of  soils ;  physi- 
cal properties  of  soils;  the  soil  and  water;  chemical  constituents  of  the  soil; 
chemical  composition  of  the  soil;  active  plant  food  and  water-soluble  constitu- 
ents of  the  soil;  chemical  changes;  soil  deficiencies;  losses  and  gains  by  the 
soil ;  manure ;  sources  and  composition  of  fertilizers ;  purchase  and  use  of  ferti- 
lizers ;  constituents  of  plants ;  composition  of  plants  and  feeds ;  digestion ;  utili- 
zation of  food;  maintenance  ration  and  fattening;  feeding  work  animals  and 
growing  animals;  feeding  milk  cows;  and  feeding  standards  and  feeding. 

About  the  pentosans,  S.  Got  (Fiihling's  Landw.  Ztg.,  61  (1912),  No.  18,  pp. 
606-612). — A  discussion  in  regard  to  the  chemistry  and  biology  of  pentosans 
and  their  occurrence  in  nature. 

The  temperature  at  which  starch  granules  gelatinize,  M.  Nyman  (Ztschr. 
Untersuch.  Nahr.  u.  Genussmtl,,  24  {1912),  No.  11,  pp.  673-676,  figs.  8).— The 
temperature  at  which  starch  does  not  affect  polarized  light  is  looked  upon  as 
the  gelatinization  point.  For  rye  starch  it  was  found  to  be  57°  C,  for  barley 
starch  58°,  and  for  wheat  starch  59°. 

The  chemistry  of  wood. — The  resins  of  the  Doug-las  fir,  G.  B.  Frankfoeteb 
and  H.  H.  Beown  {Orig.  Commun.  8.  Internat.  Cong.  Appl.  Chem.  IWashing- 
ton  and  New  York],  25  (1912),  Sects.  I-Ve,  p.  359). — ^An  acid  which  the  authors 
chose  to  call  betic  acid  was  isolated  from  the  resin  obtained  from  the  wood 
of  the  Douglas  fir.  When  it  was  recrystallized  from  62  per  cent  alcohol,  it 
appeared  as  well-formed  crystals  with  a  melting  point  of  from  143.5  to  144.5°  C. 
The  figures  obtained  on  elementary  analysis  pointed  to  the  formula  G17H24O2, 
which  was  verified  by  the  analyses  of  its  salts  and  by  its  neutral  equivalent. 
"  Molecular  weight  determinations  by  the  freezing  point  method,  however,  gave 
numbers  nearly  twice  too  high  for  the  above  formula,  doubtless  a  result  of 
polymerization.  In  addition  to  the  preparation  of  the  metallic  salts,  bromin 
and  iodin  compounds  were  made  and  studied."  The  molecular  constitution  is 
regarded  as  still  undecided. 

The  investig-ation  of  the  chemical  action  of  bacteria,  A.  Haeden  (Chem. 
World,  1  (1912),  No.  12,  pp.  403,  404). — A  review  of  work  by  various  in- 
vestigators as  to  the  bacteria  which  are  hygienically  and  industrially  important. 
The  changes  brought  about  by  bacteria  are  regarded  as  principally  due  to  the 
enzyms  which  they  contain  or  elaborate. 

10 


AGRICULTURAL   CHEMISTRY — AGROTECHNY.  11 

Progress  made  in  regard  to  the  fermentation  organisms  and  enzyms,  A. 
Koch  (Jahresber.  Gdrungs-Organ.,  20  (1909),  pp.  VII I +659). —This  is  a  ret- 
rospect of  the  work  published  during  1909,  including  text-books,  etc.,  (pp. 
1-17)  ;  methods  and  apparatus  (pp.  18-47)  ;  morphology  of  yeasts  and  bacteria 
(pp.  48-84)  ;  general  physiology  of  bacteria  (pp.  85-188)  ;  special  kinds  of  fer- 
mentations such  as  alcoholic,  lactic  acid,  and  those  in  cheese  and  milk ;  utiliza- 
tion of  atmospheric  nitrogen,  nitrification,  etc.  (pp.  189-487)  ;  and  enzyms 
(pp.  48.8-030). 

In  regard  to  the  ferment  nature  of  peroxidase,  A.  Hesse  and  W.  D. 
KooPER  (Ztschr.  Untersuch.  Nahr.  u.  Oenussmtl.,  24  {1912),  No.5,  pp.  301-309).—- 
A  discussion  of  Grimmer's  statements  in  regard  to  peroxidase  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  p. 
803)  is  followed  by  the  results  of  some  experiments  relative  to  tlie  nature  of 
peroxidase  in  milk. 

It  is  shown  that  the  reaction,  when  brought  into  contact  with  certain  reagents, 
e.  g.,  Rothenfusser's,  Storch's,  or  Arnold's,  in  the  presence  of  hydrogen  peroxid, 
is  due  to  the  catalytic  action  of  iron  compounds  present  in  milk.  A  solution 
containing  less  iron  (0.004  per  cent)  than  reprecipitated  albumin  contains  pro- 
duced a  marked  reaction  with  Arnold's  and  Rothenfusser's  reagents. 

The  reason  that  milk  loses  its  activity  after  being  boiled  is  the  denaturizing  of 
the  compounds  giving  the  peroxidase  reaction.  Lactic  acid,  sodium  thiosulphate, 
and  ethyl,  methyl,  and  amyl  alcohols  destroy  or  inhibit  the  appearance  of  the 
peroxidase  reaction  in  milk.  The  same  inhibition  was  noted  when  the  various 
chemical  substances  were  added  to  a  solution  of  iron  lactate,  which,  under 
ordinary  conditions  in  the  presence  of  hydrogen  peroxid  will  give  the  same 
reaction  as  milk. 

Mercuric  chlorid  and  chloroform,  two  pronounced  enzym  poisons,  do  not  visibly 
affect  the  appearance  of  the  reactions  in  either  the  iron  solution  or  milk. 
Rothenfusser's  reaction  can  be  stimulated  to  greater  intensity  by  other  sub- 
stances present  in  milk,  such  as  alkali  phosphates,  carbonates,  and  citrates. 
Theso- alkaline  substances  are  inactivated  by  boiling. 

Cleavage  of  a-  and  j3-methyl  glucosid  by  Aspergillus  niger,  A.  W.  Dox 
and  R.  E.  Neidig  (Biochem.  Ztschr.,  46  {1912),  No.  6,  pp.  397-402,  fig.  i).— In  the 
experiments  8  species  (A.  niger,  A.  clavatus,  A.  fumigatus,  PcniciJHum  camem- 
herti,  P.  expansum,  P.  chrysogenum.  P.  roqiieforti,  and  P.  digitaturn)  were 
cultivated  in  a  solution  consisting  of  0.5  gm.  magnesium  sulphate,  1  gm.  sodium 
phosphate,  0.5  gm.  potassium  chlorid,  2  gm.  ammonium  nitrate,  and  0.01  gm. 
ferrous  sulphate  in  1,000  cc.  of  water  for  the  purpose  of  studying  the  effect  of 
a-  and  jS-methj'l  glucosids  upon  the  intensity  of  the  growth.  There  was  ap- 
proximately 2  per  cent  of  the  methyl  glucosids  present.  The  fungi  grew  much 
better  in  the  j3-methyl  glucosid  than  in  the  a  form. 

A.  niger  acts  only  slightly  on  the  j8  form,  and  practically  not  at  all  on  the 
a-methyl  glucosid.     Yeast,  on  the  other  hand,  acts  only  on  the  a  form. 

Determination  of  alkalis  in  silicates  by  decomposition  with  calcium 
chlorid,  E.  Makinen  {Bui.  Com.  Geol.  Finlande,  1911,  A'o.  26.  pp.  8). — The 
method  suggested  is  as  follows :  Five  gm.  of  the  finely  powdered  silicate,  and 
the  greatest  part  of  5  gm.  of  dry  calcium  chlorid  is  mixed  and  placed  in  a 
platinum  crucible  (of  such  a  size  that  the  mixture  will  not  fill  more  than  two- 
thirds  of  the  vessel)  ;  the  remainder  of  the  calcium  chlorid  is  spread  over  the 
mixture,  and  the  crucible  heated  with  a  slight  flame  for  from  5  to  10  minutes 
in  order  to  dry  the  moist  calcium  chlorid.  The  flame  is  then  gently  raised  until 
all  of  the  calcium  chlorid  is  melted,  after  which  it  can  be  raised  to  any  height 
without  any  danger  of  the  mixture  spurting.  The  heating  is  continued  until 
the  melt  begins  to  solidify,  which  requires  about  one-half  hour.  After  cooling, 
the  mass  Is  treated  according  to  the  J.  Lawrence  Smith  method,  that  Is,  It  is 


12  EXPEBIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

digested,  preferably  in  a  platinum  dish,  with  hot  water  until  it  is  resolved  into 
a  loose  condition. 

The  residue,  insoluble  in  water,  is  removed  by  filtration,  and  the  calcium 
in  the  filtrate  is  precipitated  with  ammonium  hydroxid  and  ammonium  car- 
bonate. As  the  precipitate  occupies  a  comparatively  large  space,  it  is  redissolved 
in  dilute  hot  hydrochloric  acid  and  reprecipitated  with  ammonium  hydroxid  and 
ammonium  carbonate.  The  combined  filtrates  are  evaporated  to  dryness,  and 
after  driving  off  the  ammonium  salts  with  the  aid  of  heat,  the  residue  is  dis- 
solved in  the  smallest  possible  amount  of  water.  The  last  traces  of  calcium  are 
precipitated  from  this  solution  in  a  platinum  dish  with  ammonium  hydroxid 
and  ammonium  carbonate,  allowed  to  stand  for  several  hours,  and  filtered  into 
a  small  tared  platinum  dish  in  which  the  alkalis,  after  removing  the  ammonium 
salts,  are  weighed.  The  potassium  is  then  determined  as  potassium  platinic 
chlorid,  and  from  the  difference  the  sodium  is  calculated. 

Tests  were  made  for  the  purpose  of  determining  the  amount  of  potassium  and 
sodium  in  calcium  chlorid,  and  some  other  tests  to  determine  whether  the  alkali 
chlorid  contained  calcium,  magnesium,  or  sulphuric  acid. 

The  J.  Lawrence  Smith  method  gave  lower  results,  but  the  author's  method 
was  easy  to  conduct. 

New  methods  for  the  examination  and  judg-ment  of  soils,  J.  Konig  {Abs. 
in  Ztschr.  Angeiv.  Chem.,  25  {1912),  No.  39,  pp.  2001,  2002).— The  methods  men- 
tioned are  chiefly  those  already  noted  in  the  literature,  namely,  the  determina- 
tion of  the  catalytic  power  of  soils  and  the  nutrients  made  soluble  by  treatment 
with  steam  under  pressure  (E.  S.  R.,  17,  p.  1138)  ;  determination  of  the  inor- 
ganic nutrient  substances  which  can  be  liberated  as  a  result  of  oxidizing  humus 
(E.  S.  R.,  19,  p.  718)  ;  influence  of  a  strong  constant  electric  current  upon  the 
soil;  determination  of  the  osmotic  pressure  (E.  S.  R.,  21,  p.  409;  26,  p.  217), 
and  the  electrical  conductivity  of  the  soil  (E.  S.  R.,  24,  pp.  521,  522;  estimation 
of  the  amount  of  colloids  in  soils  (E.  S.  R.,' 26,  p.  519)  ;  the  use  of  dialysis  in 
the  examination  of  soils ;  and  determination  of  the  oxidizing  capacity  of  the  soil. 
At  present  the  author  is  engaged  in  separating  the  components  of  the  soil 
with  solutions  of  various  specific  gravities,  i.  e.,  mixtures  of  bromoform  and 
benzol,  specific  gravity  2.65,  2.5,  2.4,  2.3,  etc.  These  results  will  be  reported  upon 
later.     See  also  a  previous  note  by  May  and  Gile  (E.  S.  R.,  21,  p.  220). 

The  determination  of  lime  in  cow  feces,  R.  A.  Dutcher  (Jour.  Indus,  and 
Engin.  Chem.,  5  (1913),  No.  1,  pp.  37,  38). — It  is  maintained  that  methods  of 
ash  analysis  are  very  lax  with  reference  to  the  acid  treatment  of  the  ash.  The 
author  was  unable  to  find  anything  in  the  literature  in  regard  to  the  analysis 
of  the  ash  in  cow  feces.  He  suggests  that  "  the  ash  be  boiled  at  least  3  hours 
with  concentrated  nitric  or  hydrochloric  acid,  and  that  the  acid-insoluble  resi- 
due be  evaporated  to  dryness  with  dilute  sodium  hydroxid  to  break  up  all 
silicates.  This  alkaline  residue  should  then  be  taken  up  with  dilute  acid  and 
added  to  the  original  solution  for  analysis." 

Water  analysis  for  sanitary  and  technical  purposes,  H.  S.  Stocks  (London, 
1912,  pp.  VIII+136,  figs.  8). — This  book  deals  with  the  physical,  organoleptic, 
and  chemical  (qualitative  and  quantitative)  analysis  of  water.  Among  the 
topics  discussed  are  deleterious  metals;  gases  contained  in  solution;  standards 
of  purity  recommended  by  the  Rivers  Pollution  Commissioners;  tabular  view 
of  the  standards  for  effluents  adopted  by  various  authorities;  average  compo- 
sition of  unpolluted  water ;  tension  of  aqueous  vapor ;  loss  of  nitrogen  by  evapo- 
ration of  NH4HSO3  and  NH4H2PO4 ;  Warington's  method  of  estimating  nitrates ; 
and  preparation  of  reagents  required  for  water  analysis.  Several  conversion 
tables  are  included. 


AGRICULTUEAL  CHEMISTRY AGBOTECHNY.  13 

Methods  of  analysis  used  in  the  laboratories  of  the  Armour  Institute  of 
Technology. — Mineral  analysis  of  water  (Chem.  Engin.,  17  {19 IS),  No.  S,  pp. 
117,  118). — The  methods  described  are  for  total  solids,  silica,  iron  and  aluminum, 
calcium,  magnesium,  sulphuric  acid,  alkalis,  carbonates,  chlorids,  and  free 
carbon  dioxid.     The  methods  of  calculating  the  results  are  also  given. 

Food  control  by  police  oflacials,  W.  Bremee  (Die  Nahrungsmittelhontrolle 
durch  den  Polizeihemiiten.  Berlin,  1910,  pp.  IV+78). — This  is  a  description  of 
methods  of  sampling  for  food  inspection  purposes.  The  substances  which  are 
prohibited  are  described  in  detail. 

A  rapid  method  for  determining'  fat  in  cacao  with  the  Zeiss  refractometer, 
O.  RiCHTER  {Ztsclir.  Untersuch.  Nahr.  u.  Genussmtl.,  24  {1912),  No.  5,  pp.  312- 
319). — The  methods  for  determining  fat  in  milk  are  not  applicable  to  the  deter- 
mination of  this  constituent  in  cacao,  but  the  use  of  the  refractometer  for  this 
purpose  suggested  itself.  The  method  which  apparently  gave  good  results  em- 
bodied extraction  of  the  material  with  ether-alcohol-trisodium  phosphate  solu- 
tion, determining  the  refraction  of  the  fat,  and  calculating  the  amount  of  fat 
present  from  the  results  by  tables  which  are  included. 

Chang-es  in  the  methods  for  determining  succinic  and  malic  acids  in  wine, 
C.  VON  DER  Heide  and  E.  Schwenk  {Ztschr.  Analyt.  Chem.,  51  {1912),  No.  10- 
11,  pp.  628-638). — A  modification  of  the  methods  originally  suggested  by  von 
der  Heide  and  Steiner  (E.  S.  R.,  21,  pp.  304,  305). 

Studies  in  regard  to  the  dry  substance  (total  solids)  of  milk,  A.  Splitt- 
gerber  {Ztschr.  Untersuch.  Nahr.  u.  Genussmtl.,  24  {1912),  No.  8,  pp.  439-507).— 
A  study  was  made  for  the  purpose  of  determining  to  what  degree  the  milk  con- 
stituents suffer  decomposition  when  dried  for  a  long  time. 

The  changes  produced  in  the  dry  substance  were,  in  most  instances,  primarily 
due  to  the  presence  of  lactic  acid.  This  acid,  when  heated  at  the  usual  drying 
temperatures,  will  volatilize  almost  completely,  but  when  present  with  either 
casein,  albumin,  protein,  lactose,  or  in  milk  itself,  it  becomes  bound  or  fixed  to 
these  constituents.  The  remainder  of  the  acid  present  is  decomposed,  this  being 
entirely  dependent  upon  the  amount  present  and  the  time  of  drying. 

A  loss  in  weight  for  normal  milk,  due  to  the  presence  of  lactic  acid,  is  usually 
not  noted  during  the  first  hour  of  drying,  but  after  2  hours  it  is  appreciable. 
Casein,  a  mixture  of  milk  sugar  and  phosphates,  and  casein  with  milk  and 
phosphates  after  drying  over  1  hour  showed  a  marked  loss  in  weight.  Accord- 
ing to  these  findings  the  figures  obtained  by  the  usual  drying  methods  do  not 
represent  the  sum  of  the  total  solids  of  milk,  but  those  given  after  1  hour  of 
drying  are  probably  correct. 

This  behavior  of  lactic  acid  probably  explains  the  fact  that  in  the  determi- 
nation of  the  solids  in  sour  milk  the  figures  obtained  do  not  correspond  with 
those  given  by  the  calculation  methods. 

The  conservation  of  samples  of  milk  destined  for  analysis,  X.  Rocques 
{Ann.  Chim.  Analyt.,  17  {1912),  No.  11.  pp.  413-418).— One  gm.  of  bichromate 
of  potash  per  liter  is  generally  used  in  France  for  preserving  milk  intended  for 
analysis,  but  if  the  bichromate  is  added  to  milk  in  which  decomposition  has 
already  set  in  disintegration  proceeds  more  rapidly.  Thinking  that  it  was  the 
lactic  acid  which  destroyed  the  preserving  power  of  the  bichromate,  the  author 
made  some  tests  with  solutions  of  these  substances.  He  found  that  lactic  acid 
reduced  bichromate.  The  bichromate  had  no  effect  upon  lactose,  but  lactose 
seemed  to  accelerate  the  decomposition  of  the  bichromate. 

The  conclusion  Is  reached  that  bichromate  of  potash  is  an  excellent  preserva- 
tive for  samples  of  fresh  milk,  but  that  when  the  sample  is  in  a  state  of  decom- 
position it  is  necessary  to  examine  it  as  quickly  as  possible. 


14  EXPERIMENT   STATION"   RECORD. 

The  preservation  of  milk  samples  destined  for  analysis,  G.  Denig^s  {Ann. 
Falsi/.,  5  (1012),  No.  50,  pp.  559-561)  .—Desjyite  the  conclusion  of  Rocques,  noted 
above,  tbat  bichromate  of  potash  is  a  satisfactory  preservative  for  milk  samples, 
it  is  maintained  thp.t  the  method  does  not  work  well  in  everyday  practice.  The 
recommendation  of  Dubois  for  the  substitution  of  a  solution  of  50  gm.  of 
phenol  in  10  cc.  of  95  per  cent  alcohol,  using  1  cc.  of  this  preservative  to  100  cc. 
of  milk,  wns  found  very  satisfactory  by  the  author.  Some  of  Dubois's  analyses 
made  in  1900,  also  an  analysis  made  of  one  of  the  samples  collected  in  1900  and 
reanalyzed  in  1910,  are  shown.  Practically  no  change  in  the  composition  of 
the  sample  took  place. 

The  detection  of  peanut  oil  in  olive  oil,  L.  Abler  (Ztschr.  XJntersucli.  Nahr. 
u.  Genussmtl,  23  {1912),  No.  12,  pp.  676-679,  fig.  i).— A  description  is  given 
of  a  modification  of  the  Franz  method  in  which  it  is  possible  to  detect  an  addi- 
tion of  at  least  5  per  cent  of  peanut  oil  to  olive  oil. 

One  cc.  of  the  oil  and  5  cc.  of  an  8  per  cent  alcoholic  potassium  hydrate  solu- 
tion (80  gm.  of  potassium  hydrate  treated  with  alcohol  and  enough  90  per  cent 
alcohol  to  make  1  liter)  are  placed  in  a  100  cc.  Erlenmeyer  flask  provided  with 
an  80  cm.  cooling  tube.  The  mixture  is  heated  for  4  minutes  in  a  boiling  water 
bath,  shaken  frequently,  and  cooled  to  25°  C. ;  1.5  cc.  of  dilute  acetic  acid  (1  vol- 
ume acetic  acid  and  2  volumes  water)  and  50  cc.  of  70  per  cent  alcohol  by  vol- 
ume are  added ;  the  mixture  is  then  shaken  and  allowed  to  stand. 

If  the  solution  does  not  clear  up.  it  should  be  heated  until  clarification  has 
taken  place,  then  cooled  to  exactly  16°,  shaken  repeatedly  at  this  temperature 
for  a  period  of  5  minutes,  and  if  no  definite  turbidity  is  noted,  cooled  to  15.5°. 
If  no  turbidity  is  produced  after  another  5  minutes,  the  oil  contains  less  than 
5  per  cent  of  peanut  oil. 

The  detection  of  peanut  oil  in  olive  oil  according  to  the  Franz- Adler 
method,  H.  Luers  {Ztschr.  Untersucli.  Nahr.  u.  Genussmtl.,  2Ii  {1912),  No.  11, 
pp.  683,  684)' — Two  samples  of  olive  oil  which  were  examined  according  to  the 
Franz-Adler  method  showed  a  marked  precipitate  at  16°  C,  which  pointed, 
according  to  the  originators  of  the  test,  to  the  presence  of  about  5  per  cent  of 
peanut  oil.  On  the  other  hand,  when  the  oils  were  examined  by  the  lead  salt 
method  of  Torelli  and  Ruggeri  (E.  S.  R.,  10,  p.  413),  peanut  oil  was  apparently 
absent.  A  chemical  study  then  made  of  the  oils  showed  that  the  precipitate 
produced  in  the  Franz-Adler  test  in  these  instances  consisted  of  a  potassium 
salt  of  myristic  acid,  and  consequently  it  was  assumed  that  these  oils  were 
characterized  by  a  high  myristic  acid  content.  The  amount  of  acid  added  in 
the  Franz-Adler  test  is  considered  insufficient  to  cause  the  liberation  of  the 
entire  acid  in  every  instance,  and  consequently  a  precipitate  of  the  acid  salt  is 
produced  at  from  15  to  16°. 

On  the  basis  of  the  above  findings  the  method  was  modified. 

Technical  accounting  and  chemical  control  in  sugar  manufacture,  D.  L. 
Davoll,  Jr.  {Jour.  Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.,  5  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  231-23^;  4,  pp. 
S1S-S19,  figs.  6). — A  detailed  description  of  the  topic,  which  includes  the 
chemical  methods  utilized  in  sugar  control. 

The  sugar  content  of  maize  stalks,  G.  N.  Blackshaw  {So.  African  Jour. 
Sci.,  9  {1912),  No.  S,  pp.  .^2-^S).— Continuing  previous  work  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  p. 
314),  the  author  reports  results  of  more  extensive  experiments  with  Hickory 
King.  Boone  County,  Salisbury  White,  Golden  Eagle,  and  Sweet  corn,  sown 
November  9.  From  a  portion  of  each  plat,  the  cobs  were  removed  in  a  milky 
condition  on  April  2,  and  the  juice  of  stalks  selected  from  the  cobbed  and 
uncobbed  portions  analyzed  periodically  until  the  crop  reached  maturity. 

All  of  the  cobbed  plants,  with  the  exception  of  Sweet  corn,  examined  between 
April  10  and  May  23,  i.  e.,  from  8  to  51  days  after  removing  the  cobs,  showed 


AGEICULTUEAL   CHEMISTRY AGROTECHNY.  15 

an  averaj^e  sucrose  content  of  12  per  cent.  In  the  juice  from  the  stalks  of 
plants  on  which  the  cobs  were  allowed  to  remain,  the  average  amount  of  sucrose 
was  8.2  per  cent.  Plants  cobbed  at  the  same  period,  that  is,  between  April  2 
and  9  showed  an  average  of  11.5  per  cent  of  sucrose.  It  is  estimated  that  the 
stalks  would  yield  about  585  lbs.  of  sucrose  per  acre,  and  80  lbs.  of  glucose. 

Objectionable  nitrogenous  compounds  in  sugar-cane  juice,  F.  Zerban 
(Orig.  Commun.  8.  Internat.  Cong.  Appl.  Chetn.  [Washington  and  New  York],  8 
(1912),  Sect.  Va,  pp.  103-111). — After  reviewing  the  literature  pertaining  to 
the  injurious  nitrogen  which  is  contained  in  very  small  amounts  in  sugar-cane 
juice,  the  author  states  that  none  of  the  different  substances  reported,  viz, 
leucin,  asparagin,  glutamin,  and  glycocoll  has  been  definitely  identified.  As  a 
result  of  the  investigation  it  was  found  that  the  mercuric  precipitate  from  sugar- 
cane juice  contains  principally  asparagin,  and  small  amounts  of  glutamin  and 
tyrosin.  The  fact  that  asparagin  was  present  is  corroborated  by  L.  M.  Dennis 
of  the  laboratory  of  Cornell  University. 

The  investigations  were  carried  out  in  two  different  places.  "The  first  of 
these,  the  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  in  Tucuman,  Argentina,  lies  within 
the  Temperate  Zone,  while  the  second,  the  experiment  station  of  the  Porto  Rico 
Sugar  Producers'  Association,  is  in  the  Tropics.  The  methods  used  were  prac- 
tically the  same  in  both  places." 

The  practical  results  to  be  obtained  by  determining  the  injurious  nitro- 
gen in  sugar  beets,  G.  Friedl  {Kis^rlet.  Kozlem.,  15  {1912),  No.  5,  pp.  801- 
808). — The  figures  for  available  white  sugar  on  the  basis  of  the  injurious 
nitrogen  content  of  the  beet  were  lower  than  the  values  shown  by  Stammers' 
calculations.  The  amount  of  molasses  obtained  agreed  well  with  the  injurious 
nitrogen  determination.  Very  valuable  data  can  be  obtained  by  determining 
the  injurious  nitrogen  colorimetrically  (E.  S.  R.,  23.  p.  514). 

Inversion  of  saccharose  and  its  relation  to  the  qualitative  changes  of 
various  feed  beets  during  storage,  W.  Jekelius  (Kiihn  Arch.,  2  {1912),  pt.  1, 
pp.  149-192,  figs.  5).— The  relation  noted  by  Stephani  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  Ill) 
between  the  diminution  of  polarization  and  the  formation  of  invert  sugar  with 
various  kinds  of  beets  during  storage  was  confirmed  by  this  investigation. 
Varieties  with  a  high  sugar  and  dry  substance  content  showed  a  lower  invert- 
ing capacity  than  beets  having  a  low  total  solid  content,  while  the  tendency  to 
invert  sugar  formation  stood  in  a  direct  relation  to  the  yield  of  beets.  No 
relationship  between  inverting  capacity  and  the  other  constituents  of  beets, 
1.  e.,  nitrogen,  protein,  ash.  and  the  ash  constituents,  could  be  established. 

The  inversion  noted  seems  to  be  a  purely  pbysiologcal  process,  but  it  is  also 
influenced  by  external  conditions.  For  instance,  injuring  a  beet,  or  boring 
brings  about  a  marked  inversion  of  the  saccharose.  Temperature  and  the 
methods  of  storage  also  influence  the  degree  of  inversion.  Total  sugar  and 
dry  substance  seem  to  run  fairly  parallel  also  in  stored  beets.  Accordingly,  the 
estimation  of  the  dry  substance  in  the  spring  in  beets  high  in  invert  sugar  will 
give  us  a  better  measure  than  will  the  polarization  test.  With  varieties  which 
show  a  low  degree  of  inversion,  polarization  in  the  spring  will  give  the  identical 
figures  obtained  with  the  gravimetric  method  for  total  sugars. 

The  determination  of  total  sugars  stands  in  direct  relation  to  the  formation 
of  invert  sugar;  there  are,  however,  varieties  and  individual  beets  which  can 
produce  up  to  springtime  considerable  invert  sugar  without  showing  marked 
loss  of  total  sugar.  Inversion  and  polarization  of  sugar  can,  according  to  this, 
be  two  functions  which  are  independent  of  one  another. 

Manufacture  of  a  sugar-beet  flour  (beet  meal),  and  its  use  in  the  alimenta- 
tion of  man  and  beast,  A.  Aulagd  {Orig.  Commun.  8.  Internat.  Cong.  Appl. 
Chem.  [Washington  and  New  York],  25  {1912),  Sects.  I-Ve,  pp.  479-483).— ThlB 


16  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

describes  the  method  of  preparing  beet  meal  by  a  drying  process.  The  product 
has  a  composition  as  follows:  Protein,  6.6;  saccharose,  65.5;  other  carbohy- 
drates, 12.75;  cellulose  (saccharifiable),  5.2;  ether  extract,  0.75;  water,  5.4; 
residue,  inert  material,  salts,  etc.,  3.8  per  cent.  The  cost  of  drying  the  material 
under  conditions  prevailing  in  Belgium  and  France  is  also  discussed. 

Composition  of  apples  and  pure  ciders  of  the  lower  Seine  regions,  C. 
Beioux  (Ann.  Falsif.,  6  {1913),  No.  51,  pp.  32-39). — This  deals  with  the  composi- 
tion of  the  apples  harvested  in  1911  and  the  cider  made  therefrom.  Ciders  made 
from  a  single  variety  of  apples  and  several  varieties  of  apples  are  considered. 

Cider  vinegar  and  its  making,  P.  J.  O'Gaea  (Off.  Path,  and  Ent.  Rogue 
River  Valley  Oreg.  Circ.  1,  1912,  pp.  4)- — ^This  is  a  short  popular  description  of 
making  vinegar  from  pure  apple  juice,  issued  for  the  purpose  of  pointing  out  a 
method  for  utilizing  cull  apples  which  would  otherwise  go  to  waste. 

The  composition  of  pure  wine  from  American  native  grapes,  W.  B.  Alwood 
(Abs.  in  Orig.  Commun.  8.  Internat.  Cong.  Appl.  Chem.  [Washington  and  New 
York],  26  {1912),  Sects.  Yla-Xlh,  pp.  35,  55).— This  paper  deals  with  experi- 
ments on  the  manufacture  of  straight  wines  from  8  native  grapes,  the  purpose 
being  to  ascertain  the  facts  in  regard  to  the  composition  of  pure  grape  must 
after  it  has  been  fermented  to  dryness. 

The  alcohol  industry  of  the  Philippine  Islands,  H.  D.  Gibbs  {Philippine 
Jour.  Sci.,  Sect.  A,  6  {1911),  Nos.  2,  pp.  99-145,  pis.  8,  figs.  S;  3,  pp.  147-206,  pis, 
12,  figs.  5). — This  deals  with  the  study  of  the  nipa  palm,  coconut  palm,  buri 
palm,  and  sugar  palm,  with  special  reference  to  the  saps  and  their  uses.  Among 
other  factors  it  discusses  the  tapping  of  the  palm,  the  yield,  composition,  and 
utilization  of  the  sap,  the  occurrence  of  mannitol  in  palm  saps,  the  sap  of  the 
coconut  palm  as  a  source  of  sugar  and  vinegar,  the  economic  factors  concerned 
in  the  production  of  sugar,  etc. 

The  cooperative  manufacture  of  casein,  P.  Doenic  {Indus.  Beurre,  7  {1912), 
Nos.  28,  pp.  325-327;  29,  pp.  337-339;  abs.  in  Internat.  Inst.  Agr.  {Romel,  Bui. 
Bur.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  3  {1912),  No.  9,  p.  2079). — A  small  society 
at  Sainte-SouUe,  manufacturing  casein  from  skim  milk  from  June  1,  1911,  to 
May  31,  1912,  utilized  366,600  gal.  of  skim  milk,  which  yielded  114,185  lbs.  of 
casein,  and  a  profit  greater  than  had  previously  been  received  from  feeding  the 
skim  milk  to  pigs. 

Synthetic  tannin,  B.  F.  Chase  {Daily  Cons,  and  Trade  Rpts.  [U.  8.],  16 
{1913),  No.  106,  p.  673). — The  preparation  which  is  termed  "  Neradol  "  is  made 
by  sulphonating  cresylic  acid  and  combining  it  with  formaldehyde.  The  prepa- 
ration is  supposed  to  be  somewhat  similar  to  ordinary  tanning  extract,  and 
forms  a  light  brown  solution  in  water.  It  is  reported  that  a  number  of  tests 
have  been  made  with  sheep,  calf,  and  other  skins  with  apparently  satisfactory 
results. 

The  effect  of  "  lime-sulphur  ^'  spray  manufacture  on  the  eyesight,  J.  R. 
WiTHEOw  (Jour.  Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.,  4  {1912),  No.  10,  pp.  735-737). — This 
is  a  description  of  some  cases  where  the  eyes  of  workmen  engaged  in  the  prepa- 
ration of  lime-sulphur  wash  became  inflamed,  resulting  in  blurred  vision.  This 
was  especially  the  case  on  cold  days,  when  the  opportunities  for  proper  ventila- 
tion of  the  factories  were  poor. 

METEOROLOGY— WATER. 

Syllabus  of  questions  on  the  relation  between  meteorological  information 
and  agricultural  practice,  W.  N.  Shaw  {Rpt.  Brit.  Assoc.  Adv.  Sci.,  1912,  pp. 
738,  739). — A  series  of  questions  designed  to  bring  out  the  relation  between 
climatic  conditions  and  plant  growth  is  given. 


METEOROLOGY WATEE.  17 

"Surface"  climate,  W.  L.  Balls  (Rpt.  Brit.  Assoc.  Adv.  8ci ,  1912,  pp.  7S9, 
74O). — This  article  calls  attention  to  the  wide  variations  in  temperature, 
humidity,  etc.,  which  may  occur  among  crops  within  even  a  few  inches  of  alti- 
tude. It  is  stated  that  in  observations  on  the  cotton  crop  in  Egypt  it  was  found 
"that  a  puff  of  wind  arising  during  an  otherwise  calm,  clear  night  will  raise 
the  temperature  of  the  crop  by  more  than  5°  C.  Since  the  growth  of  the  plant 
is  controlled  chiefly  by  night  temperature,  such  a  rise  is  not  without  impor- 
tance. The  explanation  lies  in  the  removal  of  air  which  has  been  chilled  by 
radiation  from  the  plant,  and  its  replacement  by  air  at  'screen  temperature.' 
Transpiration  of  water  from  the  plant  is  negligible  at  night." 

Meteorological  conditions  in  a  field  crop,  with  a  description  of  two  simple 
recorders,  W.  L.  Balls  (Quart.  Jour.  Roy.  Met.  80c.  ILondon],  39  {lOlS),  No. 
166,  pp.  109-113,  figs.  3). — This  article  reports  the  results  of  observations  on 
temperature,  humidity,  and  wind  movement  in  a  field  of  cotton  in  Egypt  as 
noted  in  the  abstract  above.  It  also  describes  simple  forms  of  an  anemograph 
and  a  differential  thermograph  used  in  these  observations. 

Meteorolog-ical  yearbook  for  1913  (Annuaire  M6t^orologique  pour  1913. 
Brussels,  1912,  pp.  VI +323,  pis.  39,  figs.  7). — This  volume  contains  a  clima- 
tological  review  for  Belgium  for  1912,  a  summary  of  meteorological  observations 
at  the  Uccle  observatory,  and  a  detailed  study  of  hail  and  other  storms  in  Bel- 
gium, besides  special  articles  on  the  Besson  nephoscope,  comparative  tests  of 
different  forms  of  shade  thermometers,  ascensions  of  sounding  balloons,  temper- 
ature of  the  North  Sea,  and  infiltration  of  meteoric  waters  in  the  soil  as  meas- 
ured by  a  lysimeter. 

Temperature  records,  J.  B.  Thompson  (Guam  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pp.  28,  29,  figs. 
2). — Records  of  maximum  and  minimum  temperatures  at  the  Guam  Station 
throughout  the  year  ended  June  30,  1912,  are  shown  in  charts. 

Rain  and  its  measurement,  L.  Dumas  (Ann.  QemUoux,  23  (1913),  No.  6,  pp. 
261-299). — The  author  deals  in  a  broad  general  way  with  the  phenomenon  of 
rainfall  and  with  rain  and  snow  in  their  relations  to  climate,  locality,  and  agri- 
culture. He  discusses  evaporation  from  air  and  soils,  humidity,  temperature, 
and  intensity  of  rainfall  in  their  relations  to  each  other,  and  also  the  accuracy 
of  rain  gages.  He  takes  up  particularly  the  relation  of  rainfall  to  soil  and 
vegetation,  considering  as  the  normal  rainfall  for  a  region  that  amount  which 
satisfies  the  average  cultural  conditions. 

Conservation  of  rainfall,  W.  J.  Spillman  (U.  S.  Senate,  63.  Cong.,  1.  Sess.. 
Doc.  22s,  1913,  pp.  5). — Attention  is  called  in  this  document  to  the  beneficial 
results  obtained  by  the  use  of  a  system  of  embankments  for  conserving  rainfall 
and  preventing  soil  erosion  on  a  light  sandy  soil  which  includes  forests,  pastures, 
and  cultivated  fields. 

Surface  water  supply  of  the  South  Atlantic  coast  and  eastern  Gulf  of 
Mexico  drainage  basins,  1911,  M.  R.  Hall  and  C.  H.  Pierce  (U.  8.  Geol. 
Survey,  Water-Snpply  Paper  302,  1913,  pp.  90,  pis.  ^). — This  paper  reports  the 
results  of  measurements  of  flow  made  during  1911,  in  the  James,  Roanoke,  Yad- 
kin, Savannah,  and  Altamaha  river  basins  on  the  South  Atlantic  coast,  and  in  the 
Apalachicola,  Choctawha tehee,  Escambia,  and  Mobile  river  basins  of  the  east 
coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  Tables  are  also  included  giving  gage  heights  and 
daily  and  monthly  discharges  at  each  station.  A  summary  of  the  discharge 
per  square  mile  indicates  an  almost  entire  lack  of  uniformity  or  agreement 
between  any  two  stations. 

Geology  and  ground  waters  of  Florida,  G.  C.  Matson  and  S.  Sanford  ( U.  8. 
Oeol.  Survey,  Water-supply  Paper  319,  1913,  pp.  U5,  pis.  16,  figs.  7).— This 
paper  gives  a  detailed  report  on  the  geography,  stratigraphy,  and  geologic  hie- 


18  EXPEKIMENT   STATION  RECOED. 

tory  of  Florida,  with  special  reference  to  its  underground  water.  The  water 
supply  of  euch  county  as  well  as  of  tlie  State  as  a  whole  is  discussed  with 
reference  to  its  source,  quality,  and  developmeut,  and  tables  giving  data  for 
typical  wells  of  the  State  are  added  to  many  of  the  county  descriptions.  The 
illustrations  include  a  general  topographic  and  geologic  map  of  Florida,  a  map 
of  its  Pleistocene  terraces,  a  diagram  showing  the  importance  of  ctoosiug  proper 
locations  for  wells,  and  half-tones  showing  features  of  geologic  interest. 

Surface  water  supply  of  the  Ohio  River  basin,  1911,  A.  H.  Horton,  M.  R. 
Hall,  and  H.  J.  Jackson  ( U.  8.  Geol.  Survey,  Water-Supply  Paper  SOS,  191S,  pp. 
112,  pis.  4). — This  paper  reports  results  of  measurements  of  flow  made  on  the 
Ohio  River  and  its  tributaries  during  1911.  Tables  are  also  included  giving 
gage  heights  and  daily  and  monthly  discharges  at  each  station.  A  comparison 
of  relative  rates  of  run-off  from  different  areas  in  this  basin  shows  an  almost 
entire  lack  of  uniformity  or  agreement  between  any  two  streams. 

The  Ohio  Valley  flood  of  March- April,  1913,  A.  H.  Hoeton  and  H.  J.  Jack- 
son (U.  aS'.  Geol.  Survey,  Water-Supply  Paper  S34,  1913,  pp.  96,  pis.  22). — This 
report  contains  available  recent  flood  data  from  the  Ohio  River  Valley,  together 
with  facts  concerning  earlier  floods,  which  are  presented  primarily  for  com- 
parison with  those  concerning  the  flood  of  1913.  It  is  attempted  to  show  what 
can  and  should  be  done  in  collecting  the  data  necessary  for  a  complete  report 
on  the  floods  in  the  Ohio  Valley  and  emphasizes  the  necessity  of  immediately 
starting,  on  a  comprehensive  scale,  the  collection  of  stream-flow  data  not  only 
from  the  Ohio  itself  but  from  its  larger  tributaries  to  the  end  that  a  definite 
decision  may  be  reached  as  to  the  best  and  most  economical  means  of  prevent- 
ing damage  by  floods. 

Geology  and  water  resources  of  Sulphur  Spring-  Valley,  Ariz.  {U.  S.  Geol. 
Survey,  Water-Supply  Paper  S20,  191S,  pp.  1-187,  2U~231,  pU.  IJf,  figs.  32).— 
This  work  represents  a  cooperative  investigation,  between  the  United  States 
Geological  Survey  and  the  Arizona  Experiment  Station,  of  the  ground  waters 
and  possibilities  of  irrigation  in  the  valley. 

The  physiography  and  drainage;  geology;  rainfall;  occurrence;  level,  and 
quality  of  ground  water;  vegetation  in  relation  to  water  and  other  geographic 
controls ;  and  the  artesian  conditions  of  the  valley  are  discussed  in  some  detail 
by  O.  E.  Meinzer  (pp.  1-187),  together  with  an  investigation  of  the  concentra- 
tion, distribution,  and  general  effect  of  the  alkalis  in  the  soil  and  water.  So- 
dium carbonate  is  said  to  be  the  most  harmful  alkaline  constituent  in  the  soil, 
and  where  the  depth  to  water  is  less  than  15  ft.  the  soil  usually  contains  in- 
jurious amounts  of  alkali,  while  where  the  depth  is  more  than  15  ft.  the  soil 
is  usually  free  from  injurious  amounts. 

In  addition  there  is  a  discussion  by  R.  H.  .Forbes  (pp.  214-224)  of  the  agri- 
cultural resources  of  the  valley,  in  which  it  is  stated  that  di*y  farming  and  flood 
water  farming  are  uncertain  methods  of  culture  there,  while  dry  farming  sup- 
plemented with  a  pumped  water  supply  is  a  more  certain  method.  See  also  a 
previous  note  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  725). 

Ground  water  in  Eoxelder  and  Tooele  counties,  Utah,  E.  Carpenter  (U.  S. 
Geol.  Survey,  Water-Supply  Paper  333,  1913,  pp.  90,  pis.  2,  figs.  9).— The  chief 
purpose  of  this  paper  is  to  report  an  investigation  made  to  determine  the  feasi- 
bility of  irrigating  by  use  of  underground  water  in  this  region,  which  includes 
Boxelder  and  the  eastern  part  of  Tooele  counties,  Utah,  and  some  small  tracts 
in  southern  Idaho.  The  physiography,  geology,  climate,  vegetation,  soil,  and 
Industrial  development  of  the  region  are  discussed  in  some  detail  and  the 
occurrence  and  quality  of  ground  water  supplies  are  taken  up  by  areas,  mainly 
from  the  standpoint  of  their  availability  and  use  for  irrigation  purposes.     In 


SOILS FERTILIZERS.  19 

addition  information  Is  given  regarding  the  location  of  watering  places  on  routes 
of  travel  for  the  benefit  of  strangers  traveling  through  the  region. 

The  pollution  of  underground  waters  with  sewage  through  fissures  in 
rocks,  H.  Albert  (Science,  n.  ser.,  S8  (1913),  No.  972,  pp.  2S8,  239).— A  case  of 
supposed  pollution  of  underground  waters  through  rock  flssues  is  noted.  A 
water  supply  taken  from  three  deep  wells  became  polluted  from  the  deepest 
well  which  was  sunk  at  the  bottom  of  a  shaft  used  previously  for  water  sup- 
plies and  extending  through  31  ft.  of  alluvial  soil  and  clay,  6  ft.  of  limestone, 
27  ft.  of  blue  shale,  6  ft.  of  limestone,  and  42  ft.  of  sandstone.  From  the 
nature  of  the  existing  strata  and  from  bacteriological  and  clinical  examinations 
of  the  water  it  is  concluded  that  polluted  river  and  ground  water  passed  readily 
through  the  top  layer  of  soil  and  gravel  to  and  through  the  fissures  in  the  upper 
layer  of  limestone  to  and  along  the  relatively  impermeable  layer  of  shale  in  the 
direction  of  least  resistance  toward  the  shaft. 

The  sewage  sludge  problem  and  its  solution,  J,  Grossmann  (Surveyor,  43 
(1913),  No.  1111,  pp.  926-928).— A  paper  on  this  subject  is  given  in  abstract 
with  discussion. 

The  Grossmann  process  for  recovery  of  grease  and  preparation  of  a  sludge 
fertilizer  in  use  at  Oldham,  England,  is  described.  The  sludge  fertilizer  ob- 
tained is  a  dry,  friable,  inodorous  material  containing  about  2  per  cent  of  am- 
monia, from  3  to  5  per  cent  of  calcium  phosphate,  and  1^  per  cent  of  potash 
salts,  and  is  in  demand  by  farmers.  It  is  said  to  furnish  a  good  basis  for 
mixed  fertilizers. 

SOnS—FEETILIZERS. 

Soils  of  the  United  States,  C.  F.  Maebut,  H.  H.  Bennett,  and  J.  E.  and 
M.  H.  Lapham  (U.  8.  Dept.  Agr.,  Bur.  Soils  Bui.  96,  pp.  791,  pis.  15). — This  is 
a  combination  of  features  of  Bulletins  55  and  78  of  the  Bureau  of  Soils  (E.  S. 
R.,  20,  p.  915;  25,  p.  426),  revised  to  January  1,  1912.  It  describes  the  soils 
of  this  country  as  far  as  they  are  known  at  present,  and  includes  also  a  discus- 
sion of  methods  of  soil  classification. 

A  study  of  the  soils  of  Macon  County,  Alabama,  and  their  adaptability  to 
certain  crops,  G.  W.  Cabveb  (Alabama  Tushegee  Sta.  Bui.  25,  pp.  5-13). — The 
soil  types  of  the  county,  as  defined  by  the  Bureau  of  Soils,  are  described  and 
their  crop  adaptations  and  methods  of  management  are  discussed.  With  the 
exception  of  the  Norfolk  coarse  sand  and  Norfolk  gravelly  loam,  which  are  so 
porous  as  to  be  nearly  always  in  a  drought-stricken  condition,  the  soils  are 
generally  well  adapted  to  the  growing  of  field,  garden,  and  fruit  crops,  and 
nuts.  Among  the  fruits  which  may  be  successfully  grown  are  apples,  pears, 
plums,  grapes,  figs,  strawberries,  blackberries,  mulberries,  and  pomegranates. 
The  clay  soils  are  said  to  need  drainage  especially,  and  deep  cultivation  and 
the  addition  of  vegetable  matter  are  suggested  for  all  the  types. 

The  gullied  lands  of  west  Tennessee,  A.  H.  Ptjrdue  (Resources  Tenn.,  S 
(1913),  No.  3,  pp.  119-136,  figs.  8).— Attention  is  called  to  the  enormous  annual 
waste  from  soil  wash  in  western  Tennessee.  The  tendency  of  the  soils  of  that 
locality  to  wash  is  attributed  to  the  fact  that  they  are  loose  and  sandy  and 
contain  more  or  less  clay.  The  conditions  favorable  for  rapid  wash  of  sand 
clay  soils  are  stated  to  be  steep  slopes,  rapid  rainfall,  and  absence  of  vegetation. 

Deep,  close  plowing,  parallel  to  the  contours  and  turning  of  the  soil  down 
hill,  are  urged  as  measures  for  preventing  wash.  It  is  pointed  out  that  the 
existence  of  gullies  in  fields  causes  the  ground  water  level  to  sink  beyond  the 
reach  of  plants  and  also  tends  to  leach  out  and  drain  away  soluble  soil  constitu- 
ents and  fertilizerg.     To  prevent  this  and  to  check  the  spread  of  wash  it  is 


20  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

suggested  that  the  mouths  and  heads  of  gullies  be  filled  with  logs,  brush,  briars, 
and  grass. 

It  is  stated  that  all  of  the  waste  lands  of  western  Tennessee  can  be  reclaimed 
for  one  of  three  purposes,  namely,  agriculture,  pasture,  or  timber. 

The  sulphur  content  of  some  typical  Kentucky  soils,  O.  M.  Shedd  {Kcji- 
tucky  Sta.  Bui.  174,  pp.  269-306). — Examinations  of  representative  samples  of 
soil  from  the  various  geological  areas  in  the  State  indicate  that  constant  culti- 
vation without  manuring  has  resulted,  in  some  cases,  in  a  very  large  loss  of 
sulphur  as  compared  with  the  amounts  in  corresponding  virgin  soil.  This  was 
true  of  both  surface  soils  and  subsoils.  As  a  rule,  the  better  agricultural  areas 
showed  a  higher  content  of  both  sulphur  and  phosphorus.  Surface  soils  gen- 
erally contained  more  sulphur  than  the  corresponding  subsoils. 

The  general  conclusion  is  that  any  system  of  soil  maintenance  which  does  not 
include  the  addition  of  sulphur  in  some  form  will  probably  prove  a  failure. 

Analysis  of  coconut  soils,  J.  de  Verteuil  (Dept.  Agr.  Trinidad  and  To'bago 
Bui.,  11  {1912),  No.  11,  pp.  i84--?86).— Results  of  analyses  of  11  samples  of 
soils  on  which  coconuts  were  being  grown  are  reported  and  briefly  discussed. 
The  soils  are  fairly  heavy  clays,  the  proportion  of  clay  increasing  with  the 
depth.  An  attempt  is  made  to  correlate  the  health  and  vigor  of  the  coconut 
palms  with  the  available  plant  food  in  the  soil,  but  without  conclusive  results. 

Some  Lybian  soils,  A.  Maugini  {Agr.  Colon.  [Italy],  7  {1913),  No.  .9,  pp. 
821-332). — Mechanical,  physico-chemical,  partial  chemical,  and  mineralogical 
analyses  were  made  of  six  samples  of  soil,  three  of  which  were  taken  from  in- 
terior oases  and  three  from  dry  stream  beds  in  the  Lybian  Desert. 

The  substrata  of  the  oases,  although  they  are  widely  separated,  were  iden- 
tical, consisting  of  variegated  clay  marl  alternating  with,  streaks  of  silicious 
limestone.  The  substrata  of  the  dry  stream  beds  were  composed  of  alluvial 
earth  derived  from  the  disintegration  of  the  limestones  and  marls  which  formed 
the  original  stream  bed. 

The  vegetation  of  the  oases  consisted  of  date  palms,  cereals,  legumes,  olives, 
figs,  pomegranates,  cotton,  tobacco,  and  barley.  That  of  the  dry  stream  beds 
consisted  of  several  tropical  plants,  common  Bermuda  grass,  and  a  kind  of 
legume. 

The  soils  examined  varied  in  color  from  reddish  gray  to  dark  brown  and  were 
found  to  be  either  slightly  alkaline  or  neutral.  They  belong  in  general  to  the 
category  of  loose  soils,  being  often  deficient  in  grit  and  composed  mainly  of 
small  particles,  although  the  content  of  impalpably  fine  particles  is  small. 
To  this  is  attributed  the  small  water-holding  capacity  and  permeability  of 
these  soils. 

The  soils  contained  a  relative  abundance  of  potash,  very  little  of  which, 
however,  was  in  a  form  to  be  available  for  plants.  Organic  matter  and  conse- 
quently nitrogen  and  also  phosphoric  acid  were  insuflBcient  in  both  quantity  and 
availability.  Mineralogically  all  the  soils  with  the  exception  of  one  stream  bed 
sample  had  essentially  the  same  composition,  quartz  incrusted  with  iron  oxid 
predominating  in  the  fine  earth.  The  greatest  difference  in  the  soils  from  the 
two  sources  was  in  the  quantity  of  carbonates,  which  was  small  in  the  oasis 
soils  and  large  in  the  stream  bed  soils. 

The  fine  earth  in  the  oasis  soils  was  largely  sandy  material  while  in  the  dry 
stream  bed  soils  it  was  largely  clay.  The  structure  of  the  dry  stream  bed  soils 
is  deemed  the  better  of  the  two.  A  comparison  of  these  interior  oasis  soils 
with  those  of  coastal  oases  leads  to  the  conclusion  that  they  are  from  a  common 
origin. 


SOILS FERTILIZERS.  21 

The  alkaline  soils  in  Egypt  and  their  treatment,  V.  M.  Mossfiei  {Bui.  Inst. 
Egyptien,  5.  ser.,  5  {1911),  No.  1,  pp.  5S-79). — An  examination  of  unproductive 
soils  in  different  parts  of  Egypt  showed  the  widespread  existence  of  injurious 
alkali,  consisting  principally  of  carbonate,  bicarbonate,  chlorid,  and  sulphate 
of  sodium.  Of  these  the  carbonate  is  considered  the  most  injurious  to  both 
plant  growth  and  the  physical  condition  of  the  soil,  it  being  found  without  ex- 
ception that  unproductive,  compact,  impervious  soils  difficult  to  drain  contained 
sodium  carbonate  in  large  or  small  amounts,  and  also  bicarbonate  in  amounts 
usually  from  two  to  three  times  those  of  the  carbonate.  A  strong  soil  contain- 
ing 0.08  per  ceut  of  sodium  carbonate  is  said  to  be  rendered  absolutely  useless. 
The  bicarbonate  of  sodium,  however,  is  considered  to  be  less  harmful  than  the 
chlorid. 

It  was  demonstrated  that  gypsum  in  proper  amounts,  in  addition  to  overcom- 
ing  the  toxic  effect  of  sodium  carbonate,  corrected  its  effect  on  the  porosity  and 
permeability  of  the  soil.  It  is  concluded  in  general  that  the  gypsum  should  be 
applied  in  double  the  amount  theoretically  required  and  in  two  or  three  treat- 
ments well  distributed  and  well  mixed  with  the  top  layer  of  soil.  A  copious 
irrigation  after  a  treatment  is  said  to  aid  the  chemical  reaction  between  the 
gypsum  and  the  sodium  carbonate,  and  good  drainage  is  considered  indis- 
pensable. 

Tests  of  the  solubility  of  the  local  gypsums  relative  to  fineness  are  recorded, 
the  solvents  used  being  water,  1  per  cent  hydrochloric  acid,  and  one-hundredth 
normal  hydrochloric  acid.  It  is  concluded  that  a  degree  of  fineness  allowing  it 
to  pass  a  sieve  having  34  meshes  per  linear  centimeter  is  sufficient. 

The  movements  of  soil  water  in  an  Eg-yptian  cotton  field,  W.  L.  Balls 
{Jour.  Agr.  Sci.  [England],  5  {1913),  No.  4,  pp.  469-^82,  figs.  7;  abs.  in  Internat. 
Inst.  Agr.  [Romel,  Mo.  Bui.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  4  {1918),  No.  12, 
pp.  184-5-1847). — This  paper  describes  and  discusses  a  series  of  soil  water 
determinations  made  in  a  field  of  cotton  at  Giza,  in  Egypt.  These  were  made 
every  three  or  four  days  alternately  and  at  20  cm.  intervals  down  to  160  cm. 
The  soil  is  alluvial  the  first  30  cm.,  the  next  60  cm.  stiff  clay,  the  next  110  cm. 
loam  to  sandy  loam,  and  below  200  cm.  stiff  clay.  The  rate  of  evaporation  from 
this  field  of  cotton  plants  averaged  about  20  tons  per  acre  of  water  a  day  from 
May  to  October. 

The  chief  conclusions  drawn  from  these  determinations  are  as  follows:  (1) 
The  depth  of  root  may  be  roughly  traced  by  its  drying  effect  on  the  soil,  which 
combined  with  a  change  in  surface  climate  causes  a  reversal  of  the  humidity 
gradient  so  that  deep  soil  is  drier  than  surface  soil  in  September.  (2)  Appli- 
cation of  irrigation  water  to  the  surface  is  evidence  to  an  indefinite  depth  and 
absence  of  such  evidence  is  due  to  imperfection  in  the  method  of  observation. 

(3)  Determination  of  soil  water  content  in  an  Egyptian  cotton  field  by  random 
sampling  is  almost  worthless  unless  due  regard  is  paid  to  the  seasonal  variation. 

(4)  The  water  of  the  water  table  when  within  2  meters  of  the  surface  may  be 
utilized  by  the  crop.  (5)  A  rise  of  the  water  table  is  analogous  to  surface 
Irrigation  and  there  is  some  indication  of  a  direct  hydraulic  thrust  in  both 
cases. 

The  water  balance  and  losses  of  plant  food  in  fallow  loam  and  sandy  soils, 
1905-1912,  C.  VON  Seelhorst  et  al.  (In  Festschrift  zum  siebz^igsten  Gchurt- 
stagc  von  Jacob  Esser.  Berlin,  1913,  pp.  1-27;  Jour.  Landw.,  61  {1913),  No.  S, 
pp.  189-215). — The  investigations  summarized  in  this  article  were  made  in 
vegetation  tanks  of  IJ  cubic  meters  content. 

The  results  show  that  evaporation  was  larger  from  the  loam  than  from  the 
sandy  soil,  each  being  repeatedly  cultivated  each  summer  during  the  period 


22 


EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 


covered  by  the  experiments.     The  losses  of  plant  food  in  the  drainage  were  as 
follows : 

Losses  of  plant  food  in  drainage  icater  from  loam  and  sandy  soils  in  pounds 

per  acre. 


Nitrogen. 

Lime. 

Magnesia. 

Sulphuric  acid. 

Year. 

Sandy 
soU. 

Loam. 

Sandy 
soil. 

Loam. 

Sandy 
soil. 

Loam. 

Sandy 
soil. 

Loam. 

1908      

Pounds. 
17.4 
19.3 
15.9 
13.8 
61.1 

Pounds 
34.5 
55.1 
60.2 
26.2 
95.0 

Pounds. 
161.3 
235.8 
221.9 
98.3 
377.1 

Pounds. 
212.7 
230.9 
295.5 
115.4 
356.7 

PouTids. 
17.1 
23.8 
21.3 
11.6 
23.6 

Pounds. 
28.5 
41.4 
44.3 
22.2 
52.7 

Pounds. 

88.7 
114.1 
116.0 

55.3 
177.6 

Pounds. 

84.4 

1909                     

101.4 

1910 

148.5 

1911  

42.0 

1912        

164.9 

On  a  new  method  of  measuring  the  capillary  lift  of  soils,  C.  J.  Lynde  and 
H.  A.  Dupii6  (Jour.  Amer.  8oc.  Agron.,  5  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  107-116,  figs.  5).— 
The  apparatus  used  in  the  method  proposed,  which  is  similar  to  that  of  Aske- 
nasy  (E.  S.  R.,  7,  p.  19),  consists  essentially  >f  an  ordinary  glass  funnel  4  cm. 
in  diameter  connected  with  a  thick-walled  capillary  tube  about  90  cm.  long  by 
means  of  a  piece  of  rubber  tubing.  This  joint  is  water  sealed  by  means  of  "  a 
glass  tube,  2  cm.  in  diameter  and  15  cm.  long,  closed  at  the  bottom  with  a  rub- 
ber stopper  through  which  the  capillary  tube  passes.  The  seal  is  filled  with 
water  and  prevents  air  from  entering  about  the  rubber  tube." 

In  using  this  apparatus  a  6-gm.  sample  of  soil  is  allowed  to  stand  over  night 
in  water.  It  is  then  boiled  for  a  short  time  to  expel  air.  The  funnel  is  fitted 
with  a  cotton  cloth  filter  2  cm.  in  diameter.  A  cup  of  a  centrifuge  is  filled  with 
distilled  water  previously  boiled  to  expel  the  air  and  the  funnel  with  its  filter 
is  placed  in  the  cup,  being  supported  by  the  rim  of  the  cup.  Part  of  the  hot 
mixture  of  soil  and  water  is  poured  into  the  funnel  and  the  soil  is  settled  by 
centrifuging.  This  process  is  repeated  with  more  soil  and  water  until  the  soil 
is  well  above  the  edge  of  the  cloth  filter.  The  capillary  tube  with  the  rubber 
tube  attached  is  then  filled  with  water  previously  boiled  to  expel  air,  and  the 
funnel  is  inserted  in  the  rubber  tube,  care  being  taken  in  doing  this  not  to  allow 
air  to  enter  the  funnel  or  tube  and  to  avoid  disturbing  the  soil.  The  lower  end  of 
the  capillary  tube  is  placed  in  a  cup  of  mercury  and  the  water  seal  is  filled 
with  boiled  distilled  water.  When  evaporation  sets  in  from  the  surface  of  the 
soil  in  the  funnel  the  mercury  rises  in  the  capillary  tube  and  the  maximum 
capillary  lift  is  found  by  multiplying  the  length  of  the  mercury  column  in  centi- 
meters by  13.6  and  adding  the  length  in  centimeters  of  the  water  column  from 
the  top  of  the  mercury  column  to  the  middle  of  the  soil  layer. 

The  advantages  claimed  for  this  method  are  that  the  moisture  moves  through 
a  very  short  column  of  wet  soil,  reducing  friction  to  a  minimum;  the  time 
required  to  make  a  measurement  is  greatly  reduced ;  and  the  final  measurement 
is  a  fairly  accurate  index  of  the  capillary  lift  of  the  soil,  being  approximately 
three  times  that  measured  by  the  old  method.  By  this  method  the  capillary 
lift  of  soil  constituents  was  found  to  be  greater  the  finer  the  grains,  and  a  com- 
parison of  the  calculated  and  observed  lifts  showed  that  the  observed  lifts  fell 
between  the  calculated  limits  in  every  case  except  that  of  clay.  The  capillary 
lift  of  clay  was  measured  under  pressures  equal  to,  gi*eater  than,  and  less  than 
one  atmosphere,  and  the  results  showed  that  the  capillary  lift  observed  by  this 
method  is  limited  by  the  pressure  of  the  atmosphere  and  that,  therefore,  the 
maYlmnm  lift  under  a  pressure  of  one  atmosphere  can  not  exceed  34  ft. 


u- 


SOILS FERTILIZERS.  23 


On  osmosis  in  soils:  The  efficiency  of  the  soil  constituents  as  semiperme- 
able membranes,  C.  J.  Lynde  and  H.  A.  Dupr6  {Jour.  Avier.  Soc.  Agron.,  5 
(.1913),  No.  2,  pp.  102-106,  figs.  2). — In  continuation  of  previous  investigations 
(E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  124)  experiments  made  with  medium  sand,  fine  sand,  very  fine 
sand,  silt,  clay,  and  fine  clay  for  the  purpose  of  comparing  the  efficiencies  of 
these  soil  constituents  as  semipermeable  membranes  showed  that  for  the  solu- 
tion used  (clay  subsoil  solution)  the  sands  did  not  act  as  semipermeable  mem- 
brane, but  that  the  silt,  clay,  and  fine  clay  did  so  act.  The  conclusion  is  drawn 
that  the  finer  the  soil  grains  in  a  soil  constituent  the  greater  is  the  efficiency 
of  the  soil  constituent  as  a  semipermeable  membrane. 

The  method  and  apparatus  used  are  described. 

The  action  of  hydroxyl  ions  on  clay  and  clay  soils  in  connection  with 
marling-,  P.  Rohland  (Landw.  Jahrh.,  44  {191S),  No.  3,  pp.  437-440). — The 
hydroxyl  ions  of  calcium  and  other  hydroxids  act  upon  the  clay  of  soil,  form- 
ing and  flocculating  colloid  substances.  This  effect  is  greatest  the  first  time 
clays  and  clay  soils  are  subjected  to  the  action  of  the  ions  and  diminishes 
when  the  action  is  repeated  until  the  clay  particles  lose  the  property  of  forming 
colloids.     This  is  said  to  explain  the  diminishing  effect  of  repeated  liming. 

The  properties  of  so-called  soil  zeolites,  E.  Blanck  (Fuhling\s  Landw.  Ztg., 
62  (1913),  No.  16,  pp.  560-581). — The  principal  results  of  investigations  bearing 
on  this  subject  are  summarized,  indicating  the  lack  of  exact  information  as  to 
the  so-called  zeolites  of  the  soil.  These  are  shown  to  be  in  no  sense  equivalent 
to  the  mineral  zeolite  but  may  be  more  properly  designated  simply  as  adsorptive 
gel  mixtures  of  indefinite  and  variable  mineralogical  and  chemical  composition. 

Factors  in  the  maintenance  of  permanent  fertility  of  the  soil,  E.  O.  Fippin 
(Jour.  Amer.  Soc.  Agron.,  5  (1913),  No.  1,  pp.  46-49,  fig.  i).— A  diagram  in  the 
form  of  a  monument  is  presented  which  "  is  made  up  of  the  general  practices 
available  for  improving  the  soil  put  together  according  to  their  functional 
relations  and  in  the  order  of  their  range  of  influence."  The  foundation  of 
this  diagram  is  the  proper  regulation  of  soil  moisture,  involving  drainage  and 
irrigation.  Lime  in  the  form  of  free  lime  carbonate  constitutes  the  second 
course.  Organic  matter,  chiefly  in  the  form  of  humus,  forms  the  third  course. 
Tillage  in  its  various  forms  constitutes  the  fourth  course,  and  plant  food  in  the 
form  of  fertilizers  is  placed  last  with  the  elements,  phosphorus,  sulphur,  nitrogen, 
and  potassium,  arranged  in  the  order  in  which  they  are  most  likely  to  be  needed. 

The  agricultural  utilization  of  acid  lands  by  means  of  acid-tolerant  crops, 
F.  V.  CoviLLE  {U.  8.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  6,  pp.  13). — The  essential  features  of  this 
paper  have  already  been  noted  from  another  source  (E.  S.  R.,  p.  814).  The 
points  emphasized  as  of  special  importance  to  agricultural  investigators  are 
"(1)  that  soil  acidity  is  not  always  an  objectionable  condition  which  invariably 
requires  an  application  of  lime,  (2)  that  under  certain  economic  conditions  a 
complete  system  of  acid-land  agriculture  is  practicable  and  desirable,  and 
(3)  that  the  extent  to  which  our  cheap  eastern  acid  lands  can  be  utilized  with 
small  applications  of  lime,  or  under  some  conditions  without  its  use.  is  a  legiti- 
mate and  important  subject  for  detailed  investigation,  from  which  may  reason- 
ably be  expected  results  of  far-reaching  economic  importance."' 

Formation  of  nitrates  in  soil  after  freezing  and  thawing-,  T.  L.  Lyon  and 
J.  A.  BizzELL  {Jour.  Amer.  Soc.  Agron.,  5  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  45,  46). — Four  pots 
of  soil,  two  containing  Volusia  silt  loam  and  two  Dunkirk  clay  loam  soil  on 
which  had  been  raised  a  crop  of  wheat  and  one  of  millet  were  used  in  these 
experiments.  One  pot  of  each  kind  of  soil  was  subjected  to  freezing  and  thaw- 
ing and  the  other  two  were  kept  at  a  temperature  above  50°  F. 

The  determination  of  nitrates  in  these  soils  after  this  treatment  showed  that 
freezing  had  produced  a  condition  of  soil  favorable  for  nitrate  formation.  This 
25842°— No.  1—14 3 


24  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

is  attributed  to  the  effect  or  xreezing  in  overcoming  the  depressing  influence  of 
the  crops  previously  grown. 

The  accumulation  of  green  manure  nitrog-en  in  sandy  soils,  C.  von  Seel- 
HOEST  ET  AL.  (Avb.  Deut.  Landw.  OeselL,  1913,  No.  241,  pp.  W,  pis.  20).— A 
summary  of  the  results  of  6  years'  experiments  in  vegetation  tanks,  here  re- 
ported in  detail,  has  previously  been  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  20,  p.  224). 

Manures  and  fertilizers,  H.  J.  Wheeler  (New  York,  1913,  pp.  XXI-{-589, 
pi.  1,  figs.  62). — This  is  the  ninth  volume  in  The  Rural  Text-book  Series,  edited 
by  L.  H.  Bailey. 

The  author  states  that  "  the  preparation  of  this  volume  was  undertaken 
for  the  purpose  of  meeting  a  distinct  lack  in  collegiate  agricultural  text- 
books in  the  United  States.  It  was  hoped  to  prepare  a  book  reasonably 
free  from  extended  details,  such' as  are  found  in  certain  of  the  larger  foreign 
works,  and  likewise  to  avoid  the  rather  superficial  treatment  of  the  subjects 
which  has  necessarily  characterized  many  of  the  books  which  have  been  writ- 
ten for  the  purpose  of  meeting  the  earlier  requirements  of  the  American  agri- 
cultural colleges,  and  the  present  demands  of  agricultural  high  schools.  The 
intent  has  been  to  provide  in  a  measure  for  the  needs  of  the  graduate  student 
in  agriculture;  also  for  the  requirements  of  students  in  the  agricultural  col- 
leges, teachers  in  agricultural  schools,  graduates  of  agricultural  schools  and 
colleges,  agricultural  institute  lecturers,  and  the  rapidly  increasing  number  of 
intelligent  men  who  are  daily  interesting  themselves  in  the  scientific  phases  of 
modem  farming." 

In  a  historical  introduction  the  author  gives  in  a  few  pages  a  summary  of 
the  major  steps  in  the  scientific  development  of  the  use  of  manures  and  fer- 
tilizers. Then  follow  chapters  dealing  with  night  soil;  the  dung  of  farm 
animals  and  its  preservation;  the  organisms  and  fermentation  of  dung;  the 
practical  utilization  of  manures;  sea  weeds;  guanos;  fish,  crab,  lobster,  and 
similar  wastes;  common  slaughter-house  nitrogenous  waste  products;  other 
miscellaneous  nitrogenous  substances;  the  availability  of  organic  nitrogen  and 
factors  affecting  it ;  calcium  and  potassium  nitrates ;  nitrate  of  soda ;  ammonium 
salts  and  calcium  cyanamid;  natural  phosphatic  fertilizers;  manufactured 
phosphates  and  studies  of  solubility ;  potassic  fertilizers ;  the  theory  and  prac- 
tice of  potash  fertilization ;  lime  and  its  relation  to  soils  and  fertilizers ;  liming 
in  its  relation  to  plants;  gypsum  and  waste  lime  from  industries;  magnesia  as 
a  fertilizer;  sodium  salts;  iron  and  manganese;  and  chlorin,  sulphur,  silica, 
carbon  disulphid,  toluene,  and  other  miscellaneous  substances. 

In  the  discussion  of  many  important  features  of  the  subject  the  author  has 
drawn  freely  upon  the  results  of  his  ovm  well-known  investigations  relating 
to  plant  nutrition  and  soil  requirements  at  the  Rhode  Island  Experiment  Sta- 
tion because,  as  he  observes,  "  he  can  speak  of  these  results  in  a  more  authori- 
tative way  than  of  work  done  elsewhere,"  and  because  "  the  work  has  been, 
in  some  respects,  of  a  pioneer  character,  and  has  not  been  duplicated." 

Some  of  the  subjects  which  are  perhaps  more  fully  treated  than  in  most 
text-books  of  this  kind  are  guano  and  human  excrement  (largely  historical)  ; 
seaweed  (not,  however,  dealing  with  the  recent  exploitation  of  Pacific  coast 
seaweeds  as  a  source  of  potash)  ;  the  bacterial  changes  in  animal  excrements; 
the  relative  availability  of  nitrogenous  manures;  the  relative  value  (especially 
cumulative  and  indirect  effects)  of  nitrates  and  ammonium  salts;  the  new 
synthetic  nitrogenous  fertilizers — calcium  cyanamid  and  calcium  nitrate;  and 
the  function  in  soil  improvement  and  plant  growth  of  lime,  magnesia,  soda, 
manganese,  and  various  catalytic  fertilizers. 
The  book  is  well  indexed. 


SOILS — FBBTILIZERS.  25 

Experiments  with  fertilizers,  manure,  lime,  and  floats,  C.  E,  Thobne  and 
E.  MoHN  (Ofiio  Sta.  Bui.  260,  pp.  405-448,  figs.  5). — This  is  a  report  on  experi- 
ments at  the  northeastern  test  farm  of  the  Ohio  Station  at  Strongsville. 

''These  experiments,  which  are  still  in  progress,  were  begun  in  1895  on  a 
cold,  heavy  clay,  lying  over  compact,  argillaceous  shales.  Part  of  the  land  had 
been  in  pasture  for  many  years  before  the  experiments  were  begun,  and  part 
under  tillage. 

"  Wherever  phosphorus  has  been  applied  on  this  land,  whether  carried  in  acid 
phosphate,  bone  meal,  or  raw  phosphate  rock,  it  has  produced  a  profitable 
increase  of  crop. 

"  Nitrogen  and  potassium,  while  increasing  the  crop,  have  produced  a  smaller 
effect  than  phosphorus,  especially  In  the  earlier  years  of  the  work.  During 
more  recent  years  there  has  been  a  slowly  increasing  effect  from  these  elements. 

"  While  nitrate  of  soda  and  muriate  of  potash  have  been  used  at  a  loss,  the 
fact  that  the  largest  yields  of  crops  have  been  harvested  only  when  the  fertilizer 
has  carried  nitrogen  and  potassium  in  some  form  indicates  the  necessity  of 
supplying  these  elements  in  some  cheaper  carrier  than  chemicals. 

''  For  eight  years  several  brands  of  factory  mixed  fertilizers  were  compared 
with  home  mixtures  of  equivalent  composition,  made  of  tankage,  acid  phosphate, 
and  muriate  of  potash.  The  outcome  of  this  test  was  a  greater  increase  of 
crop  from  the  home  mixtures  than  from  the  factory  mixtures  in  every  case, 
while  the  cost  of  the  home  mixtures  was  much  less  than  that  of  the  factory 
mixtures. 

"Acid  phosphate  and  steamed  bone  meal  have  been  the  most  effective  carriers 
of  phosphorus.  Apparently  there  has  been  very  little  difference  in  effectiveness 
between  the  pound  of  '  available '  phosphorus  in  acid  phosphate  and  the  pound 
of  total  phosphorus  in  steamed  bone  meal. 

"  Steamed  bone  meal  has  been  more  effective  than  raw  bone  meal,  a  result 
which  may  have  been  due  in  part  to  the  finer  grinding  of  the  steamed  meal  and 
in  part  to  the  low  effect  of  nitrogenous  fertilizers  on  this  soil. 

"  Raw  phosphate  rock  appears  to  have  been  effective  in  proportion  to  the 
'available'  phosphorus  contained.  When  applied  at  the  rate  of  2,000  lbs.  per 
acre  every  five  years,  raw  phosphate  rock  has  produced  a  greater  increase  in 
the  cereal  crops  than  raw  limestone  in  twice  that  quantity.  In  the  earlier 
experiments  clover  was  benefited  by  the  phosphate  rock,  but  in  more  recent 
years  the  clover  has  failed  on  the  phosphated  land,  though  growing  with  increas- 
ing luxuriance  on  that  receiving  limestone. 

"As  a  direct  application  to  the  land,  therefore,  acid  phosphate  and  steamed 
bone  meal  have  been  found  to  be  more  economical  sources  of  phosphorus  than 
raw  phosphate  rock. 

"  Lime  is  as  urgently  needed  on  this  land  as  phosphorus,  it  having  become 
practically  impossible  to  grow  clover  until  lime  has  been  applied,  no  matter 
how  thoroughly  the  land  was  manured  or  fertilized." 

The  preservation  of  cattle  manure  (Planters'  Chron.,  8  (1913),  No.  43, 
pp.  550-552). — Comparative  tests  on  a  rotation  of  crops  of  deep  stall  manure 
and  manure  preserved  in  pits  and  heaps  with  and  without  addition  of  loam  soil 
are  briefly  reported.  These  indicated  that  for  the  shallow-rooted  crops  the  best 
results  were  obtained  with  the  manure  containing  the  largest  amount  of 
organic  matter,  the  effect  being  due  largely  to  the  mechanical  condition  of  the 
manure  rather  than  to  its  relative  percentage  of  fertilizing  constituents. 

The  deep  stall  manure  contained  on  the  basis  of  dry  matter  56.9  per  cent  of 
organic  matter,  the  pit  manure  45.01  per  cent,  and  ordinary  heap  manure  38.87 
per  cent. 


26  EXPERIMENT  STATION   RECOED. 

The  effects  of  fertilizers  other  than  that  of  adding  plant  food,  L.  L.  Van 
Slyke  {Cornell ,  Countryman ,  11  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  51-53). — This  article  dis- 
cusses briefly  certain  secondary  aud  subsidiary  effects  of  sodium  nitrate,  am- 
monium sulphate,  superphosphate,  potassium  chlorid,  and  potassium  sulphate 
when  applied  as  fertilizers.  These  arc  cited  as  examples  "  to  illustrate  the  fact 
that,  in  applying  commercial  fertilizers  to  the  soils,  some  account  must  be  taken 
of  the  effects  other  than  those  of  supplying  plant  food.  If  this  is  not  done,  not 
only  may  the  applied  plant  food  fail  to  produce  the  desired  effect  but  even  act 
injuriously." 

The  nitrogen  content  of  night  soil  from  the  city  of  Florence,  N.  Passerini 
{Atti  R.  Accad.  Econ.  Agr.  Georg.  Firenze,  5.  ser.,  10  {1913),  No.  4^  pp.  553- 
360;  Bol.  1st.  Agr.  Scaridicci,  2.  ser.,  7  {1913),  No.  4,  pp.  315-322) .—Analyses  of 
a  number  of  samples  of  both  solid  and  liquid  material  are  reported. 

Tests  of  the  agricultural  value  of  the  nitrogen  of  "  Poudro ",  M.  de 
MoLiNAEi  and  O.  Ligot  {Ann.  Gemhloux,  23  {1913),  No.  11,  pp.  537-544,  figs. 
2). — "Poudro"  is  a  fertilizer  prepared  from  household  garbage  and  contains, 
according  to  the  analyses  reported,  from  0.39  to  0.84  per  cent  of  nitrogen  and 
somewhat  smaller  amounts  of  phosphoric  acid  and  potash.  In  pot  experiments 
with  oats  on  clay  soil  and  sand  its  nitrogen  appeared  to  be  quite  active  as 
compared  with  that  of  ammonium  sulphate. 

The  production  of  artificial  fertilizing  materials  from  the  nitrogen  of  the 
air,  A.  Bencki:  {Die  Erzeugung  kunstUcher  Diingemittel  mit  Luftstickstoff. 
Vienna  and  Leipsic,  1913,  pp.  VII-\-204,  figs.  58). — The  various  processes  pro- 
posed for  this  purpose  are  fully  described  and  discussed,  as  is  the  industrial 
value  of  the  products. 

How  can  the  dusty  condition  of  lime  nitrogen  be  lessened?  A.  Stutzeb 
{Deut.  Landiv.  Presse,  40  {1913),  No.  84,  pp.  1002,  1003).— It  was  found  that 
lime  nitrogen  mixed  with  from  10  to  15  per  cent  of  ground  bog  iron  ore  kept 
for  7  months  in  good  mechanical  condition  and  without  loss  of  fertilizing  value. 

On  the  decrease  of  available  phosphoric  acid  in  mixed  fertilizers  contain- 
ing acid  phosphate  and  calcium  cyanamid,  R.  N.  Brackett  et  al.  {Jour. 
Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.,  5  {1913),  No.  11,  pp.  933-935). — In  the  experiments 
reported  in  this  article  it  was  found  that  there  was  a  gradual  increase  of  insolu- 
ble phosphoric  acid  in  mixtures  of  cyanamid  and  acid  phosphate.  The  experi- 
ence of  fertilizer  manufacturers  and  the  results  of  fertilizer  inspection  indicate 
the  same  thing,  viz,  that  the  mixing  of  cyanamid  with  acid  phosphate  will  injure 
the  fertilizer  from  the  farmer's  standpoint,  and  that  if  a  considerable  amount 
of  the  cyanamid  is  used  in  the  mixture  the  fertilizer  will  be  found  on  inspection 
to  be  decidedly  deficient  in  available  phosphoric  acid. 

Fertilizer  analysis,  E.  A.  Mitscheelich  and  W.  Simmermacheb  {Landw. 
Jahrb.,  43  {1912),  No.  S,  pp.  405-435;  a'bs.  in  Jour.  Chem.  8oc.  [London],  104 
{1913),  No.  609,  I,  p.  812;  Chem.  ZentU.,  1913,  I,  No.  18,  pp.  1627,  1628).— In 
experiments  with  various  phosphates  on  oats  not  only  the  yield  but  the  phos- 
phorus content  of  the  crop  followed  the  law  of  minimum  as  theoretically  for- 
mulated by  the  author.  The  latter,  therefore,  proposes  that  the  results  of  de- 
terminations of  phosphoric  acid  soluble  in  a  saturated  solution  of  carbon  dioxid 
be  correlated  directly  with  yields  and  not  with  the  phosphorus  content. 

The  different  phosphates  behaved  very  differently.  With  monocalcium  phos- 
phate there  was  an  excess  {luxus)  consumption  of  phosphorus  by  the  plant 
which  is  measured  by  the  water  solubility  of  the  phosphate.  The  saturation 
concentration  of  the  carbon  dioxid  solution  with  phosphate  was  dependent  upon 
the  temperature.  The  temperature  of  saturation  must  be  kept  as  nearly  as 
possible  the  same  as  that  under  which  the  plants  grow  in  order  that  comparable 
results  may  be  obtained.    The  author  adopted  15*  C.  as  most  nearly  meeting 


SOILS — FERTILIZERS.  27 

this  requirement.  Of  course  seasonal  variations  make  close  approximations 
in  this  respect  impossible,  but  the  actual  differences  due  to  this  factor  are 
thought  to  be  comparatively  small. 

A  report  on  the  phosphate  fields  of  South  Carolina,  W.  H.  Waggaman 
(U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  18,  pp.  12,  pis.  S,  fig.  i).— The  history  of  these  deposits 
is  briefly  reviewed  and  their  location,  extent,  character,  and  exploitation  are 
described.  "The  phosphate  region  lies  along  the  coast  in  a  belt  extending 
from  the  Wando  River,  in  Charleston  County,  to  the  Broad  River,  in  Beaufort 
County.  The  rock  is  of  Tertiary  age  and  is  usually  divided  into  two  classes, 
namely,  the  land  deposits  and  the  river  deposits.  These  classes,  however,  are 
practically  identical,  the  latter  being  merely  the  former  washed  into  the  river 
beds.  .  .  . 

"  With  the  exhaustion  of  the  more  accessible  deposits  and  the  discovery  of 
higher  grade  phosphates  in  Florida  and  Tennessee,  the  output  from  South 
Carolina  has  fallen  off  considerably.  River  mining  has  entirely  ceased,  and 
only  two  companies  are  mining  the  land  rock.  The  total  output  in  1911  was 
169,156  tons.  .  .  . 

"  The  general  opinion  has  been  that  the  phosphates  of  South  Carolina  are 
practically  exhausted.  This  is  far  from  being  the  case.  There  are  thousands 
of  acres  of  rich  phosphate  land  still  practically  untouched.  Although  the 
phosphate  on  much  of  this  property  is  covered  by  a  heavy  overburden,  more 
efficient  mining  methods  and  improved  market  and  transportation  conditions 
would  render  it  all  available." 

Thomas  slag,  its  preparation  and  use,  J.  P.  Wagneb  (Monatsher.  Gesell. 
Ford.  Wiss.,  Ackerb.  u.  Kiinste  Unter-Elsass,  lf(  {191S),  No.  S,  pp.  126-168, 
figs.  27). — The  process  of  manufacture  of  Thomas  slag  is  described  in  some 
detail,  and  its  use  as  a  fertilizer  is  discussed. 

Analyses  of  Thomas  slag  from  different  sources,  H.  von  Feilitzen  and 
I.  LuGNER  iChem.  Ztg.,  57  {191S),  No.  68,  pp.  689,  650).— Analyses  of  a  number 
of  samples  of  Thomas  slag  are  reported,  showing  a  much  smaller  content  of 
free  lime  than  is  indicated  by  the  older  anlyses.  There  was  no  great  variation 
in  the  composition  of  slag  from  different  sources. 

Kelp  and  other  sources  of  potash,  F.  K.  Cameron  {Jour.  Franklin  Inst., 
116  (1918),  No.  4,  pp.  S41f-S8S,  figs.  i5).— This  article  discusses  briefly  other 
sources  of  potash,  but  deals  in  detail  with  the  utilization  of  the  Pacific  coast 
kelps  for  this  purpose.  The  more  important  species  of  kelps  from  the  ferti- 
lizer standpoint,  the  location  and  extent  of  the  kelp  groves,  the  composition  and 
fertilizing  value  of  kelp,  and  methods  of  harvesting  and  handling  the  material 
are  described.  Data  are  also  given  as  to  the  present  status  and  future  possi- 
bilities of  the  kelp  industry  on  the  Pacific  coast. 

Lime,  B.  H.  Hite  {West  Virginia  Sta.  Circ.  6,  pp.  16,  figs.  S). — This  circular 
discusses  in  a  popular  way  the  effects  of  lime  on  the  soil  and  gives  Information 
as  to  how  it  may  be  obtained  and  used. 

On  the  influence  of  the  ratio  of  lime  to  magnesia  on  plants,  O.  Loew  {Jour. 
Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.,  5  {1918),  No.  11,  pp.  959,  560).— This  is  a  reply  to  an 
article  by  Gile  and  Ageton  already  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  812). 

Is  silica  an  indispensable  constituent  of  plant  food?  M.  Lundie  {So. 
African  Jour.  Sci.,  9  {1913),  No.  10,  pp.  265-268).— Earlier  investigations  on 
this  subject  are  briefly  reviewed  and  water  culture  experiments  by  the  author 
are  reported.  The  results  of  the  latter  indicated  that  silica  is  not  essential  as 
a  plant  food,  but  suggested  that  when  deposited  in  the  cell  membrane  and  in  the 
epidermis  of  the  plant  it  might  afford  a  certain  protection  against  fungus 
disease  (rust). 


28  BXPEEIMENT  STATION   EECOBD. 

Commercial  fertilizers,  J.  S.  bItrd  {California  8ta.  Bui.  240,  pp.  55).— Analy- 
ses and  Valuations  of  fertilizers  inspected  during  tlie  year  ended  June  30,  1913, 
are  reported,  and  a  list  of  registered  fertilizer  manufacturers  and  dealers  in 
California  for  the  year  beginning  July  1,  1912,  is  given.  It  is  estimated  that 
the  sale  of  fertilizers  in  the  State  during  the  year  ended  June  30,  1912,  was 
50,955  tons.  The  indications  are  that  the  consumption  during  the  year  ended 
June  30,  1913,  was  much  less  than  this. 

AGRICTJLTTJRAL  BOTANY. 

On  the  chemical  org-anization  of  the  cell,  W.  Ruhland  {Biol.  CentU,,  SS 
{1913),  No.  6,  pp.  337-351). — Continuing  work  noted  in  a  previous  report  on  the 
permeability  of  the  living  plasma  membranes  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  37)  the  author 
here  discusses  the  relation  of  the  facts  observed  to  the  views  of  other  investi- 
gators, a  number  of  which  are  discussed. 

The  significance  of  the  character  of  the  electrical  charge  for  the  passage 
of  colloids  through  the  plasma  membrane,  W.  Ruhland  {Ber.  Deut.  Bot. 
Gescll.,  31  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  304-310). — Continuing  the  work  noted  above,  the 
author  states  that  no  difference  was  established  between  acid  and  basic  color- 
ing matters  as  to  conditions  and  rapidity  of  passage  through  living  plasma 
membranes.  Transpiration  rate  and  electrical  character  have  not  been  shown 
to  be  influential  as  regards  rapidity  of  passage,  and  widely  different  plants 
show  like  behavior  in  these  respects.  These  facts  are  held  to  support  the  au- 
thor's view  regarding  the  plasma  membrane  as  an  ultra-filter. 

Investigations  on  the  fermentation  of  some  cyclic  series  compounds  and 
the  formation  of  the  black  material  of  humus,  A.  Perkier  {Ann  Sci.  Agron., 
4.  ser.,  2  {1913),  I,  Nos.  5,  pp.  321-350;  6,  pp.  455-470).— The  author  presents  the 
results  of  a  study  on  the  aerobic  fermentation  of  bt^nzoic,  oxybenzoic,  and  phenic 
acids,  and  the  role  of  cyclic  compounds  in  the  formation  of  the  black  coloring 
matter  of  manures  and  humus. 

It  was  found  that  the  cyclic  compounds,  particularly  benzoic  acid,  which  is 
rather  widely  distributed  in  the  animal  and  vegetable  kingdom,  serve  as  nutri- 
ents for  a  large  number  of  micro-organisms  which  are  abundant  in  the  soil. 

A  detailed  study  of  the  biochemical  phenomena  showed  that  benzoic  acid  is 
oxidized  by  Bacillus  pyocyaneus  and  a  number  of  other  related  organisms  in  a 
neutral  medium  to  a  black  coloring  material  analogous  to  that  in  humus.  The 
formation  of  this  coloring  matter  is  not  considered  due  to  tyrosinase,  but  should 
be  rather  compared  to  that  which  is  produced  in  the  oxidation  of  polyphenols, 
notably  pyrogallol  in  an  alkaline  medium.  This  would  indicate  that  the  oxida- 
tion is  brought  about  by  the  aid  of  an  oxidase,  but  the  author  was  unable  to 
demonstrate  the  presence  of  a  diastase  associated  with  the  phenomenon. 

In  the  second  part  of  the  paper  an  account  is  given  of  an  extended  study  of 
the  formation  of  the  coloring  matter  of  manure  and  humus,  which  in  every 
case  is  attributed  to  the  oxidation  in  an  alkaline  medium  of  cyclic  compounds 
contained  in  the  manure  or  in  plant  materials  in  the  process  of  decomposition. 

A  brief  bibliography  is  appended. 

The  necessity  of  a  bacterial  association  for  the  development  of  a  myxo- 
bacterium,  Chondromyces  crocatus,  B.  Pinoy  {Compt.  Rend.  Acad.  Sci.  IParis}, 
157  {1915),  No.  1,  pp.  77,  78).— The  author  concludes  from  a  study  of  G.  crocatus 
that  this  organism  is  not  able  to  accomplish  its  development  apart  from  its 
association  with  a  particular  bacterium  which  is  described  and  said  to  be  closely 
allied  to  Micrococcus  latens. 

A  mud  sucking  device  for  obtaining  soil  microflora  and  microfauna,  B. 
Pebfyl'ev  {Izv.  Imp.  St.  Peterb.  Bot.  Soda  {Bui.  Jard.  Imp.  Bot.  St.  Petersb.), 


AGRICULTURAL   BOTANY.  29 

13  (1918),  No.  1-2  pp.  J^l-Sl,  figs.  2). — Figures  and  a  description  are  given  of 
a  convenient  and  cleanly  device  for  obtaining  mud  and  similar  material  in  bot- 
tles for  the  study  of  the  contained  life  forms. 

Studies  in  Indian  tobaccos. — III,  The  inheritance  of  characters  in  Nico- 
tiana  tabacum,  Gabbielle  L.  C.  Howard  {Mem.  Dept.  Agr.  India,  Bot.  Ser., 
6  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  25-114,  pls.  25,  fig.  l).—ln  a  previous  paper  (E.  S.  R.,  23, 
p.  537),  an  account  was  given  of  a  study  of  varietal  characters  and  the  isolation 
of  pure  forms  of  tobacco.  In  the  present  contribution  additional  data  are  pre- 
sented relating  to  the  behavior  of  different  strains  in  later  generations. 

In  the  progress  of  the  investigation  it  was  found  that  parthenogenesis  in 
N.  tabacum,  under  the  conditions  of  the  experiment,  is  negligible.  In  all 
characters  except  height,  the  Fi  generation  is  intermediate  between  the  parents. 
The  limits  of  variation  in  the  Fj  generation  have  been  as  great  as  those  of  both 
parents  combined  or  have  exceeded  these  in  both  directions.  Selected  variates 
of  the  Fs  generation  ga^e  cultures  which  differed  in  their  range  of  variation 
from  one  another,  and  often  from  both  parents.  It  was  found  that  while  the 
height  of  tobacco  plants  may  differ  only  slightly,  the  factors  on  which  such 
height  depends  may  be  almost  entirely  different.  The  number  of  leaves  per 
plant  was  not  found  to  depend  on  the  height  of  the  plant,  and  was  also  inde- 
pendent of  the  environment.  A  distinct  segregation  was  observed  as  regards 
the  arrangement  of  the  leaves  on  the  stem.  The  author  states  that  the  most 
suitable  leaves  for  measurements  arv.  those  occurring  in  the  center  of  the  plant, 
and  that  venation  of  the  leaves  is  one  of  the  most  constant  characters  of  the 
plant,  parental  forms  having  been  reisolated  in  the  third  and  fourth  generations. 

In  conclusion  the  author  summarizes  the  data,  stating  that  "  a  study  of  the 
characters  of  N.  tadacum  shows  that  there  is  no  inherent  difference  in  the 
mode  of  inheritance  of  ordinary  qualitative  characters  (such  as  the  color  of 
the  corolla)  and  of  those  characters  connected  with  the  size  of  the  organs  which 
are  subject  to  fluctuating  variability.  All  the  results  obtained  can  be  explained 
by  the  Mendelian  assumption  of  segregation  of  characters,  combined  with  the 
hypothesis  that  in  connection  with  each  character  a  large  number  of  factors 
exist,  each  of  which  can  be  inherited  independently." 

The  flowering  of  Geranium  robertianum  under  the  influence  of  various 
physical  conditions,  R.  Stager  {Bot.  Centhl.,  Beihefte,  30  {1918),  1.  Abf.,  No.  1, 
pp.  1-16;  abs.  in  Rev.  Set.  [Paris],  51  {1913),  II,  No.  8,  p.  245).— The  flowering 
of  this  plant  has  attracted  much  attention  on  account  of  the  apparent  variation 
in  its  adaptation  for  pollination.  The  author  claims  that  two  types  of  flowers 
are  produced,  depending  upon  the  climatic  conditions  at  the  time,  protandrous 
flowers  if  the  weather  is  fine  and  the  temperature  fairly  high,  and  protogynous 
flowers  in  cooler  and  more  humid  surroundings.  From  1  to  3  days  are  required 
for  the  pollination  of  the  flowers.  A  high  temperature  and  dry  air  favor  pre- 
cocious pollination,  while  low  temperature  and  moist  conditions  retard  it  and 
favor  the  greater  growth  of  the  styles,  resulting  in  a  protogynous  condition. 

The  relation  between  tuberization  and  infestation  of  the  roots  of  Spi- 
ranthes  autumnalis  by  endophytic  fung-i,  C.  Beau  {Conipt.  Rend.  Acad.  Sci. 
[Paris],  157  (1913).  No.  13,  pp.  512-515). — A  study  was  made  of  S.  autumnalis 
in  the  light  of  the  investigations  of  Bernard  (E.  S.  R.,  14,  p.  635;  18,  p.  1031). 
The  author  found  that  while  this  orchid,  which  produces  new  tuberous  organs 
each  year,  requires  the  presence  of  endophytic  fungi  to  begin  the  development 
of  its  tubers,  in  a  mature  state  it  is  independent  of  the  symbiotic  relationship. 

Influence  of  radioactivity  on  vegetation,  M.  Vacher  {Bui.  Soc.  Nat.  Agr. 
France,  73  {1913),  No.  5,  pp.  557-372).— Discussing  the  results  obtained  from 
experimental  work  done  by  Petit  and  Ancelin  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  32G),  Stoklasa 
(E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  731),  and  others,  the  authors  state  that  radioactivity  appears 


30  EXPEBIMENT  STATION  RECORD. 

to  favor  nitrification  in  soils  and  foliar  development  of  plants.  Soil  naturally 
or  artificially  supplied  with  nitrogen,  phosphoric  acid,  potassium,  and  lime 
is  always  improved  by  the  presence,  even  in  minute  quantity,  of  radioactive 
substance. 

Some  recent  studies  on  germination,  E.  Lehmann  (Ztschr.  Bot.,  5  {1913), 
No.  5,  pp.  365-377). — This  is  a  brief  account  of  studies  on  the  factors  influ- 
encing germination,  with  references  to  several  recent  articles. 

Germination  of  potato,  E.  Couvbeub  {Compt.  Retid.  Soc.  Biol.  [Pa?is],  74 
{1913),  No.  23,  pp.  1315-1317). — As  the  result  of  a  study  of  potatoes  during 
germination,  the  author  states  that  both  maltose"  and  a  ferment  are  present 
from  the  beginning  of  that  process,  the  latter  being  active  in  all  tissues  after 
a  certain  age  is  attained.  It  is  stated  that  analogous  facts  have  been  noted 
in  case  of  beans  and  chestnuts,  and  that  publication  of  these  is  contemplated. 

Transpiration  and  osmotic  pressure  in  mangroves,  F.  C.  von  Fabee  {Ber. 
Deut.  Bot.  Oesell,  31  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  277-281).— The  author  states,  as  the 
result  of  his  studies,  that  the  high  osmotic  pressure  in  the  cells  of  mangroves 
is  due  to  the  storing  of  salts  and  other  osmotically  important  substances,  in 
some  cases  probably  tannic  acid.  Such  accumulation  is  not  a  function  of 
transpiration  but  a  specific  character  of  the  plant,  as  held  by  Fitting  (E.  S.  R., 
25,  p.  430)  to  be  true  of  desert  plants. 

The  distribution  of  temperature  in  living  plants,  G.  Dupont  {Rev.  04n. 
Soi.,  24  {1913),  No.  11,  pp.  418-425,  figs.  i5).— This  is  essentially  the  same 
article  as  previously  reported  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  126). 

Wind  and  the  plant  world;  a  study,  G.  H.  Kroll  {Bot.  CentU.,  Beihefte, 
SO  {1913),  1.  AU.,  No.  i,  pp.  122-140).— This  is  a  discussion  of  the  direct  and 
the  indirect  influence  of  wind  on  plant  life  in  or  near  large  bodies  of  water  or 
on  continental  areas,  including  in  the  former  case  wave  action,  nutritive  or 
noxious  solutions,  seed  transportation,  etc.,  and  in  the  latter  case  injury  in 
exposed  situations  through  breakage,  increased  transpiration,  etc.,  or  further- 
ance through  such  agents  as  seed  distribution  and  rain  production. 

The  presence  and  persistence  of  hydrocyanic  acid  in  some  grains  in  hot 
regions,  L.  Raybaud  {Compt.  Rend.  Soc.  Biol.  [Paris],  7^  {1913),  No.  19,  pp. 
1116,  1117). — It  is  stated  that  studies  with  26  varieties  of  sorghum  in  north 
and  west  Africa  and  India,  and  2  species  of  Eleusine  in  India,  have  shown 
that  even  under  conditions  of  irrigation,  etc.,  unfavorable  to  its  accumulation, 
hydrocyanic  acid  occurs  in  considerable  quantity  in  the  young  plants  and  that 
later  it  migrates  to  the  higher  portions  where  it  may  be  found  until  the 
maturation  of  the  grain,  after  which  it  slowly  disappears.  This  result  is  re- 
garded as  corroborative  of  the  conclusion  reached  by  Treub  (E.  S.  R.,  23, 
p.  330)  regarding  the  role  played  by  hydrocyanic  acid  in  plant  growth. 

Demonstration  and  localization  of  nitrates  and  nitrites  in  plants,  R. 
Klein  {Bot.  CentU.,  Beihefte,  30  {1913),  1.  AM.,  No.  1,  pp.  14I-I66,  pis.  2).— 
The  author  reports  that  nitric  salts  are  usually  found  in  herbaceous  plants. 
Nitrites  were  not  found  in  the  sap  of  Fuchsia  as  exuded  under  root  pressure, 
but  they  develop  apparently  as  the  result  of  bacterial  and  fungal  activity. 
They  do  not  appear  ordinarily  in  underground  portions  of  Sagittaria  sagitti- 
folia  and  Pisum.  They  are  demonstrable  in  potato  tubers  only  before  sprout- 
ing, but  they  are  found  in  expressed  leaf  sap  of  Erythrina  and  in  root  nodules 
of  some  Leguminosae,  being  quite  abundant  in  case  of  Phaseolus  miiltiflorus. 

A  bibliography  is  given. 

On  the  alleged  connection  between  assimilation  of  nitric  acid  and  deposit 
of  manganese  in  plants,  Elsa  Houtebmans  {Sitzber.  K.  Akad.  Wiss.  [Vietma'], 
Math.  Natiirw.  KI.,  121  {1912),  I,  No.  8,  pp.  801-831,  pis.  2).— The  author,  giv- 
ing tabulated  results  of  some  recent  investigations,  states  that  she  was  unable 


AGRICULTURAL  BOTANY.  81 

to  confirm  the  conclusions  of  Ac(iUa  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  323),  which  are  to  the  effect 
that  the  points  of  deposit  of  certain  metallic  ions  in  growing  regions  are  also 
points  of  utilization  of  the  acid  portions  of  the  nutritive  compounds  involved. 

In  case  of  wheat  and  beans  the  deposit  of  manganese  occurred  when  this 
cation  was  united  with  an  indifferent  or  injurious  anion,  if  nitrate  in  other  and 
harmless  form  was  supplied  to  the  plant,  the  rate  and  amount  of  manganese 
deposit  proving  independent  of  nitrogen  assimilation.  The  blackening  was 
independent  of  light  admission  and  is  probably  explainable  as  related  to  enzy- 
matic processes.  The  deposit  of  manganese  dioxid  in  case  of  Elodea  canadensis 
occurred  only  in  light  and  apparently  was  not  due  in  this  case  to  nitrogen 
assimilation.  The  deposit  of  manganese  failed  only  when  the  endodermis  was 
continuous  and  unwounded,  or  when  the  epidermis  acted  as  a  chemical  filter. 
On  employment  of  low  concentrations  of  toxic  substances  or  of  very  concen- 
trated nutritive  media,  the  inner  endodermis  thickened  in  case  of  all  plants 
studied  which  possessed  uninterrupted  endodermis.  Distilled  water  had  the 
same  effect  on  the  endodermis  as  did  a  weak  poison,  while  various  strong  poisons 
able  to  check  growth  caused  no  such  thickening  of  endodermis.  Potassium  per- 
manganate was  reduced  commonly  in  the  outer  layers  of  cells,  otherwise  always 
in  the  third  or  fourth  layer,  never  reaching  the  vascular  bundle  cylinder  proper. 

The  sig-nificance  of  deposits  occurring  in  plants  cultivated  in  solutions  of 
manganese  salts,  C.  Acqua  (Ann.  Bot.  [Rome],  11  {1913),  No.  S,  pp.  JidJ- 
471). — This  is  a  critical  note  in  reply  to  the  above  article. 

On  the  presence  of  deposits  in  plant  tissues  due  to  culture  in  manganese 
nitrate  solution,  Eva  Boselli  (Ann.  Bot.  [Rome],  11  {1913),  No.  5,  pp.  459- 
465). — Results  obtained  from  the  study  of  11  plants  covering  a  wide  range  of 
forms  are  said  to  confirm  the  conclusions  arrived  at  by  Acqua  (E.  S.  R.,  29, 
p.  323),  but  to  be  at  variance  with  those  reached  by  Houtermans  noted  on 
page  30.  It  is  stated  that  a  close  relation  appears  to  exist  between  the  deposit 
of  cations  and  the  changes  occurring  in  newly  formed  tissue. 

The  influence  of  calcium,  magnesium,  and  potassium  nitrates  upon  the 
toxicity  of  certain  heavy  metals  toward  fungus  spores,  L.  A.  Hawkins 
{Physiol.  Researches,  1  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  57-92,  figs.  6).— The  results  of  a  study 
of  the  influence  of  one  salt  in  altering  the  toxic  effect  of  another  upon  fungus 
spores  are  given.  The  salts  employed  were  the  nitrates  of  copper,  lead,  zinc, 
nickel,  and  aluminum  used  alone  and  in  combination  with  the  nitrates  of 
calcium,  magnesium,  and  potassium. 

It  was  found  that  the  effect  of  a  toxic  salt  on  the  germination  of  the  conidia 
of  Glomerella  cingulata  might  be  influenced  by  the  addition  to  the  medium  of 
calcium,  magnesium,  or  potassium  nitrate.  This  effect,  it  is  claimed,  is  not  due 
to  a  depression  of  ionization  of  the  toxic  salt  nor  to  the  formation  of  undis- 
sociated  double  salts,  but  the  influence  of  calcium  upon  the  toxicity  of  the  salts 
of  the  heavy  metals  employed  is  to  be  referred  to  an  effect  of  the  calcium 
nitrate  on  the  spore  or  on  the  contained  protoplasm. 

A  bibliography  is  appended. 

Experiments  on  the  action  of  sodium  sulphate  as  affecting  growth  of 
plants,  E.  Haselhoff  {Landw.  Jahrb.,  44  {1913),  No.  4,  pp.  641-650) .—Dis- 
cussing the  results  of  former  investigations  on  the  effect  of  flue  dust  (E.  S.  R., 
19,  p.  1130;  21,  p.  128)  and  in  connection  therewith  his  more  recent  studies 
regarding  the  action  of  sodium  sulphate  on  growing  beans,  barley,  and  Indian 
corn,  the  author  claims  that  in  spite  of  individual  variations  it  is  safe  to  con- 
clude that  sodium  sulphate  in  0.05  per  cent  strength,  while  sometimes  hastening 
development,  usually  decreases  the  total  growth  of  the  plants  studied  as  esti- 
mated by  weight,  the  growth  in  length  proving  unreliable  in  this  respect.  The 
soil-culture    studies    indicated    an    injurious    effect    of    sodium    sulphate    on 


32  EXPERIMENT  STATION   RECORD. 

plant  growth,  also  that  in  the  crop  an  increase  of  sodium  and  of  sulphuric  acid 
con-esponded  to  an  increase  of  sodium  sulphate  in  the  soil  or  the  nutritive 
solution  employed. 

The  distribution  of  atmospheric  impurities  in  the  neighborhood  of  an 
industrial  city,  C.  Crowthee  and  D.  W.  Steuart  {Jour.  Agr.  8ci.  [England], 
5  {1913),  No.  4,  pp.  391-408,  figs.  2). — In  continuation  of  a  previous  report 
(E.  S.  R.,  25,  p.  434)  an  account  is  given  of  an  examination  of  the  atmosphere 
in  the  counti-y  surrounding  the  city  to  a  distance  of  about  7  miles. 

The  observations  here  reported  show  that  no  general  effect  upon  the  opening 
of  the  buds  could  be  detected.  By  the  end  of  May  smoke  damage  began  to  be 
evident  within  2  miles  of  the  center  of  the  city  by  the  appearance  on  the 
leaves  of  sycamores  and  limes  of  characteristic  brown  blotches.  During  June 
the  conditions,  so  far  as  the  leaves  were  concerned,  became  consideraljly  worse, 
and  in  the  case  of  many  trees,  as  shown  by  the  examination  of  cross  sections, 
there  was  very  little  annual  growth.  Criticisms  having  been  made  of  previous 
observations  relating  to  the  clogging  of  the  stomata,  microscopical  examina- 
tions were  made  of  a  number  of  evergreen  leaves  which  confirmed  in  the  main 
the  previous  statements. 

Summarizing  the  results  observed,  the  authors  state  that  the  sulphur  content 
of  the  rain  falling  at  a  given  station  affords  a  fairly  reliable  diagnosis  of  the 
degree  of  pollution  of  the  atmosphere  by  smoke  providing  the  observations  be 
prolonged  over  several  months.  The  rain  analyses  show  further  that  appre- 
ciable smoke  pollution  remains  throughout  the  agricultural  area  at  distances 
of  7  miles  from  the  city,  the  rate  of  improvement  being  slower  in  the  direction 
of  the  prevailing  winds  than  in  other  directions. 

The  influence  of  tar,  particularly  that  of  tarred  streets,  upon  vegetation, 
P.  Claussen  (Ar&.  K.  Biol.  Anst.  Land.  u.  Forstio.,  8  {1913),  No.  5,  pp.  493- 
514,  pis.  2,  figs.  8). — As  the  result  of  experimentation  with  5  ornamental 
flowering  herbs,  2  firs,  and  a  spruce,  exposed  to  fumes  of  several  commercial 
tars  in  air  or  soil,  the  author  states  that  the  various  kinds  of  tar  sold  for 
highway  building  purposes  differ  widely  as  to  effect  on  the  plants;  that  the 
injurious  effects  of  tar  vapors  are  closely  related  to  their  concentration,  this 
depending  upon  volatility  and  temperature;  and  that  species  of  plants  differ 
widely  as  to  their  sensitivity  to  such  vapors. 

It  is  recommended  that  the  plants  be  placed  at  a  safe  distance  from  the 
tarred  surfaces;  that  careful  tests  be  made  of  tars  intended  for  such  pur- 
poses; that  the  practice  of  heating  the  tar  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  plants 
be  avoided,  also  that  as  low  temperatures  as  are  practical  be  employed ;  and  that 
this  work  be  done  so  far  as  possible  when  the  foliage  is  off"  the  trees,  and  by 
no  means  during  the  very  early  stages  of  its  formation. 

FIELD   CROPS. 

study  of  farm  practice  versus  field  experiments,  W.  J.  Spuxman  {Proc. 
8oc.  Prom.  Agr.  Set.,  33  {1912),  pp.  103-113,  figs.  3). — This  article  has  been 
previously  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  198). 

Determination  of  probable  error  in  field  experiments,  Harnoth  {Mitt. 
Deut.  Landw.  GeselL,  28  {1913),  Nos.  5,  pp.  70-73,  fig.  1;  6,  pp.  87-90;  7,  pp. 
105-107). — This  paper  includes  discussions  of  methods  of  reckoning  the  varia- 
tion of  each  check  plat  of  a  series  from  the  mean  of  their  yields.     For  this 

purpose  Gauss'  formula,  R=±  -f=^LU.  is  used,  in  which  Ivl  is  the  sum  of  the 

■\i  n[n  —  l] 

variations  regardless  of  signs,  n  the  number  of  observations,  and  0.845  is  a 


FIELD  CKOPS.  33 

constant.  Applications  of  this  formula  to  various  fertilizer  experiments  are 
presented. 

Determinations  of  probable  errors  in  field  experiments,  I.  Alexandrowitsch 
(Mitt.  Deut.  Landic.  Oesell.,  28  {19 IS),  No.  18,  pp.  268-271).— This  is  a  critical 
discussion  of  the  above. 

Determination  of  probable  errors  in  field  experiments,  Harnoth  {Mitt. 
Deut.  Landw.  GeselL,  28  {1913),  Nx).  19,  pp.  281-283) .—This  is  a  discussion  of 
the  above  two  articles. 

Methods  of  testing-  varieties,  E.  Kostecki  {Trudy  Biuro  Prlkl.  Bot.  {Bui. 
Angew.  Bot.),  5  {1912),  No.  7,  pp.  177-204,  figs.  5).— The  first  part  of  this  article 
discusses  field  methods  and  the  results  obtained.  The  second  part  considers 
sources  of  error  in  computing  and  comparing  results.  The  probable  error  to  be 
reckoned  with  in  an  experiment  (e)  was  obtained  by  extracting  the  square  root 
of  the  sum  of  the  square  of  the  apparent  errors  (i;)  divided  by  the  number  of 

-• 

n— 1 

Variety  tests  of  field  crops,  O.  Lemmermann  et  al.  {Landio.  Jahrh.,  42 
{1912).  No.  5,  pp.  679-699). — Results  are  given  of  tests  of  numerous  varieties 
of  winter  rye,  winter  and  spring  wheat,  oats,  field  beets,  field  carrots,  and 
alfalfa.  Data  are  presented  in  tabular  form  including  meteorological  observa- 
tions. 

Electroculture,  J.  Escard  {Rev.  Gen.  Sot.,  24  {1913),  No.  8,  pp.  302-309, 
figs.  5). — The  author  gives  a  survey  of  the  work  done  along  this  liue  since  its 
inception  about  1845,  including  methods  and  general  results. 

Observations  on  some  new  methods  of  g-rowing"  cereals,  T.  Remy  and  E. 
Kreplin  {Landw.  Jahrb.,  42  {1912),  No.  2,  pp.  597-629,  fig.  i).— This  work  gives 
the  results  of  observations  on  the  effect  of  transplanting  to  different  depths, 
hilling  up  transplanted  plants,  seeding  in  furrows,  and  hilling  up  plants  in 
ordinary  field  culture,  with  winter  rye,  winter  wheat,  spring  wheat,  barley, 
and  oats,  with  special  reference  to  the  Demtschinsky  method  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  p. 
232;  28,  p.  632). 

It  is  noted  that  great  care  seemed  necessary  in  seeding  with  less  than  the 
customary  quantity  of  seed,  although  when  this  could  be  done  the  improved 
vigor  and  size  of  the  individual  plants  commended  this  practice. 

With  winter  wheat,  winter  rye,  and  spring  barley  the  planting  in  furrows 
which  were  later  filled  in  with  soil  was  slightly  favorable,  but  with  spring 
wheat  and  oats  the  injury  caused  by  the  frit  fly  was  more  marked  when  the 
soil  c.'ime  higher  up  on  the  stem  than  normal. 

All  of  the  cereals  showed  improved  growth  by  the  Demtschinsky  method,  but 
spring  cereals  were  more  readily  damaged  by  the  frit  fly.  The  hand  labor 
involved  in  this  transplanting  method  made  it  impractical  as  a  field  method. 

Dominant  and  recessive  characters  in  barley  and  oat  hybrids,  R.  W. 
Thatcher  {Proc.  Soc.  Prom.  Agr.  Set.,  33  {1912),  pp.  37-50) .—These  experi- 
ments, which  were  conducted  at  the  Washington  Experiment  Station,  have 
shown  that  "  the  percentages  of  proportionate  distribution  of  the  various 
groups,  when  computed  on  the  basis  of  spring  types,  show  clearly  the  domi- 
nance of  hooded  over  bearded,  and  of  2-rowed  over  6-rowed,  characters  as  noted 
in  preceding  crosses.  The  distribution  of  2-rowed,  hybrid,  and  6-rowed  types 
in  both  the  hooded  and  bearded  classes,  showing  the  characteristic  1:2:1 
Mendelian  ratio  and  the  26.6  per  cent  bearded  types  as  compared  with  73.4 
per  cent  hooded  types,  furnishes  confirmatory  evidence  that  this  is  a  unit 
pair  chaVacter." 


34  EXPERIMENT   STATION  BECORD. 

With  oats  it  is  noted  that  no  definite  conclusions  could  be  drawn  from  the 
results  of  crossing  with  Chinese  Hull-less.  "The  appearance  of  black  kernels 
in  the  progeny  from  a  cross  of  2  white-kernelled  parents  indicates  heterozygo- 
tism  In  1  or  both  parent  strains,  which,  howe\er,  does  not  seem  to  have  a  con- 
sistent effect  in  the  various  crosses.  ...  In  one  of  the  crosses  there  is  evi- 
dence of  a  Mendelian  ratio  between  the  hulled  and  hull-less  character,  but  in 
others  such  a  proportional  distribution  is  wholly  lacking." 

[Fertilizer  experiments],  A.  W.  K.  de  Jong  {Dept.  Landh.,  Nijv.  en  Handel 
[Dutch  East  Indies],  Meded.  Agr.  Chem.  Lab.,  191S,  No.  S,  pp.  1-49).— In  fer- 
tilizer experiments  with  rice,  cassava,  soy  beans,  maize,  and  peanuts,  better 
results  were  obtained  with  maize  with  double  superphosphate  than  with 
Thomas  slag  or  guano.  The  results  with  bone  meal  were  even  better  than 
with  the  double  phosphate,  while  barnyard  manure  seemed  to  lack  the  phos- 
phorous to  produce  the  maximum  yields.  Cassava  responded  best  to  nitrogen. 
Peanuts  were  apparently  benefited  by  barnyard  manure  plus  bone  meal.  In 
general  the  phosphates  seemed  to  give  the  best  results. 

Progress  report  of  cooperative  irrigation  experiments  at  California  Uni- 
versity Farm,  Davis,  California,  1909-1912,  S.  H.  Beckett  (U.  8.  Dept.  Affr. 
Bid.  10,  pp.  21,  figs.  7). — These  experiments  were  for  the  purpose  of  determin- 
ing the  water  requirements  of  various  standard  crops. 

With  alfalfa,  the  results  indicated  that  in  open,  well-drained  soil,  typical  of 
that  found  in  the  floor  of  the  Sacramento  Valley,  the  general  tendency  is  toward 
an  increase  in  yield  of  alfalfa  with  the  increased  amounts  of  water  applied  up  to 
at  least  48  in. ;  and  for  such  conditions  as  are  found  on  the  university  farm 
the  limit  beyond  which  the  increase  in  yield  will  not  pay  for  increased  cost  of 
applying  the  water  is  in  the  neighborhood  of  30  in. 

"  Without  irrigation  spring-sown  alfalfa  is  uncertain  in  Sacramento  Valley, 
and  under  conditions  of  normal  rainfall  and  moderate  climate  not  more  than 
one-half  of  the  stand  can  be  expected  to  survive  through  the  summer.  Heavy 
spring  irrigations,  when  followed  by  long  periods  throughout  the  summer  with- 
out water,  did  not  benefit  alfalfa.  Examination  of  the  root  growth  under  these 
conditions  shows  that  water  applied  to  the  little  plants  in  the  early  spring  pro- 
duces a  root  growth  outwardly  along  the  surface  of  the  soil  rather  than  down- 
ward, and  when  this  is  followed  by  long  dry  periods,  the  soil  drying  out  leaves 
the  young  plant  stranded  above  the  moisture  zone.  Far  better  results  were 
obtained  by  delaying  irrigation  until  the  root  growth  was  well  established,  and 
even  until  the  little  plants  seemed  to  be  stunted  and  suffering  for  moisture.  .  .  . 
Late  and  very  late  summer  irrigations  tend  to  produce  sturdier  plants  and 
heavier  yields  the  following  summer.  After  the  root  growth  is  well  established, 
the  gi'owth  may  then  be  forced  by  frequent  and,  if  the  soil  will  stand  it,  heavy 
irrigations." 

In  studying  the  best  time  to  irrigate  alfalfa  it  was  found  that  2  applications 
between  cuttings  gave  larger  yields  and  kept  the  plants  in  better  condition 
than  when  the  same  amount  of  water  was  applied  in  one  irrigation,  either  just 
before  or  just  after  each  cutting,  but  it  was  concluded  that  the  extra  yield 
was  not  large  enough  to  make  it  a  profitable  method. 

In  the  case  of  barley,  3  years  of  irrigation  experiments  showed  that  the 
application  of  water  always  gave  a  profit  and  that  a  late  application  gave  better 
yields  than  an  early  one.  The  results  of  irrigating  maize  for  1910  and  1911 
showed  little  advantage  due  to  irrigation,  although  in  1910  there  was  a  slight 
profit  with  1  and  2  applications  of  water.  The  cost  of  irrigating  from  1  to 
3  times  during  these  2  seasons  ranged  from  $1.40  to  $3.90  per  acre  .with  the 
furrow  method.    Similar  results  were  obtained  with  White  Durra  sorghum,  but 


FIELD  CROPS.  35 

it  is  noted  that  with  both  these  crops  irrigation  can  be  made  to  pay  if  great 
care  and  intelligence  be  exercised. 

The  yields  of  oats  and  wheat  following  alfalfa  were  produced  at  a  profit  by 
irrigating  in  1912,  the  grain  values  ranging  from  $18.15  to  $30.r.O,  as  compared 
with  $6.53  and  $8.40  without  irrigation.  Sugar  beets  following  alfalfa  in  1912 
gave  increased  yields  with  an  increased  water  supply,  while  the  sugar  content 
slightly  decreased.  Better  yields  were  obtained  under  irrigation  with  early 
than  with  late  seeding.  With  the  early  seeding  the  crop  had  a  value  of  $54.25 
when  not  irrigated,  while  with  2  irrigations  it  was  $87.50. 

The  reseeding  of  depleted  grazing  lands  to  cultivated  forage  plants,  A.  W. 
Sampson  (U.  8.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  //,  pp.  5//,  pis.  8,  figs.  4).— In  this  bulletin  the 
range  problem  and  investigations  of  these  problems  in  the  National  Forests 
are  briefly  discussed,  and  studies  reported  continuing  previous  work  (E.  S.  R., 
22,  p.  35).  The  following  grasses  were  used  in  over  500  experiments  in  1909, 
1910,  and  1911;  Hard  fescue  (Festuca  duriuscula),  broom  grass  (Andropogon 
sp.),  Canada  blue  grass  (Poa  compressa),  slender  wheat  grass  {Agropyron 
tenerum),  blue  grama  grass  (Bouteloua  oligostachya) ,  Italian  rye  grass 
(Loliurn  italicum),  smooth  or  Hungarian  brome  (Bromus  inermis),  Kentucky 
blue  grass  (P.  pratensis),  mesquite  (Hilaria  cenchroides),  orchard  grass 
(Dactylis  glotnerata),  perennial  rye  grass  (L.  perenne),  redtop  (Argostis 
nJha),  tall  meadow  oat  grass  (Arrhenatfieruin  elatius),  and  timothy  (Phleum 
pratense).  The  following  nongrasses  were  also  used:  Alfalfa  {Medicago  sa- 
liva), alfilaria  (Erodium  cicutarium) ,  alsike  clover  (Trifolium  Uyhridum), 
bur  clover  {M.  denticulata),  Japanese  clover  (Lcspedeza  striata),  red  clover 
(T.  pratense),  Australian  saltbush  (Atriplex  semibaccata) ,  and  white  clover 
(T.  repcns).  By  far  the  best  results  were  secured  with  timothy,  64.37  per  cent 
being  at  least  partially  successful.  Smooth  brome  grass  and  perennial  rye 
grass  ranked  next.  Very  few  of  the  nongrasses  yielded  satisfactory  returns, 
the  best  results  being  with  white  and  alsike  clovers  and  alfilaria. 

In  studying  the  different  cultural  methods  employed  with  timothy,  redtop, 
and  Kentucky  blue  grass,  a  light  brushing  to  cover  the  seed  was  found  to  give 
better  results  than  tramping  with  sheep,  or  no  treatment.  The  altitude  of  the 
area  planted  formed  an  important  element  in  reseeding.  The  yield  at  4,800 
ft.  was  about  4  times  that  at  7,800  ft,  and  the  difference  in  the  viability  of  the 
seed  produced  was  even  greater.  Autumn  seeding  proved  superior  to  spring 
seeding.  The  cost  of  reseeding  with  a  mixture  of  timothy,  Kentucky  blue  grass, 
and  redtop  ranged  from  80  cts.  to  $3.50  per  acre,  but  usually  averaged  about 
$1.50. 

"  The  reseeding  investigations  show  that  the  returns  secured  from  sowing 
suitable  cultivated  forage  plants  on  certain  ranges  fully  warrant  the  expense. 
It  Is  not  to  be  presumed,  however,  that  all  overgrazed  ranges  can  be  success- 
fully reseeded  to  cultivated  plants.  On  the  contrary,  it  is  unquestionably  true 
that  existing  conditions  In  the  major  portion  of  the  native  grazing  lands  are 
antagonistic  to  the  establishment  of  introduced  plants.  This  is  due  primarily 
to  one  or  all  of  3  conditions :  Excessive  elevation,  poor  soil,  coupled  with  insuffi- 
cient moisture,  or  too  much  and  too  aggressive  native  vegetation." 

A  note  on  two  textile  plants  from  the  Belgian  Kongo,  E.  Mestdach  {Bui. 
Agr.  Congo  Beige,  S  {1912),  No.  S,  pp.  619,  620,  figs.  2;  abs.  in  Internat.  Inst. 
Agr.  [Rome],  Bui.  Bur.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  S  {1912),  No.  12,  pp. 
2639,  26^0). — Two  new  fiber  plants,  akonge  {Triumfetta  semitriloba)  and  losa 
{Manniophyton  africanum) ,  are  here  described. 

Alfalfa  seed  production,  P.  K.  Blinn  {Colorado  8ta.  Bui.  191,  pp.  S-16, 
figs.  13). — This  bnlletiii  is  a  report  of  progress  in  work  which  was  instituted 


36  EXPERIMENT  STATION   RECORD. 

because  of  the  general  decrease  in  production  and  yield  of  alfalfa  seed  of  re- 
cent years  in  Colorado.  It  discusses  the  following  factors  as  influencing  seed 
production :  Vegetative  growth,  moisture  supply,  climatic  conditions,  insects, 
and  diseases.  It  is  noted  that  continued  irrigation  for  a  long  series  of  years 
has  so  influenced  the  subsoil  moisture  content  as  to  make  it  unfavorable  to 
seed  production.  The  methods  which  were  tried  to  improve  the  seed-producing 
characters  of  alfalfa  were  seed  selection,  row  cultivation,  and  control  of 
moisture  by  light  row  irrigation,  all  of  which  proved  beneficial. 

Alfalfa  manag-ement  in  Iowa,  H.  D.  Hughes  (Iowa  Sta.  Bui.  137,  pp.  72, 
figs.  33). — This  bulletin  gives  directions  and  suggestions  for  the  production  of 
alfalfa  on  the  various  soil  types  of  the  State.  Reports  are  given  of  the 
experiences  of  practical  farmers  in  all  parts  of  the  State,  covering  1,016  alfalfa 
seedings,  of  which  only  12.7  per  cent  were  classed  as  failures.  The  most  suc- 
cessful results  were  reported  from  Missouri  loess  and  moraine  soils,  and  the 
greatest  number  of  failures  on  the  Iowa  drift  and  the  southern  Iowa  loess 
areas.  Some  of  the  factors  which  seemed  to  be  responsible  for  the  failures 
were  lack  of  proper  drainage,  necessary  bacteria,  sufficient  plant  food,  or 
sufficient  moisture  to  germinate  the  seed;  too  heavy  or  compact  soil;  young 
seedlings  smothered  by  weeds  and  by  nurse  crops;  seeding  too  deep;  a  packed 
surface ;  poor  seed ;  insect  pests ;  and  fungus  diseases. 

Special  note  is  made  of  the  need  of  sufficient  plant  food  in  the  soil  at  seeding, 
and  of  liberally  applying  barnyard  manure  on  these  soils. 

Experiments  with  Turkestan  alfalfa  in  Hungary,  J.  Gyarfas  (Kis^rlet. 
Kozlem.,  15  {1912),  No.  2,  pp.  191-209).— Trials  of  Turkestan  alfalfa  in  various 
localities  showed  it  to  be  much  inferior  to  the  native  alfalfa  in  drought  and 
frost  resistance,  and  vegetative  energy.  It  also  had  a  much  shorter  vegetative 
period,  which  allowed  the  growth  of  weeds  and  grasses. 

A  new  two-rowed  winter  barley,  D.  Neumann  (Wchnschr.  Brau.,  29  {1912), 
No.  37,  pp.  526-528,  figs.  3). — Through  crossing  a  4-rowed  Mammoth  winter 
barley  with  a  2-rowed  summer  barley  that  had  been  artificially  carried  through 
the  winter,  a  hardy  2-rowed  winter  barley  resulted.  By  the  application  of 
Mendel's  law  this  variety  proved  stable.  It  produced  well,  and  was  a  product 
of  excellent  brewing  qualities. 

A  mutation  in  a  pure  line  of  Hordeum  distichum,  L.  L.  Kiessling  {Ztschr. 
Induktive  Abstain,  u.  Vererhungslehre,  8  {1912),  No.  1-2,  pp.  48-78). — This 
gives  in  detail  the  characteristics  of  a  barley  that  appeared  in  a  Bavarian 
variety,  and  is  considered  a  mutation. 

Variation  studies  in  brome  grass,  A.  Keyseb  {Colorado  Sta.  Bui.  190,  pp. 
S-20,  figs.  19). — This  bulletin  reports  the  progress  of  work  in  studying  the 
strains  of  awnless  brome  grass  {Bromus  inermis)  which  have  been  collected 
at  the  station  and  which  seem  especially  well  adapted  to  Colorado  conditions. 
There  are  now  under  observation  121  strains  of  this  grass,  and  these  show  a 
wide  range  of  individuality  in  habits  of  growth  and  coloration.  Variations 
occur  in  tillering  habit,  height  of  leaf  mass,  total  height  of  plant,  and  vigor  of 
stolonification,  while  the  colors  range  from  bright  yellow  green  to  a  very 
dark  green.  Most  of  these  types  bred  true  from  seed,  but  the  progeny  of  some 
showed  wide  variation.  It  was  shown  that  this  grass  could  be  propagated 
vegetatively. 

On  the  presence  of  hydrocyanic  acid  in  white  clover,  M.  Mibande  {Compt. 
Rend.  Acad.  Set.  [Paris],  155  {1912),  No.  15,  pp.  651-653;  ahs.  in  Intemat. 
Inst.  Agr.  [Rome],  Bui.  Bur.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  3  {1912),  No.  12, 
p.  2637). — Methods  are  described  by  which  hydrocyanic  acid  was  discovered  in 
white  clover  {Trifolium  repens). 


FIELD   CROPS.  37 

Silver  King-. — A  corn  for  northern  Iowa,  H.  D.  Hughes  {loioa  Sta.  Bui. 
1S8,  pp.  75-95,  figs.  11). — This  bulletin  gives  the  development  and  early  history 
of  Silver  King  corn  and  sets  forth  its  exceptional  value  for  cultivation  in 
northern  Iowa.  Records  obtained  froan  grow(>rs  in  Wisconsin,  covering  a 
period  of  5  years,  show  an  average  yield  of  59.2  bu.  per  acre,  which  is  an 
average  of  10.9  bu.  more  than  other  varieties.  This  pedigreed  corn  has  been 
produced  at  the  Iowa  Station  and  about  150  bu.  will  be  distributed  among 
farmers  of  northern  Iowa. 

Corn  culture  in  North  Carolina,  J.  L.  Bubgess  {Bui.  N.  C.  Dept.  Agr.,  SS 
{1912),  A'c».  6,  Sup.,  pp.  54). — This  bulletin  discusses  the  black,  gray,  red,  and 
mountain  soils  of  the  State  in  their  connection  with  coni  production,  green 
manuring,  conservation  of  moisture,  selection  and  preparation  of  the  seed,  plant- 
ing, cultivating  and  harvesting,  rotations,  corn  judging,  and  varieties. 

In  the  variety  tests  those  giving  the  best  results  in  the  coastal  plains  were 
Cocke  Prolific,  Biggs  Seven-ear,  Southern  Beauty,  and  Hickory  King;  and  in  the 
Piedmont  section.  Weekly  Improved,  Southern  Beauty,  and  Cocke  Prolific. 

Notes  on  corn  growing-  in  Guam,  J.  B.  Thompson  (Ouam  Sta.  Rpt.  1912, 
pp.  22-24)' — The  primitive  methods  of  planting  and  harvesting  corn  followed 
by  the  natives  in  Guam  are  described.  It  is  noted  that  a  yield  of  27.75  biL 
per  acre  was  obtained  at  the  station,  which  was  better  than  the  average  crop 
grown  in  Guam. 

Notes  are  given  on  variety  tests  that  Include  over  40  varieties  of  widely 
varying  types  originating  in  India,  Ceylon,  Burma,  Formosa,  Ecuador,  and 
Colombia.  The  small-grained  types  from  southern  Asia  required  from  200  to 
220  kernels  to  weigh  1  oz.  while  a  variety  from  Ecuador  required  only  55 
kernels.  No.  576,  a  variety  from  the  island  of  St.  Vincent,  is  noted  as  having 
characteristics,  notably  early  maturity,  making  it  especially  suited  to  Guam 
conditions. 

Twelfth  annual  report  of  the  Indiana  Corn  Growers*  Association,  edited 
by  G.  I.  Christie  (Ann.  Rpt.  Ind.  Corn  Growers'  Assoc,  12  {1912),  pp,  94y 
figs.  22). — This  report  includes  addresses  on  alfalfa  by  A.  P.  Grout,  A.  T. 
Wiancko,  J.  N.  Dyer,  and  M.  Douglas,  on  corn  by  P.  E.  Goodrich  and  D.  F. 
Maish,  and  on  vetch  by  M.  L.  Fisher. 

Fourth  annual  report  of  the  Ontario  Corn  Growers'  Association,  J.  S.  Dutf 
(Ann  Rpt.  Ontario  Corn  Grotcers'  Assoc,  1911,  pp.  34,  figs.  16). — This  includes 
addresses  on  corn  growing  for  profit,  silage  feeding,  the  improvement  of  the 
corn  crop,  and  alfalfa  as  a  soil  builder. 

Rubelzul  cotton:  A  new  species  of  Gossypium  from  Guatemala,  F.  L. 
Lewton  {Smithsn.  Misc.  Collect.,  60  {1912),  No.  4,  pp.  2,  pis.  £).— This  is  a 
description  of  Gossypium  irenwum.  found  a  few  miles  from  SenahG  in  Alta 
Verapaz.  Gautemala.  Its  most  prominent  feature  is  the  remarkable  develop- 
ment of  the  calyx,  which  reaches  proportions  not  known  in  any  other  species. 

The  cotton  of  the  Hopi  Indians:  A  new  species  of  Gossypium,  F.  L. 
Lewton  {Smithsn.  Misc.  Collect.,  60  {1912),  No.  6,  pp.  10,  pis.  5).— This  publi- 
cation gives  an  account  of  the  history  and  a  technical  description  of  Gossypium 
hopi  n.  sp.  and  its  uses  by  the  Pima  and  Hopi  Indians. 

Experiments  on  the  retting  of  flax,  M.  Ringelmann  {Bui.  Mens.  Off. 
Renscig.  Agr.  [Paris},  11  {1912),  No.  9,  pp.  1115-1182;  abs.  in  Internat.  Inst. 
Agr.  [Rojyie],  Bui.  Bur.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  S  {1912),  No.  12,  pp.  26S8, 
2689). — A  bacteriological  process  is  described,  by  means  of  which  the  retting 
of  flax  may  be  carried  on  in  severe  winter  weather  with  good  results. 

Potassium  fertilizer  for  hops,  D.  Neumann  {Wchnschr.  Brau.,  29  (1912), 
Nos.  48,   pp.   679-682;   49,   pp.   691-694).— In   12  cooperative  experiments  the 


38  EXPEEIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

average  increase  in  yield  was  from  20  to  30  per  cent  after  the  use  of  potash, 
but  the  effect  on  the  quality  of  the  product  was  doubtful. 

Seed  varieties  of  Lupinus  aug-ustifolius  and  L.  luteus,  B.  Kajanus  {Ztschr, 
Induktive  Abstam.  u.  Vcrerbungslehre,  7  {1912),  No.  3-4,  pp.  235-239,  pi.  1). — 
The  author  describes  his  method  of  separation  by  color  marking  on  the  seeds 
from  3'ellows  and  blues.  Five  types  of  L.  angustifolius  and  3  of  L.  luteus  were 
segregated  and  bred  true.  It  was  noted  that  black  was  dominant  over  normal 
colors. 

African  manioc,  Henby,  Yves,  and  P.  Ammann  (Agr.  Prat.  Pays  Chauds, 
12  (1912),  No.  110,  pp.  353-368,  figs.  3;  abs.  in  Internat.  Inst.  Agr.  [Rome], 
Bui.  Bur.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  S  {1912),  No.  8,  pp.  i769-i77i).— This 
article  describes  the  cultivation  of  this  root  crop  and  the  manufacture  of  its 
products,  flour,  glucose,  and  alcohol. 

Veg-etative  experiments  with  88  varieties  of  oats,  G.  Schneider  {Landw. 
Jahrb.,  42  {1912),  No.  5,  pp.  767-833,  pi.  1,  figs.  20).— In  this  work  the  root 
systems  were  especially  studied  as  a  factor  bearing  directly  upon  crop  produc- 
tion. 

The  above  ground  parts  ranged  from  18.1  to  54.3  per  cent  of  the  root  weight, 
averaging  29.9  per  cent  at  the  time  of  heading  and  from  10.6  to  2S.3  per  cent 
at  harvest  time,  with  an  average  at  the  latter  period  of  17.3  per  cent.  It  is 
noted  that  the  largest  yield  of  grain  was  not  due  to  more  rapid  development 
in  germinating,  growing,  or  maturing,  or  to  a  longer  vegetative  period,  but  to 
the  large  functioning  capacity  of  the  variety.  The  early  ripening  varieties  as 
a  rule  gave  better  yields  than  the  late.  The  percentage  of  glume  to  kernels 
followed  inversely  the  functioning  ability  of  the  root  and  the  length  of  the 
vegetative  period.  The  larger  the  spikelet  and  the  higher  it  was  placed  on  the 
panicle  the  heavier  as  a  rule  were  its  kernels  found  to  be. 

A  study  of  the  weight  of  the  differently  placed  kernels  on  the  panicle  showed 
those  on  the  base  of  the  spikelet  to  be  the  lightest.  The  average  relation  of  the 
outer  kernel  to  the  inner  on  the  spikelet  was  as  100:  66.4,  and  to  the  middle  as 
100 :  30.9.    The  inner  and  middle  kernels  were  never  found  to  have  awns. 

A  bibliography  is  appended. 

Breeding  and  seed  production  of  the  Fichtel  Mountain  oats,  Raum  {Landw. 
Jahrb.  Bayern,  2  {1912),  No.  11,  pp.  841-940,  figs,  i.^).— This  gives  the  history, 
description,  and  methods  employed  since  1895  in  the  breeding  of  this  variety 
of  oats. 

Wild  plantain  fiber  from  India  {Bui.  Imp.  Inst.  [So.  Kensington],  10  {1912), 
No.  4,  pp.  536,  537).— It  is  noted  that  a  strong  fiber  from  4  ft.  to  5  ft.  6  in.  in 
length  was  manufactured  from  a  species  of  the  wild  plantain. 

Variety  [and  manurial]  tests  of  potatoes,  A.  L.  Dacy  {West  Virginia  Sta. 
Rpt.  1912,  pp.  31-54,  fids.  3). — This  paper  records  results  of  variety  and  fer- 
tilizer tests  of  potatoes  conducted  at  Reedsville,  Long  Reach,  Terra  Alta,  Letart, 
and  Salama.  This  work  was  begun  in  1905  and  continued  with  more  or  less 
irregularity  through  1912. 

The  average  yield  of  merchantable  tubers  of  the  best  10  varieties  for  the  7 
years'  trial  ranged  from  91.5  to  116.8  bu.  per  acre.  The  effect  of  altitude  was 
noted  and  7  varieties  are  named  and  recommended  for  high  altitudes.  Twenty- 
two  varieties  are  described  and  typical  tubers  of  35  varieties  are  pictured. 

As  results  of  the  fertilizer  tests  it  is  noted  that  "  in  amounts  up  to  500  lbs. 
per  acre  it  does  not  pay  to  apply  even  a  high-grade  fertilizer  broadcast;  that 
the  same  amount  (500  lbs.)  applied  in  the  furrow  at  planting  time  produces  a 
very  profitable  increase  in  the  crop  .  .  .  and  that  in  most  seasons  it  is  profitable 
to  apply  1,000  lbs.  to  the  acre,  putting  500  lbs.  in  the  furrow  and  applying  500 
broadcast" 


FIELD   CROPS.  39 

Pointers  on  the  growing  and  selection  of  types  of  eating-  potatoes,  W. 
SciiiFTAN  {Illus.  Landw.  Zlg.,  33  (1913),  No.  14,  pp.  Ill,  112,  figs.  7).— In  this 
article  7  types  of  eating  potatoes  are  described  and  illustrated  and  their  charac- 
teristics discussed.  A  distinction  is  made  between  these  types  and  those  grown 
for  brewing  or  the  manufacture  of  alcohol,  starch,  etc. 

Experiments  in  the  defoliation  of  sugar  beets,  F.  Stbohmeb,  H.  Bbiem,  and 
O.  Fallada  {Osterr.  Ungar.  Ztschr.  Zuckerindus.  u.  Landw.,  41  (1912),  No.  2, 
pp.  22S-240). — This  reports  a  series  of  experiments  in  which  the  yield  and 
sugar  content  of  beets  from  which  the  first  2  rows  and  the  first  3  rows  of  leaves 
were  removed  at  3  stages  of  development,  August,  September,  and  October, 
were  compared  with  those  from  normally  developed  plants.  In  each  case  the 
decrease  in  both  sugar  content  and  total  yield  was  in  proportion  to  the  quantity 
of  leaves  removed.  Tabulated  analyses  of  the  roots  of  the  several  series  are 
given. 

Small  beet  seed,  H.  Bbiem  (Bl.  Zuckerriibenbau,  19  (1912),  No.  12,  pp.  185- 
187). — An  article  in  which  the  author  discusses  the  value  of  color,  odor,  and 
size  of  the  beet  seed,  and  points  to  investigations  showing  that  small  seeds  are 
not  inferior  to  large  ones. 

The  size  of  the  seed  ball  of  beets,  H.  Plahn-Appiani  (Bl.  Zuckcrruhenhau, 
19  (1912),  No.  17,  pp.  265-267). — This  is  a  discussion  with  citations  showing 
the  equal  value  of  large  and  small  seed  balls  in  beet  production. 

The  value  of  bees  to  seed  beet  growing,  E.  Vasilieff  (Bl.  Zuckerriibenbau, 
19  (1912),  No.  10,  p.  155;  abs.  in  Internat.  Inst.  Agr.  [Rome},  Bui.  Bur.  Agr. 
Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  S  (1912),  No.  8,  p.  i77.?).— This  article  describes  the 
important  part  bees  play  in  the  production  of  beet  seeds. 

The  manuring  of  sugar  cane  at  Samalkota  Agricultural  Station,  1902— 
1912,  G.  R.  HiLSON  (Dcpt.  Agr.  Madras  Bui.  66,  1913,  pp.  8).— This  work  shows 
that  on  the  Delta  lands  commercial  fertilizers  are  not  to  be  recommended,  and 
that  with  the  price  of  castor-cake  about  4  times  that  of  margosa  and  puugam 
cake,  the  latter  is  the  more  economical  manure.  The  yields  ranged  from  2,767 
to  7.167  lbs.  raw  sugar  per  acre. 

The  culture  of  flue-cured  tobacco,  E.  H.  Mathewson  (U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui. 
16,  pp.  36.  figs.  12). — In  this  bulletin  the  author  has  outlined  the  Old  Belt  and 
the  New  Belt  sections  for  the  cultivation  of  this  class  of  tobacco,  and  has  given 
a  historical  sketch  leading  up  to  the  present  time  methods  of  flue-curing 
tobacco.  In  describing  methods  of  cultivation,  the  importance  of  humus  in  the 
soil  is  noted,  and  it  is  stated  that  the  humus  may  be  obtained  by  plowing  under 
timothy  and  redtop  sod.  Other  crops  mentioned  in  this  connection  are  oats, 
wheat,  cotton,  peanuts,  sweet  potatoes,  corn,  and  cowpeas,  the  legumes  of  which 
may  be  pastured  off  with  hogs.  Various  methods  of  fertilizing,  including  the 
use  of  barnyard  manure  and  lime,  are  discussed,  and  formulas  for  both  sections 
are  presented.  Further  discussions  include  varieties,  selection  and  care  of 
plants,  preparation  and  care  of  the  seed  bed,  comparison  of  early  and  late 
planting,  transplanting,  cultivation,  diseases,  insect  enemies,  topping  and  sucker- 
ing,  harvesting,  and  curing  and  handling.  Descriptions  are  given  of  curing 
barns  and  storage  houses. 

The  entire  cost  of  producing  and  marketing  flue-cured  tobacco  is  estimated  at 
from  6  to  10  cts.  per  pound. 

The  Utelo,  a  plant  with  oleaginous  seeds,  B.  Mestdaqh  (Bui.  Agr.  Congo 
Beige,  3  (1912),  No.  S,  pp.  645,  646,  fig.  1;  abs.  in  Internat.  Inst.  Agr.  [Rome], 
Bui.  Bur.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  3  (1912),  No.  12,  pp.  2640.  2641).— A 
cucurbit  native  to  the  Belgian  Congo,  from  the  seed  of  which  oil  may  be  ex- 
tracted, is  described,  as  is  also  the  aboriginal  method  of  manufacture. 

25842°— No.  1—14 4 


40  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

On  the  selection  of  a  type  of  wheat  resistant  to  severe  winters,  V.  Kol- 
KUNov  {KJioztaistvo  7  (.1013),  Xo.  36,  pp.  1161-1167;  abs.  in  Inteniat.  Inst.  Agr. 
[Rome'\,  Bui.  Bur.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  S  {1912),  No.  12,  pp.  2631- 
2634). — In  subjecting  numerous  varieties  of  growing  wheat  to  low  temperatures 
and  excessive  coverings  of  snow,  the  xerophytic  varieties  seemed  the  most  hardy. 

Portuguese  varieties  of  wheat  and  their  improvement,  O.  Klein  {Landw. 
JahrJ).,  42  {1912),  No.  2,  pp.  331-364,  pls.  8).— This  article  gives  results  of 
trials  of  some  foreign  as  well  as  domestic  varieties  conducted  at  Lisbon. 

It  was  found  that  in  general  seeding  with  the  drill  at  the  rate  of  15  kernels 
per  square  meter,  or  broadcast  from  200  to  250  kernels  per  square  meter  gave 
the  best  results. 

Complete  chemical  analyses  and  yields  per  hectare  of  the  grain  and  straw  are 
given  for  SO  varieties,  with  botanical  descriptions,  notes,  etc.,  for  each  variety. 
The  weight  of  100  kernels  ranged  from  3.7  to  6.4  gm.  and  of  1  liter  from  720  to 
833  gm.     The  specific  gravity  varied  from  1.294  to  1.390. 

Clover  and  g-rass  seeds,  with  reference  to  valuation,  and  the  present  status 
of  their  production  and  trade  from  the  local  standpoint,  A.  Boerger  (Landw. 
Jalirh.,  42  {1912),  No.  1,  pp.  1-118,  pis.  18). — In  a  discussion  concerning  seeds 
from  various  countries  and  localities  it  is  noted  that  in  general,  in  so  far  as 
investigations  have  been  made,  seeds  have  produced  better  when  grown  in  the 
locality  where  planted. 

Considerable  space  is  devoted  to  the  discussion  of  means  of  forming  and 
operating  organizations  to  promote  the  production,  use,  and  trade  in  a  high 
quality  of  grass  and  clover  seeds.  Tables  give  data  regarding  foreign  trade 
in  seeds  and  the  home  supply  and  demand. 

Seed  tests,  L.  Hiltnee  et  al.  (Landw.  Jahrh.  Bayern,  2  (1912),  No.  9,  pp. 
636-664). — An  article  in  which  results  of  germination  and  purity  tests  of  clover 
and  grasses  from  European  sources  are  given  and  discussed. 

HORTICULTURE. 

Garden  farming,  L.  C.  Coebett  (Boston,  Chica^go,  and  London,  1913,  pp. 
X-{-473,  figs.  175). — A  practical  treatise  on  the  intensive  and  extensive  culture 
of  vegetables  in  which  the  author  presents  in  considerable  detail  the  results  of 
his  own  observations  and  investigations,  together  with  those  of  other  horticul- 
tural authorities. 

The  successive  chapters  of  part  1  discuss  vegetable  gardening,  or  olericulture ; 
the  soil  as  a  factor  in  the  work  of  the  market  gardener ;  principles  of  planting 
and  cultivation ;  forcing  and  forcing  structures ;  root  cellars  and  storage  houses ; 
transportation  of  truck  crops ;  precooling  and  cold  storage  of  vegetables ;  and  the 
home  vegetable  garden.  In  part  2  the  commercial  vegetables  are  arranged  in 
alphabetical  order  and  considered  with  reference  to  their  development,  cultiva- 
tion, and  uses. 

Pomology,  horticulture,  and  viticulture,  E.  Reimers  (Jahres'ber.  Landw., 
27  (1912),  pp.  229-250). — A  review  of  recent  contributions  to  the  knowledge  of 
pomology,  horticulture,  and  viticulture  in  Germany. 

Report  of  field  work  by  the  horticultural  department  during  1911,  A.  L. 
Dacy  (West  Virginia  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pp.  78-97,  figs.  13).— This  report  reviews 
cooperative  spraying  and  pruning  demonstrations  conducted  in  different  sections 
of  West  Virginia  during  1911.  Some  suggestions  are  also  given  relative  to  the 
possibilities  of  truck  growing  in  the  State.  As  a  result,  of  orchard  demonstra- 
tions greatly  increased  returns  have  been  reported  by  the  owners. 


HORTICULTURE.  41 

[Fruit  trees  in  Paraguay],  G.  T.  Bp:btoni  (Affronomia  [Puerto  Bertoni],  5 
{1913),  Xo.  5-6,  pp.  185-204)' — Descriptive  notes  are  given  of  a  large  number 
of  tropical  and  semitropical  fruits  suitable  for  culture  in  Paraguay. 

Wild  fruits  of  Paraguay,  G.  T.  Bebtoni  (Agronomia  [Puerto  Bertoni],  5 
{191S),  No.  5-6,  pp.  205-207). — The  author  enumerates  a  number  of  wild  fruits 
belonging  to  the  genera  Psidium,  Eugenia,  llolliuia,  and  Anona,  with  special 
reference  to  their  value  for  cultivation. 

The  pubescent-fruited  species  of  Prunus  of  the  Southwestern  States,  S.  C. 
Mason  (17.  /S.  Dept.  Agr.,  Jour.  Agr.  Research,  1  {191S),  No.  2,  pp.  147-178,  pis. 
8,  figs.  8). — The  author  here  describes  seven  species  of  Prunus  found  in  the 
flora  of  the  western  United  States  which  are  more  closely  allied  to  some  of  the 
Asiatic  species  of  this  genus  than  to  the  wild  plums  of  the  country.  They  are 
discussed  with  special  reference  to  their  adaptation  as  stocks  for  cultivated 
forms  under  the  climatic  and  soil  conditions  of  the  Southwest,  and  also  as 
offering  possibilities  to  the  plant  breeder. 

The  specie?  discussed  include  the  Texas  wild  peach  (P.  texana)  and  hybrid 
forms,  the  Nevada  wild  almond  (P.  andersonii) ,  the  desert  apricot  (P.  eriogyna 
n.  sp.),  the  California  desert  almond  (P.  fasciculata),  the  Texas  almond  (P. 
minutiflora),  the  Mexican  almond  (P.  microphylla) ,  and  Havard's  almond 
(P.  havardii). 

Emit  variety  tests  on  the  Southern  Utah  Experiment  Farm,  A.  B.  Ballan- 
TTNE  (Utah  Sta.  Bui.  124,  PP-  59-110,  pi.  1,  ftgs.  S). — In  continuation  of  a 
previous  report  (E.  S.  R.,  18,  p.  936)  this  bulletin  reports  the  condition  up  to 
1910  of  various  orchard  fruits,  nuts,  and  grapes  under  test  on  the  experimental 
farm. 

Summarizing  the  results  as  a  whole  the  test  indicates  that  one  may  safely 
plant  Elberta  and  Heath  Cling  peaches,  most  of  the  prunes,  and  at  least  the 
Bartlett  pear  on  any  soil  in  southern  Utah  that  is  at  all  adapted  to  fruit  culture. 
Unusual  care  must  be  exercised  in  the  selection  of  orchard  sites,  however,  with 
special  reference  to  spring  frosts  and  soil  drainage  in  order  to  avoid  the  con- 
sequent loss  of  fruit  and  early  death  of  the  trees.  Tests  conducted  with  various 
nuts  indicate  that,  with  the  possible  exception  of  pecans,  nut  culture  is  not 
promising  for  southern  Utah.  Generally  speaking,  the  standard  American 
grapes  of  the  northern  sections  do  not  thrive.  Labrusca-Vinifera  hybrids,  such 
as  Isabella,  Agawam,  and  Goethe,  do  well  and  the  section  api^ears  to  be  adapted 
for  many  varieties  of  European  grapes  including  fresh,  raisin,  and  wine  grapes. 

Orchard  notes,  J.  B.  Thompson  (Guam  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pp.  24-26,  pi.  i).— A 
brief  statement  of  work  accomplished  in  the  introduction  and  establishment 
of  various  fruits  in  Guam,  including  the  mango,  peach,  kumquat,  amatungula 
(Carissa  arduina),  and  the  banana. 

Fruit  for  exhibition,  L.  D.  Batchelor  {Utah  Sta.  Circ.  13,  pp.  9-11). — In 
this  circular  the  author  briefly  discusses  the  selection,  storing,  and  arrange- 
ment of  exhibition  fruit,  and  presents  a  score  card  showing  the  important 
points  for  consideration  in  show  fruit. 

Box  packing  of  apples,  E.  F.  Palmer  (Ontario  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  216,  1913,  pp. 
24,  figs.  23). — Popular  directions  are  given  for  making  various  styles  of  packs 
in  boxes,  including  plans  for  packing  houses  and  the  necessary  equipment. 

Packing  Indiana  apples,  W.  R.  Palmer  (Indiana  Sta.  Circ.  39,  pp.  28,  fi-gs. 
15). — This  circular  discusses  the  equipment  needed  and  the  methods  used  in 
sizing,  grading,  and  packing  both  barrels  and  boxes.  Recent  legislation  per- 
taining to  the  subject  is  noted  in  the  appendix. 

Cold  storage  for  Iowa-grown  apples,  L.  Greene  (loica  Sta.  Bui.  144,  PP- 
S57-S78,  figs.  2). — In  continuation  of  a  previous  investigation  (E.  S.  R.,  22,  p. 


42  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

142)  the  results  of  cold  storage  studies  with  apples  conducted  during  the  past 
4  years  are  here  reported. 

A  number  of  experiments  were  made  to  determine  the  effect  of  freezing  the 
apples  previous  to  storage  upon  their  keeping  quality  in  cold  storage.  It  was 
found  that  apples  which  are  frozen  upon  the  trees  in  the  fall  can  be  safely- 
placed  in  cold  storage  if  they  are  still  sound  after  having  thawed  out  gradually 
on  the  tree  before  picking.  Apples  which  are  frozen  in  cold  or  in  common 
storage  will  not  be  seriously  injured  if  thawed  out  below  freezing  temperature. 

A  number  of  tests  were  made  of  cellar  as  compared  with  cold  storage.  As 
a  result  of  these  tests  it  would  seem  that  where  cold  storage  can  be  had  close 
at  hand  it  would  be  economical  to  store  fruit  for  one  or  two  months  at  a 
monthly  rate  until  the  cellar  storage  could  be  cooled  to  proper  temperatures  and 
then  the  fruit  removed  to  the  cellar.  Cellar  storage  throughout  the  season  in 
comparison  with  cold  storage  kept  such  varieties  as  Winesap  and  Mammoth 
Black  Twig  until  May  1  in  excellent  condition,  whereas  such  varieties  as 
Grimes  Golden  and  Jonathan  in  cellar  storage  should  be  marketed  before  Jan- 
uary 1.  By  the  use  of  early  cold  storage  previous  to  cellar  storage  the  season 
for  Grimes  Golden  was  prolonged  to  February  1. 

In  order  to  keep  well  in  cold  storage  the  fruit  should  be  thoroughly  ripened, 
well  colored,  and  carefully  handled.  If  the  fruit  has  not  been  properly  ripened 
delaying  the  storage  after  packing  for  a  short  time  may  prove  beneficial,  pro- 
viding the  weather  remains  cool.  Wrapping  the  fruit  with  paper  retards  the 
ripening  process,  prevents  bruising  in  shipment,  and  delays  the  appearance  of 
scald,  thus  lengthening  the  storage  season  from  2  weeks  to  several  months 
according  to  variety.  From  an  economic  standpoint,  however,  wrappers  are 
out  of  the  question,  except  for  fancy  boxed  apples  or  where  packed  for  special 
purpose  in  barrels.  Other  conditions  being  equal,  the  package  in  which  the 
apples  are  stored  has  but  little  influence  on  their  keeping  qualities. 

But  little  difference  was  found  in  the  keeping  qualities  of  fruit  from  culti- 
vated and  from  sod  orchards.  Fruit  selected  for  the  extreme  storage  limit 
should  be  of  medium  size  for  the  variety,  since  overgrown  specimens  do  not 
keep  as  well  as  the  smaller  ones.  Apple  scald  was  found  to  attack  immature, 
poorly  colored  fruit  first.  If  the  temperature  is  high  enough  to  allow  the 
fruit  to  continue  the  ripening  processes  the  appearance  of  scald  is  somewhat 
delayed. 

The  cold  storage  variety  testing  was  continued  during  the  past  4  years.  The 
results  as  here  noted  indicate  that  the  principal  commercial  varieties  in  Iowa 
can  nearly  all  be  handled  profitably  in  cold  storage. 

The  American  peach  orchard,  F.  A.  Waugh  (New  York  and  London,  191S, 
pp.  238,  pi.  1,  figs.  65). — ^A  treatise  on  the  practice  of  peach  growing  in  North 
America  at  the  beginning  of  the  twentieth  century.  The  successive  chapters 
of  this  work  discuss  peach  growing  geography,  climatology,  soils  and  exposures, 
how  to  get  the  trees,  orchard  planting,  general  management,  cover  crops,  the 
use  of  fertilizers,  pruning  and  renovation,  insect  enemies,  diseases  of  tree  and 
fruit,  spraying,  marketing  the  crop,  the  family  orchard,  botanical  and  pomo- 
logical  status,  choosing  varieties,  variety  catalogue,  the  nectarine,  utilizing  the 
fruit,  and  a  historical  sketch  of  the  peach  industry. 

Maurer's  gooseberry  book,  L.  Maubeb  (Maurer's  Stachelbeerluch.  Stuttgart, 
191S,  pp.  XIII -{-847,  pis.  15,  figs.  158). — ^A  descriptive  account  of  the  best  and 
most  widely  cultivated  varieties  of  gooseberries.  Introductory  considerations 
deal  with  the  botany,  anatomy,  and  culture  of  the  gooseberry,  weights  and 
measurements  of  gooseberry  fruits,  methods  of  classification,  and  choice  of 
varieties  for  general  cult^ire. 


HORTICULTURE.  43 

The  practice  of  ^ape  growing  in  its  various  phases. — I,  The  technique  of 
grape  grafting,  A.  Wannee  (Die  Praxis  des  Weinhaus  in  Einzeldarstellungen. 
I,  Die  Tecknik  der  Rebenvered clung.  Strasshurg,  191S,  pp.  83,  figs.  53). — A 
practical  treatise  on  the  propagation  and  grafting  of  grapes,  including  the  care 
of  the  grafted  plants  in  the  nursery. 

Study  of  the  influence  of  various  grape  stocks  on  the  quality  and  quantity 
of  the  harvest,  H.  Faes  and  F.  Porchet  (Terre  Vaud.,  5  {1913),  Nos.  18,  pp. 
191-193,  fig.  1;  19,  pp.  20Jf,  205,  fig.  1;  20,  pp.  211-213,  figs.  2;  21,  pp.  227-229, 
figs.  2;  22,  pp.  245-2Jf7,  figs.  2;  24,  pp.  265-268,  figs.  2;  26,  pp.  285-288,  figs.  S; 
28,  pp.  301-810,  figs.  3;  31,  pp.  335-338,  figs.  4;  53,  pp.  351,  352).— In  order 
to  determine  the  adaptability  of  a  number  of  pure  American,  American  hybrid, 
and  French-American  Jjybrld  stocks  for  the  Chasselas  grape  9  experimental 
vineyards  were  established  under  the  direction  of  the  Lausanne  Viticultural 
Station.  The  results  of  this  investigation  as  indicated  by  the  quality  and 
quantity  of  the  harvest  in  1911  and  1912  are  here  reported  and  discussed. 

The  sexual  elements  of  grape  hybrids,  M.  Gabd  {Gompt.  Rend.  Acad.  Sci. 
[Paris],  157  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  226-228) .—The  author's  investigations  lead  him 
to  conclude  that  the  deviations  from  normal  in  the  sexual  elements  of  grape 
hybrids  are  courmed  to  the  male  flower,  the  female  flower  remaining  normal. 
Among  European  cultivated  grapes  the  pollen  is  oftentimes  normal,  and  at 
other  times  normal,  hollow-grained,  and  intermediate  forms  of  pollen  occur  on 
the  same  plant,  but  the  normal  grains  are  usually  the  more  numerous.  Pollen 
from  short  stamens,  although  not  infertile,  is  incapable  of  close  fertilization. 

Report  on  the  variability  of  the  coffees  grown  in  the  Dutch  East  Indies, 
P.  J.  S.  Cramer  (Meded.  Dept.  Land}).  [Dutch  East  Indies],  1913,  No.  11,  pp. 
XVI -^696,  pis.  23,  figs.  5). — This  comprises  a  comparative  study  of  the  varieties 
of  coffee  commonly  grown  in  the  Dutch  East  Indies,  Including  also  observa- 
tions on  recently  introduced  forms.  Introductory  considerations  deal  with  the 
present  status  of  coffee  culture  and  varieties  in  Java,  the  introduction  of  new 
sorts  for  cultural  tests,  variability,  comparative  characteristics  of  different 
kinds  of  coffee,  seed  tests,  and  the  methods  followed  in  the  descriptions  of  the 
parent  trees. 

Part  2  discusses  in  detail  the  varieties  of  Coffea  arahica,  including  small- 
leaved,  colored,  erect,  pendulous,  and  the  strong-growing  forms.  The  species 
discussed  in  the  succeeding  parts  include  C.  lihcrica,  C.  abeokutae,  G.  steno- 
phylla,  G.  excelsa,  C.  ugandae,  and  C.  congensis. 

First  report  on  selection  tests  of  Bobusta  coffee,  C.  J.  J.  Van  Hall  (Meded. 
Proefstat.  Midden-Java,  1912,  No.  7,  pp.  23). — With  the  view  of  securing  an 
Improved  form  of  Robusta  coffee,  a  large  number  of  plants  were  studied  with 
reference  to  variations  in  productivity,  disease  resistance,  weight  of  marketable 
product  as  compared  with  yield,  and  quality  of  the  berry.  The  results  of  this 
test  are  here  presented  in  tabular  form  and  discussed. 

On  the  tarring  of  pruning-wounds  in  tea  plants,  C.  Bernard  and  J.  J.  B. 
Deuss  (Dept.  Landb.,  Nijv.  en  Handel  [Dutch  East  Indies],  Meded.  Proefstat. 
Thee,  1913,  No.  25,  pp.  1-8). — In  a  preliminary  test  of  various  tar  preparations, 
black  gas  house  tar  gave  the  most  satisfactory  results  as  a  dressing  for  wounds 
resulting  from  pruning  tea  plants. 

Tea  manuring  experiments,  C.  Bernard  and  J.  J.  B.  Deuss  (Dept.  Landb., 
Nijv.  en  Handel  [Dutch  East  Indies],  Meded.  Proefstat.  Thee,  1913,  No.  25,  pp. 
9-26,  figs.  7). — Some  fertilizer  investigations  with  tea  in  Java  are  here  reported 
and  discussed. 

Leucasna  glauca  as  a  green  manure  for  tea,  C.  Bernard  (Dept.  Landb., 
Ifijv.  en  Handel  [Dutch  East  Indies],  Meded.  Proefstat.  Thee,  1913,  No.  25,  pp. 


44  EXPERIMENT  STATION   KECORD. 

27-30,  pis.  S). — Favorable  results  in  the  use  of  L.  glauca  as  a  green  manure 
crop  for  tea  plantations  are  here  reported. 

Individual  variation  in  the  alkaloidal  content  of  belladonna  plants,  A.  F. 
SiEVERS  (U,  8.  Dept.  Agr.,  Jour.  Agr.  Research,  1  (1913),  No.  2,  pp.  129-1^6, 
fig.  1). — The  author  has  started  an  investigation  to  determine  the  possibility  of 
modifying  the  chemical  constituent  of  a  plant  by  breeding  and  selection.  This 
paper  presents  the  results  of  three  years'  observations  relative  to  the  variation 
of  the  quantity  of  alkaloids  in  the  belladonna  plant  as  studied  at  the  drug- 
testing  garden  at  Bell,  Md.,  and  at  the  Arlington  Experimental  Farm. 

Summarizing  the  work  as  a  whole  it  was  found  that  the  variation  of  the 
percentage  of  alkaloids  in  the  leaves  of  the  different  plants  is  exceedingly  large, 
hence  the  testing  of  a  general  sample  from  all  plants  collectively  is  not  always 
a  safe  means  of  judgment.  A  considerable  number  of  plants  with  leaves  rich 
in  alkaloids  in  one  season  were  found  to  have  equally  rich  leaves  in  the  follow- 
ing season,  and  they  frequently  manifested  the  same  characteristics  at  the 
various  stages  of  growth  during  the  season  in  comparison  with  other  plants. 
The  same  facts  were  true  with  regard  to  plants  which  bear  leaves  with  a 
low  percentage  of  alkaloids.  Thus  far,  however,  nothing  has  been  found  to 
indicate  that  any  correlation  exists  between  the  physical  appearance  of  the 
plant  and  the  alkaloidal  content  of  its  leaves,  luxuriant  growth  being  no  cri- 
terion of  the  medicinal  value  of  the  plant. 

From  the  point  of  view  of  the  percentage  of  alkaloids  present  in  the  leaves  and 
the  quantity  of  material  available,  the  leaves  can  be  picked  to  best  advantage 
from  the  time  of  flowering  until  the  early  berries  begin  to  ripen.  They  are 
richer  in  alkaloids  later  in  the  season  but  are  then  too  small  and  sparse  for 
harvesting. 

Rose  geranium  culture,  E.  Chaeabot  and  C.  K  Gatin  (Jour.  Agr.  Trop.,  13 
(1913),  No.  148,  pp.  289-295). — A  descriptive  account  in  which  consideration  is 
given  to  the  origin  of  rose  geranium  culture  in  France,  Algeria,  and  Reunion, 
methods  of  propagation,  cultural  details,  enemies  and  diseases,  harvesting,  dis- 
tillation and  yields,  and  the  present  and  future  status  of  the  industry. 

FORESTRY. 

Forestry,  H.  Hausrath  (Die  Waldimrtschaft.  In  Das  Lehen  der  Pflanze, 
Alt.  IV:  Die  Pflanzen  und  der  Mensch,  Vol.  I.  Stuttgart,  1913,  pp.  471-611,  pis, 
4,  figs.  70). — An  encyclopedic  treatise  in  which  consideration  is  given  to  the 
history  of  forestry,  forest  management,  forest  protection,  forest  statistics, 
beneficial  effects  of  woods,  and  ornamental  value  of  woodlands. 

Forestry,  A.  Kostlan  (Jahresl)er,  Landw.,  27  (1912),  pp.  215-228). — A  re- 
view of  recent  contributions  to  forest  literature  in  Germany. 

Logging,  R.  C.  Bryant  (Neiv  York  and  London,  1913,  pp.  XVIII -{-590,  figs. 
133). — A  text-book  on  the  principles  and  general  methods  of  operation  in  the 
United  States.  Part  1  contains  a  general  discussion  of  forest  resources,  pro- 
tection of  forest  property,  and  timber  bonds.  The  succeeding  parts  take  up 
in  detail  the  methods  of  preparing  logs  for  transport,  land  transport,  water 
transport,  summary  of  logging  methods  in  specific  regions,  and  minor  industries. 

A  bibliography  together  with  terms  used  in  logging  (E.  S.  R.,  17,  p.  373), 
log  rules,  and  other  data  relating  to  the  industry  are  appended. 

Work  of  the  Dominion  Forestry  Branch,  R.  H.  Campbell  (Com.  Conserv, 
Canada  Rpt.,  4  (1913),  pp.  32-40).— A  review  of  the  work  of  the  Dominion 
Forestry  Branch,  presented  at  the  fourth  annual  meeting  of  the  Commission 
of  Conservation  of  Canada,  Ottawa,  January  21-22,  1913. 


FORESTRY.  45 

[Report  of  the]  committee  on  forests,  C.  Leavitt  et  al.  {Com.  Consevv. 
Canada  Rpt.,  4  {1913),  pp.  16-31,  178-180,  pis.  5).— This  comprises  the  report 
of  the  forestry  committee  of  the  Commission  of  Conservation  of  Canada  for  the 
fiscal  year  ended  March  31,  1913,  including  also  the  resolutions  pertaining  to 
forestry  that  were  adopted  by  the  commission. 

Forest  policy  of  British  Columbia,  W.  R.  Ross  {[Victoria],  1913,  pp.  17). — 
This  is  a  full  report  of  the  author's  speech  in  which  he  reviews  the  progress 
that  forest  conservation  has  made  in  British  Columbia. 

Avondale  Forestry  Station,  A.  C.  Forbes  {Dept.  Agr.  and  Tech.  Instr.  Ire- 
land Jour.,  14  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  102-125,  pis.  6). — This  comprises  a  general 
description  of  the  Avondale  Forestry  Station,  including  a  progress  report  of 
the  work  for  the  period  1906  to  1912. 

Report  on  forest  statistics  of  Alsace-Lorraine  {Beitr.  Forststatis.  Elsnss- 
Lothringen,  1911,  No.  30,  pp.  100,  figs.  17). — This  is  the  customary  statistical 
review,  for  the  year  1911,  relative  to  the  administration  of  the  state,  public, 
and  community  forests  in  Alsace-Lorraine.  Detailed  and  summarized  data 
dealing  with  forest  areas,  silvicultural  operations,  products,  revenues,  ex- 
penditures, etc.,  are  given,  including  a  comparative  summary  for  each  year 
since  1872. 

The  sun  energ-y  in  the  forest,  M.  Wagner  {Allg.  Forst.  u.  Jagd  Ztg.,  89 
{1913),  June,  pp.  185-200;  July,  pp.  225-242,  fig.  1;  Sept.,  pp.  297-316,  fig.  1; 
Oct.,  pp.  333-351,  fig.  1). — A  study  of  the  relation  of  the  sun's  energy  to  forest 
growth,  in  which  the  author  sets  forth  his  observations  and  deductions  in  a 
series  of  articles  as  follows:  (1)  The  Influence  of  Geographic  Latitude  on 
Crown  Development,  Volume  Production,  Stem  Basal  Area,  Stem  Number,  and 
Brush  Wood;  (2)  The  Distribution  of  the  Sun's  Rays  in  the  Forest,  with 
Special  Reference  to  the  Selection  Strip  Cutting;  (3)  The  Absorption  of  Sun 
Ehiergy  in  Green  Plant  Leaves  and  Its  Relation  to  the  Locality  and  to  Volume 
Production;  and  (4)  Light  Measurements  in  the  Forest  and  Their  Importance 
for  Practical  Forestry. 

Contribution  to  the  knowledg-e  of  the  influence  of  aquatic  mediums  on  the 
roots  of  trees,  G.  Bondois  {Ann.  Sci.  Nat.  Dot.,  9.  ser.,  18  {1913),  No.  1-2,  pp. 
1-24,  fi9S.  9). — The  author's  investigations  as  here  reported  lead  him  to  con- 
clude in  general  that  although  the  adaptation  of  tree  roots  to  aquatic  mediums 
may  be  less  marked  than  their  adaptation  to  aerial  mediums  it  is  nevertheless 
quite  appreciable.  The  roots  appear  to  be  influenced  by  both  the  physical  and 
chemical  nature  of  the  water.  Since  water  is  a  homogeneous  medium  the  rnot 
growth  is  equal  and  symmetrical  in  all  directions.  On  account  of  its  density 
the  water  acts  as  a  partial  support  to  the  roots,  whence  arises  a  reduction  in 
the  supporting  system.  In  order  to  adapt  themselves  for  flonting  the  roots 
lighten  themselves  by  the  development  of  air  cells.  Since  the  food  supplied 
to  the  roots  is  liquid  the  absorption  and  conducting  systems  become  retluced. 
Since  the  absorption  takes  place  throughout  the  emerged  surface  a  great  abun- 
dance of  lenticels  are  formed  on  the  older  roots. 

Florida  trees,  J.  K.  Small  {New  York,  1913,  pp.  IX -{-107). —This  handbook 
contains  descriptions  of  all  the  trees  known  to  the  author  to  be  native  to  or  to 
grow  naturally  in  Florida. 

The  forests  of  the  Far  East,  A.  Hofmann  {Aus  den  Waldnngen  dcs  fernen 
Ostens.  Vienna  and  Leipsic,  1913.  pp.  VIII +225,  pis.  56.  figs.  P).— A  descriptive 
account  of  the  forests  and  of  forestry  in  the  Far  East,  based  upon  the  author's 
travels  and  studies  in  Japan,  Fornjosa,  Korea,  and  the  bordering  districts  of 
eastern  Asia,  together  with  a  review  of  the  literature  on  the  subject. 


46  EXPERIMENT  STATION   RECORD. 

Introductory  cousiderations  deal  with  the  geology,  climate,  and  forest  geogra- 
phy of  the  region  under  discussion.  The  succeeding  chapters  deal  with  the 
silvicultural  practices;  ownership  and  management  relations;  utilization; 
timber  sales;  wood  industries  and  trade;  strength  investigations;  transporta- 
tion ;  forest  policies,  laws,  and  administration ;  the  relation  between  the  forests 
and  streams;  game  and  hunting;  and  the  national  attitude  toward  the  forests. 

Some  Douglas  fir  plantations. — II,  Cochwillan  wood,  near  Llandegai, 
North  Wales,  T.  Thomson  {Jour.  Bd.  Agr.  [London^,  20  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  499- 
503). — In  continuation  of  previous  observations  on  Douglas  fir  plantations  (E. 
S.  R.,  29,  p.  644)  some  diameter,  height,  and  volume  measurements  are  given  for 
a  58-year-old  Douglas  fir  stand  growing  in  a  mixture  with  oak,  near  Llandegai, 
North  Wales. 

The  structure  of  the  wood  of  East  Indian  species  of  Pinus,  P.  Groom  and 
W.  RusHTON  {Jour.  Linn.  Soc.  [London]  Bot.,  41  {1913),  No.  283,  pp.  457-490, 
pis.  2). — In  the  first  part  of  this  paper  the  authors  give  their  general  con- 
clusions and  summarize  the  results  secured  from  a  detailed  study  of  the  wood 
structure  of  5  species  of  East  Indian  pine.  The  second  part  of  the  paper  de- 
scribes in  detail  the  wood  structure  of  the  different  species. 

The  kapok  trees  of  Togo,  E.  Ulbbich  {NotizU.  E.  Bot.  Gart.  u.  Miis.  Berlin, 
6  {1913),  No.  52,  pp.  39-65,  figs.  2). — This  comprises  the  results  of  inquiries  sent 
out  to  the  various  districts  of  Togo  relative  to  the  characteristics  and  varying 
forms  of  the  kapok  trees. 

The  "  wood-oil  "  trees  of  China  and  Japan,  E.  H.  Wilson  {Bui.  Imp.  Inst. 
[80.  Kensijigton],  11  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  44I-46I,  pis.  5). — The  author  here  gives 
a  descriptive  account  of  the  Chinese  wood  oils  and  the  trees  yielding  them,  with 
special  reference  to  the  utilization  of  these  facts  by  various  departments  of  agri- 
culture in  the  warm  temperate  and  subtropical  parts  of  the  world  which  con- 
template the  experimental  culture  of  these  trees.  A  revision  of  the  synonymy 
with  principal  references  to  the  literature  is  appended. 

Tagua,  vegetable  ivory,  E.  Albes  {Bui.  Pan  Amer.  Union,  37  {1913),  No.  2, 
pp.  192-208,  figs.  21). — A  descriptive  account  is  given  of  the  tagua  palm  {Phy- 
telcphas  macrocarpa)  with  reference  to  its  botany  and  habitat,  methods  of 
harvesting  and  marketing  the  tagua  nuts,  and  their  utilization  in  the  manufac- 
ture of  vegetable  ivory  buttons. 

Uses  of  commercial  woods  of  the  United  States. — Beech,  birches,  and 
maples,  H.  Maxwell  {U.  8.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  12,  pp.  56). — In  continuation  of 
previous  studies  of  the  commercial  woods  of  the  United  States  (B.  S.  R.,  2G, 
p.  50)  consideration  is  here  given  to  the  closely  related  beech,  birch,  and  maple 
group,  including  some  18  commercial  species,  with  special  reference  to  the  phys- 
ical properties,  supply,  and  uses  of  the  various  woods. 

The  wood-using  industries  of  Iowa,  H.  Maxwell  and  J.  T.  Harris  {Iowa 
8ta.  Bill.  142,  pp.  237-304,  PQS.  i.S).— This  report  embraces  the  results  of  an 
investigation  conducted  cooperatively  by  the  Forest  Service  of  the  U.  S.  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  and  the  Iowa  Station  relative  to  the  utilization  by  various 
industries  in  Iowa  of  wood  after  it  has  left  the  sawmill.  The  data  presented 
and  discussed  show  the  total  demands  for  each  species  by  the  difi:'erent  indus- 
tries; cost  of  the  raw  material  f.  o.  b.  factory;  the  articles  made  from  each 
kind  of  wood;  the  relative  amounts  supplied  by  the  State  and  by  outside  States; 
and  the  qualities  of  the  wood  which  recommend  it  for  a  specific  use. 

A  directory  of  Iowa  wood  users  is  given  and  the  following  special  chapters 
are  also  included:  The  Timber  Resources  of  Iowa,  by  G.  B.  MacDonald  (pp. 
291-300)  ;  and  White  Pine  in  Iowa,  by  N.  C.  Brown  (pp.  301-304). 

Forest  products  of  Canada,  1912. — Lumber,  square  timber,  lath,  and 
shingles,  R.  G.  Lewis  and  W.  G.  H.  Boyce  {Dept.  Int.  Canada,  Forestry  Branch 


DISEASES    OF    PLANTS.  47 

Bul.  40,  191S,  pp.  67,  pi.  1). — A  statistical  report  on  the  manufacture  of  lumber, 
square  timber,  lath,  and  shingles  in  the  Dominion  and  the  various  Provinces 
for  the  calendar  year  1912.    The  ijroduction  is  also  indicated  by  species. 

The  total  value  of  lumber,  square  timber,  lath,  and  shingles  produced  in 
Canada  in  1912  was  $76,540,879,  of  which  amount  the  lumber  represents  about 
$09,500,000. 

To  get  long  life  from  untreated  timber  in  trestles  {En^in.  Rec,  68  {1913), 
No.  20,  p.  542). — This  comprises  suggestions  made  by  the  committee  on  the 
preservation  of  timber  of  the  American  Railway  Bridge  and  Building  Associa- 
tion relative  to  methods  of  prolonging  the  life  of  overhead  timber  and  piles  used 
in  trestle  work  which  receive  no  preservative  treatment.  A  table  is  also  given 
showing  the  relative  length  of  life  of  various  structural  timbers  in  contact  with 
the  soil  and  in  the  air. 

DISEASES  OF  PLANTS. 

Smut  diseases  of  cultivated  plants,  their  cause  and  control,  H.  T.  Gussow 
(Canada  Cent.  Expt.  Farm  Bul.  73,  pp.  57,  figs.  9). — After  a  general  discussion 
of  smuts  as  related  to  plants,  the  author  describes  the  smuts  of  wheat,  barley, 
oats,  corn,  broom  corn,  and  millet,  giving  methods  for  their  control,  as  far  as 
definite  recommendations  can  be  made. 

Further  cultures  of  heteroecious  rusts,  W.  P.  Fraseb  (Mycologia,  5  (1913), 
No.  4,  pp.  233-239). — The  author  adds  to  studies  previously  reported  (E.  S.  R., 
28,  p.  51)  an  account  of  5  rusts  of  the  genus  Uredinopsis  whose  life  histories 
are  claimed  to  be  established  for  the  first  time;  and,  in  addition,  3  life  histories 
supplementing  previous  work. 

Some  important  contributions  on  fungus  diseases  of  plants  appearing  in 
1912-13,  E.  RiEHM  (Mycol.  Centhl.,  3  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  66-76) .—Bvief  notes 
are  given  of  studies  on  plant  diseases  in  1912-13,  concluding  with  a  list  of  about 
SO  articles  representing  about  70  different  contributors. 

Diseases  of  agricultural  crops,  1912,  J.  Lind,  Sofie  Rosteup,  and  F.  K. 
Ravn  {Tidsskr.  Landbr.  Plantcavl,  20  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  249-280) .—The  more 
important  plant  diseases  and  insect  pests  observed  in  Denmark  during  the  year 
are  described  and  discussed. 

"Work  of  the  phytopathological  section  of  the  central  agricultural  ex- 
periment station  in  Stockholm  in  1912,  J.  Eriksson  {Inio-nat.  Inst.  Agr. 
[Rome],  Mo.  Bul.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  4  {1913),  No.  7,  pp.  1005- 
1008). — A  condensed  account  is  given  of  observations  carried  out  on  potato 
diseases,  including  Phytophthora  infestans,  Hypochnus  solani  or  Rhizoetonia 
solani,  and  Chrysophlyctis  endohiotica  or  Synchytrium  solani;  on  beet  diseases, 
including  Uromyees  betw,  Bacillus  tahiflcans,  R.  violacea,  Phoma  betw,  Cerco- 
spora  beticola,  Sporidesmium  putrefaciens,  etc. ;  on  withering  of  blooms  on 
fruit  trees;  and  on  various  diseases  of  vegetables.  A  list  of  the  station  publi- 
cations jippearing  in  1912  is  also  given. 

Work  of  the  observatory  of  phytopathology  in  Turin,  P.  Voglino 
{Internat.  Inst.  Agr.  [Rome],  Mo.  Bul.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  4  {1913), 
No.  7,  pp.  1000-1005). — This  is  a  brief  account  of  the  organization  of  this 
institution,  and  of  parasitic  fungi,  etc.,  studied  there,  by  years  from  1904  to 
1912. 

Plant  diseases,  E.  W.  Davy  (Nyasaland  Dept.  Agr.  Ann.  Rpt.  1913,  pp.  23, 
24)' — Brief  notes  are  given  on  the  occurrence  of  frog-eye  of  tobacco  due  to 
Cercospora  nicotiancB,  the  attack  of  safflower  by  a  species  of  Vermicularla,  a 
disease  of  Ceara  rubber  tree  due  to  some  species  of  Polyporaceae  as  yet  unde- 
termined, and  the  orange  scab  caused  by  Cladosporium  citri.     The  presence  of 


48  EXPERIMENT  STATION   RECORD. 

peculiar  wart-like  excrescences  on  the  leaves  of  oranges  is  reported  from  Cen- 
tral Angoniland,  but  so  far  no  fungus  or  other  growth  has  been  found  associated 
with  this  trouble.  A  blackening  and  dying  of  the  shoots  of  young  camphor 
trees  is  reported,  due  to  some  indeterminate  cause,  as  is  also  a  spasmodic 
disease  of  tea,  in  which  a  shot  hole  effect  is  produced  on  the  leaves. 

Some  fung-i  parasitic  on  tropical  plants,  E.  Griffon  and  A.  Maublanc  (Bui. 
Trimest.  Soc.  Mycol.  France,  29  (1913),  No.  2,  pp.  2U-250,  pi.  1,  figs.  2;  ahs.  in 
Internal.  Inst.  Agr.  [Ronie'\,  Mo.  Bui.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  4  (1913), 
No.  7,  pp.  1120,  1121). — The  authors  report  as  the  result  of  their  study  of 
material  sent  from  the  mouth  of  the  Amazon  that  Dothidella  ulei  in  its  vari- 
ous forms  is  found  living  parasitically  on  leaves  of  Hevea  brasiliensis.  It 
seems  to  be  harmless  under  normal  conditions  although  nursery  plants,  as  in 
case  of  some  examined,  may  suffer  considerably  from  its  presence. 

On  leaves  of  Butyrospermum  parkii  from  near  Kulikoro  (Upper  Senegal 
and  Niger),  were  found  2  fungi  considered  to  be  new  and  described  under  the 
names  of  Fusicladium  hutyrospenni  and  Pestalozzia  heterospora. 

Handbook  of  fung'us  diseases  of  the  potato  in  Australia  and  their  treat- 
ment, D.  McAlpine  (Melhoume:  Dept.  Agr.  Victoria,  1912,  pp.  Ill +215,  figs. 
158,  map  1;  rev.  in  Nature  [London^,  92  (1913),  No.  2289,  p.  27).— In  this  book 
the  author  gives  detailed  accounts  of  the  diseases  of  the  potato,  particularly 
those  caused  by  Phytophthora  infestans,  Alternaria  solani,  Riiizoctonia  sp., 
Fusarium  solani,  Bacillus  solanacearum,  and  the  diseases  known  as  scab. 

Bacterial  disease  of  potatoes,  T.  G.  B.  Osbobn  (Jour.  Dept.  Agr.  So.  Aust., 
17  (1913),  No.  1,  pp.  19-21,  fig.  1). — Specimens  of  potatoes  attacked  by  the 
bacterial  rot  (Bacillus  solanacearum)  were  submitted  to  the  author  for  study, 
and  it  seems  that  this  disease  has  become  established  in  South  Australia. 
The  disease  occurs  also  in  Victoria,  where  it  is  popularly  known  as  sore  eyes, 
from  the  moist  condition  of  the  buds  in  the  early  stages  of  the  rot. 

Suggestions  are  given  for  the  control  of  the  disease,  which  include  the 
removal  and  burning  of  infected  plants,  the  use  of  clean  seed  tubers,  and  the 
rotation  of  crops. 

Report  of  the  committee  for  study  of  leaf  roll. — VII,  Biolog-y  of  the  potato 
plant  with  particular  reference  to  leaf  roll,  O.  Reitmaik  (Ztschr.  Landw. 
Versuchsw.  Osterr.,  16  (1913),  No.  6,  pp.  653-717).— Besides  a  discusssion  of 
statements  by  other  investigators,  the  author  gives  in  continuance  of  previous 
reports  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  p.  447)  the  results  obtained  in  a  series  of  recent  inves- 
tigations. He  states  in  conclusion  that  while  leaf  roll  is  a  relative  term  ren- 
dering reports  by  various  observers  uncertain  or  conflicting  in  cases  not  very 
marked,  it  may  be  stated  with  a  degree  of  certainty  that  instances  of  transitory 
leaf  roll  or  of  recovery  in  well  established  cases  have  not  been  seen  by  him ; 
that  this  trouble  normally  shows  itself  relatively  late  in  the  development  of 
the  potato  plant,  usually  near  the  middle  of  June,  when  individuals  which 
have  inherited  this  trouble  in  typical  degree  show  along  with  precocious  bloom- 
ing a  development  of  storing  organs  and  marked  setback  in  growth  of  the 
plant,  especially  as  regards  the  root  system;  that  as  soon  as  the  other  signs 
of  leaf  roll  appear,  a  disturbance  or  checking  of  the  transportation  of  elaborated 
materials  from  the  leaves  is  observable  with  alterations  of  phloem,  concerning 
which  further  study  is  regarded  as  desirable;  and  that  considerable  varia- 
tions are  observable  as  regards  the  degree  of  susceptibility  of  different  varie- 
ties of  potatoes  to  this  trouble. 

The  recent  researches  of  Quanjer  as  to  the  cause  of  potato  leaf  roll  and 
Sorauer's  standpoint,  P.  Sorauek  (Ztschr.  Pflanzenkrank.,  23  (1913),  No.  4, 
pp.  2Jf4-253). — A  critical  discussion  of  an  article  previously  noted   (E.  S.  R., 


DISEASES   OF   PLANTS.  49 

29,  p.  347),  citing  also  views  of  other  investigators  regarding  leaf  roll  of 
potatoes. 

The  persistence  of  the  potato  late  blig-ht  fungus  in  the  soil,  F.  C.  Stiwabt 
(New  York  State  Sta.  Bui.  367,  pp.  S57-S61). — On  account  of  conflicting  state- 
ments regarding  the  persistence  of  the  fungus  Phytophthora  infestans  in  the 
soil  and  the  discovery  of  the  oospores  of  the  potato  blight  (E.  S.  R.,  25.  p. 
545),  the  author  carried  on  experiments  in  soil  from  a  field  in  which  a  large 
portion  of  the  potato  crop  had  been  destroyed  by  the  Phytophthora  rot.  The 
soil  together  with  a  quantity  of  blighted  potato  stems  was  phiced  in  wooden 
boxes,  which  were  left  in  the  field  until  late  in  January  when  they  were  brought 
into. the  greenhouse  and  planted  to  potatoes.  A  second  experiment,  which  was 
practically  a  repetition  of  the  first  with  some  modifications,  was  conducted,  but 
the  results  were  negative  in  each  case. 

The  conclusion  is  reached  that  while  the  negative  results  do  not  prove  that  the 
Phytophthora  does  not  persist  in  the  soil,  they  make  such  persistence  appear 
highly  improbable,  and  the  removal  of  diseased  tubers  from  the  field,  as  recom- 
mended by  Massee  (E.  S.  R.,  17,  p.  45),  is  considered  unnecessary.  While  the 
planting  of  potatoes  after  potatoes  is  said  to  have  a  tendency  to  increase  scab, 
wilt,  and  other  diseases,  it  is  believed  that  there  is  no  risk  in  the  practice  bo 
far  as  the  late  blight  or  rot  is  concerned. 

Does  winter  kill  potato  blight  in  the  soil?  F.  H.  Hall  (New  York  State  Sta. 
Bui.  861,  popular  ed.,  p.  1). — This  is  a  popular  edition  of  the  above. 

Potato  spraying  experiments  in  1911,  N.  J.  Giddings  {West  Virginia  Sta. 
Rpt.  1912,  pp.  77,  78). — An  account  is  given  of  experiments  conducted  at  Mounds- 
ville,  W.  Va.,  during  1911  with  the  object  of  determining  the  relative  value  of 
Bordeaux  mixture  when  prepared  by  various  methods  of  mixing  or  by  using 
formulas  other  than  those  commonly  employed.  Atomic  sulphur  was  also  tested 
as  a  spray  for  potatoes. 

The  weather  during  the  early  part  of  the  season  was  exceedingly  dry  and 
hot,  and  many  of  the  plants  were  destroyed.  The  results  as  to  spray  mixtures 
are  not  considered  of  any  special  value,  as  it  was  impossible  to  get  the  potatoes 
sprayed  at  a  time  when  they  were  most  seriously  in  need  of  it. 

Ufra  disease  of  rice,  E.  J.  Butlfr  {Agr.  Jour.  India,  8  {WIS),  No.  S,  pp. 
205-220,  pi.  1,  fig.  1). — In  continuation  of  a  preliminary  note  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p. 
151),  a  detailed  account  is  given  of  a  study  of  this  rice  disease  in  India. 

Two  distinct  manifestations  of  the  disease  are  described,  and  it  has  been  defi- 
nitely determined  that  it  is  due  to  Tylenchus  sp.  The  occurrence  of  this  disease 
has  been  known  for  a  number  of  years,  but  only  recently  has  it  become  very 
destructive,  losses  of  from  10  per  cent  to  total  destruction  of  fields  having  been 
reported. 

The  different  crops  of  rice  are  said  to  be  affected  in  unlike  manner,  and 
transplanted  rice  seems  practically  free  from  attack.  A  lack  of  aeration  of  the 
soil  is  thought  to  favor  the  attack  of  the  nematodes,  but  other  considerations, 
among  them  the  accumulation  of  nitrites,  must  be  taken  into  account  in  plans 
for  the  control  of  this  disease.  A  special  grant  has  been  made  in  Bengal  for 
extensive  experiments  on  means  for  its  control. 

Notes  on  sereh  disease  of  sugar  cane,  S.  F.  Ashby  {Bui.  Dept.  Agr.  Jamaica, 
n.  ser.,  2  {1913^,  No.  7,  pp.  239,  240,  pi.  1). — On  account  of  the  suspected  oc- 
currence of  the  serch  disease  of  sugar  cane  in  Trinidad,  the  author  gives  a  de- 
Bcription  of  the  external  and  internal  appearances  of  diseased  cane.  Two  views 
are  held  regarding  the  cause  of  this  disease,  one  that  it  is  due  to  a  gum-form- 
ing bacterium,  and  the  other  that  it  is  caused  by  a  lack  of  balance  in  enzym 
action  within  the  living  cells  of  the  plant,  brought  about  by  abnormal  condi- 
tions of  the  soil,  cultivation,  manuring,  etc. 


50  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

Rang-pur  tobacco  wilt,  C.  M.  Hutchinson  (Mem.  Dept.  Agr.  India,  Bad. 
Ser.,  1  (1913),  No.  2,  pp.  67-84,  pis.  12).— The  wilting  of  tobacco  plants,  due  to 
infection  with  a  bacterium  similar  to  Bacillus  solanacearum,  is  said  to  occur 
annually  in  the  Rangpur  district  of  Bengal.  It  is  thought  that  the  infecting 
organism  is  probably  unable  to  gain  entrance  into  the  plant  except  through  the 
intervention  of  some  mechanical  injury  or  of  organisms  such  as  nematodes, 
which  bore  into  the  roots  of  the  plant. 

For  the  control  of  the  disease  attempts  should  be  made  to  conserve  the  soil 
moisture  and  develop  the  root  system  so  as  to  produce  a  better  and  more  rapid 
growth.  All  diseased  plants  should  be  removed  and  burned,  and  the  use  of 
alkaline  manures  should  be  avoided  as  much  as  possible. 

Diseases  of  the  tomato  in  Louisiana,  C.  W.  Edgeeton  and  C.  C.  Moeeland 
{Louisiana  Stas.  Bui.  142,  pp.  23,  figs.  S). — There  are  said  to  be  ten  diseases  of 
tomatoes  known  in  Louisiana  as  follows:  Tomato  wilt  (Fusarium  lycopersici) , 
early  blight  (Alternaria  solani),  Sclerotium  wilt  disease  (S.  rolfsii),  root  knot 
(Heterodera  radicicola),  blossom  end  rot,  leaf  mold  (Cladosponum  fulvum), 
anthrticnose  {Oloeosporium  fructigenum) ,  southern  tomato  blight  i Bacterium 
solamacearum) ,  leaf  curl,  and  damping  off  (Rhizoctonia  sp.).  These  diseases 
are  described  at  some  length  and  means  are  suggested  for  their  prevention,  as 
far  as  any  are  known. 

In  connection  with  the  wilt  the  author  states  that  some  wilt  resistant 
varieties  have  been  developed  at  the  station  at  Baton  Rouge,  and  seed  of  these 
is  to  be  distributed  for  further  trial  in  the  State. 

Apple  leaf  spot  (Jour.  Bd.  Agr.  [London],  20  (1913),  No.  6,  pp.  513-515, 
pi.  1). — ^A  description  is  given  of  the  apple  leaf  spot  due  to  8ph<Bropsis  malorum, 
which,  it  is  said,  has  only  recently  been  reported  in  Great  Britain,  although  in 
all  probability  it  has  been  present  for  a  considerable  time  and  has  been  over- 
looked or  confused  with  other  diseases. 

Peach  leaf  curl  fungus:  Further  tests  with  copper  compounds,  G.  Quinn 
{Jour.  Dept.  Agr.  So.  Aust.,  17  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  28-32).— In  1910  a  series  of 
spraying  tests  for  the  control  of  the  peach  leaf  cucl  fungus  {Exoascus  defor- 
mans) was  reported  (E.  S.  R.,  26,  p.  144).  In  1911  the  treatment  as  planned 
was  not  carried  out,  but  it  was  repeated  in  1912,  and  an  account  is  given  of  the 
results.  The  spraying  compounds  used  were  Bordeaux  mixture.  Burgundy  mix- 
ture, Woburn  Bordeaux  mixture,  copper  sulphate  solution,  and  Bordeaux 
powder. 

As  a  result  of  the  two  seasons'  trials,  Burgundy  mixture  is  deemed  well 
adapted  to  the  control  of  the  peach  leaf  curl.  When  applied  twice  during  the 
season  ordinary  Bordeaux  mixture  was  very  efficient,  and  a  single  season's 
trial  has  given  similar  results  with  the  Woburn  Bordeaux  mixture.  Copper 
sulphate  solution,  while  giving  good  results  in  1910,  proved  almost  a  failure  in 
1912,  so  far  as  the  control  of  the  disease  was  concerned.  The  Bordeaux  powder 
seems  to  be  promising,  but  the  results  of  1  and  2  applications  are  said  to  be 
contradictory. 

Comparative  experiments  with  sprays  against  leaf  cast  of  grape,  A. 
Bretschneidee  {Ztschr.  Landic.  Versuchsw.  Osterr.,  16  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  718- 
725).— Giving  the  results  of  recent  experiments  with  means  of  combating 
Peronospora  viticola,  the  author  sums  up  the  results  of  his  studies  during  about 
four  years  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  p.  652)  by  stating  that  besides  Bordeaux  mixture  some 
commercial  preparations  have  been  found  entirely  satisfactory  and  a  few  others 
named  measurably  so,  while  still  others  mentioned  as  on  trial  seem  to  promise 
good  results. 

A  disease  of  cacao  trees  due  to  Lasiodiplodia  theobromae,  P.  Beethault 
{Bui.  Trimest.  Soc.  Mycol.  France,  29  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  359-361;  Agron.  Colon., 


DISEASES   OF   PLANTS.  51 

/  iJ91S),  No.  1,  pp.  8-U,  pl-  i,  figs.  5).— The  author  states  that  in  Dahomey  a 
disease  of  cacao  trees  is  present  which  is  commonly  designated  as  sunstrolie 
or  apoplexy.  The  leaves  on  the  trees  often  turn  yellow,  dry,  and  fall  without 
the  trees  showing  any  pronounced  indication  of  disease.  The  trouble  seems 
most  prevalent  during  the  dry  season,  and  in  certain  regions  three-fourths  of 
the  plants  have  been  attacked.  A  study  of  the  leaves  showed  they  were  para- 
sitized by  a  fungus  which  proved  to  be  L.  theohromw.  The  synonymy  of  the 
fungus  is  given,  from  which  it  appears  that  it  has  been  previously  described 
under  a  number  of  names. 

Nematode  worms  and  mottled  leaf,  J.  R.  Hodges  (Mo.  Bui.  Com.  Hort.  Cal., 
2  {191S),  No.  6,  pp.  555,  550). — An  account  of  Investigation  and  treatment  of 
mottled  leaf  of  citrus  trees. 

An  examination  of  affected  trees  on  different  kinds  of  soil  showed  an  im- 
perfect condition  in  the  fibrous  root  system  common  to  all  trees  badly  affected 
with  mottled  leaf.  By  scraping  the  rootlets  while  submerged  in  water,  live, 
actively  moving  nematodes  were  found,  in  many  cases  these  being  very  numer- 
ous on  badly  decayed  roots.  It  is  suggested  that  these  often  infest  the  roots 
of  transplanted  nursery  stock  and  that  they  also  spread  from  one  tree  to 
another  in  irrigation  and  storm  water.  It  is  said  that  some  of  these  nematodes 
were  kept  for  8  days  in  water  without  apparent  injury.  In  badly  infested 
orchards  they  appear  to  attack  also  the  roots  of  various  weeds. 

The  author  reports  some  success  in  treating  affected  trees  with  carbon  bisul- 
phid.  The  best  results  were  obtained  by  making  shallow  holes  about  2  in.  deep, 
1  ft.  apart  each  way,  and  putting  about  three-fourths  of  an  ounce  of  carbon 
bisulphid  in  each  hole,  the  ground  being  then  covered  with  an  impervious  tent 
or  cloth  which  was  allowed  to  remain  for  about  48  hours.  After  this  treat- 
ment no  live  nematodes  could  be  found.  Just  how  much  smaller  dosage  could 
be  used  with  success  is  not  known,  but  trees  treated  with  greater  amounts 
showed  injury,  losing  their  leaves.  After  treating,  the  ground  was  covered 
with  a  mulch  of  barnyard  manure  about  1  in.  thick  which  kept  up  an  even 
moisture  content  of  about  10  per  cent  during  the  season  following.  The  trees 
then  showed  a  normal  condition  of  fibrous  roots,  and  while  not  entirely  free 
from  the  nematodes,  they  are  now  reported  as  doing  very  well. 

Two  fungi  as  causal  agents  in  gummosis  of  lemon  trees  in  California, 
H.  S.  Fawcett  (Mo.  Bui.  Com.  Hort.  Cal.,  2  (1913),  No.  8,  pp.  601-617,  figs. 
12). — It  is  stated  that  at  least  two  forms  of  gummosis  occur  in  California  that 
are  readily  transmissible  by  inoculation.  One  of  these  is  due  to  the  fungus 
Botrytis  vulgaris,  the  other  to  the  brown  rot  fungus  (Pythiacystis  citroph- 
thora). 

The  Botrytis  gummosis  is  characterized  by  the  killing  of  the  outer  layer 
of  the  bark  much  in  advance  of  the  inner,  and  by  a  softening  of  the  bark  and 
the  production  of  spores  in  moist  weather,  where  the  bark  is  entirely  killed 
to  the  wood.  The  brown  rot  gummosis  is  characterized  by  the  killing  of  the 
bark  to  the  wood  as  the  area  of  infection  advances,  without  outward  evidence 
of  the  fungus  at  any  time. 

The  use  of  concentrated  Bordeaux  mixture  or  Bordeaux  paste  has  given 
promising  results  in  the  treatment  of  these  forms  of  gummosis  if  the  diseased 
areas  were  properly  prepared  before  their  application. 

Two  fungus  parasites  of  Agati  grandiflora,  E.  Foex  (Bui.  Trimest.  Soc. 
Mycol.  France,  29  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  348-352,  figs.  5).— Descriptions  are  given  of 
O'idlurn  agatidis  n.  sp.  and  Cercospora  agatidis  n.  sp.,  parasitic  on  A.  grandi- 
I'ora,  an  ornamental  tree  extensively  grown  in  Cochin  China. 

The  structure  and  systematic  position  of  Mapea  radiata,  R.  Maire  (/?///. 
Trimest.  Soc.  Mycol.  France,  29   {1913),  No.  S,  pp.  335-338,  fig.  l).—ln  1906 


52  EXPERIMENT  STATION  RECOED. 

there  was  described  by  Patouillard  as  new,  under  the  name  M.  radiata,  a  para- 
site of  the  pods  of  the  leguminous  tree  Inocarpus  edulis,  and  at  that  time  it 
was  considered  as  belonging  to  the  Uredinese.  Other  investigators  have  since 
claimed  that  it  is  only  a  young  form  of  Marasmius  hygrometricus. 

The  author  of  the  present  paper  reports  a  cytological  study  of  the  fungus. 
He  has  grown  it  on  culture  media  and  as  the  result  of  inoculation  experiments 
proved  it  to  be  a  parasite  on  Inocarpus  pods.  He  agrees  with  Patouillard  that 
the  fungus  belongs  to  the  Uredineje  and  is  probably  a  reduced  form  of  Uredo. 

A  new  species  of  Endothia,  L.  Petbi  (Atti  R.  Accad.  Lincei,  Rend.  CI.  8ci. 
Fis.,  Mat.  e  Nat.,  5.  ser.,  22  {1913),  I,  No.  9,  pp.  653-658,  figs.  2;  a&s.  in  Internat. 
Inst.  Agr.  [Rome],  Mo.  Bui.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  4  {1913),  No.  7,  pp. 
1121,  1122). — The  author  describes  under  the  name  E.  pseudoradicalis  a  fungus, 
supposedly  new,  found  near  the  bases  of  chestnuts  6  or  6  years  old  sprung  from 
stumps  of  trees  cut  on  account  of  black  canker.  The  Endothia  is  said  to  show 
in  one  direction  characters  resembling  E.  virginiana  and  in  another  those  re- 
sembling E.  parasitica. 

More  on  black  canker  of  chestnut  in  reply  to  L.  Petri,  G.  Beiosi  and  R. 
Faeneti  {Atti  R.  Accad.  Lincei,  Rend.  CI.  Sci.  Fis.,  Mat.  e  Nat.,  5.  ser.,  22 
(1913),  II,  No.  2,  pp.  49-52). — A  controversial  note,  referring  also  to  a  report 
by  Ducomet  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  240). 

Critical  considerations  on  black  canker  of  chestnut,  L.  Petbi  {Atti  R. 
Accad.  Lincei,  Rend.  CI.  Sci.  Fis.,  Mat.  e  Nat.,  5.  ser.,  22  {1913),  I,  No.  7,  pp. 
464-468).— A  discussion  of  the  foregoing  article. 

Three  undescribed  heart  rots  of  hardwood  trees,  especially  of  oak,  W.  H. 
Long  {U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.,  Jour.  Agr.  Research,  1  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  109-128,  pis. 
2). — In  connection  with  a  study  of  oak  trees  in  the  Ozark  National  Forest, 
Arkansas,  the  author  recognized  at  least  20  different  kinds  of  heart  rots,  some 
of  which  appear  to  have  been  undescribed.  In  the  present  paper  detailed 
descriptions  are  given  of  a  pocketed  or  piped  rot  of  the  oak.  chestnut  and 
chinquapin,  caused  by  Polyporus  piloted,  a  string  and  ray  rot  of  the  oak  caused 
by  P.  herkeleyi,  and  a  straw  colored  rot  caused  by  P.  frondosus. 

ECONOMIC   ZOOLOGY— ENTOMOLOGY. 

Principles  of  economic  zoology,  L.  S.  and  M.  C.  Daughebtt  {Philadelphia 
and  London,  1912,  pp.  VII+41O,  figs.  301). — This  work  combines  the  salient 
facts  as  to  the  structure,  life  history,  and  habits  of  animals. 

Game  laws  for  1913,  T.  S.  Palmee,  W.  F.  Bancboft,  and  F.  L.  Eaenshaw 
{U.  8.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  22,  pp.  59). — This,  the  fourteenth  annual  summary  of 
the  game  laws  of  the  United  States  and  Canada,  has  been  prepared  on  the 
same  general  plan  as  those  previously  issued  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  853). 

Bibliography  of  Canadian  zoology  for  1911,  L.  M.  Lambe  {Proc.  and  Trans. 
Roy.  Soc.  Canada,  3.  ser.,  6  {1912),  Sect.  IV,  pp.  101-114).— This  annotated  list 
covers  the  literature  exclusive  of  entomology. 

Bibliography  of  Canadian  entomology  for  1911,  C.  G.  Hewitt  {Proc.  and 
Trans.  Roy.  Soc.  Canada,  3.  ser.,  6  {1912),  Sect.  IV,  pp.  115-127).— One  hun- 
dred and  sixteen  titles  are  listed  in  this  annotated  bibliography. 

Forty-third  annual  report  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  Ontario,  1912 
{Ann.  Rpt.  Ent.  Soc.  Ontario,  43  {1912),  pp.  143,  pi.  1,  figs.  ^2).— Among  the 
more  important  papers  here  presented  are  the  following :  The  Faunal  Zones  of 
Canada,  by  E.  M.  Walker  (pp.  27-33)  ;  Review  of  Entomology  Relating  to 
Canada  in  1912,  by  C.  G.  Hewitt  (pp.  34-37)  ;  The  Chinch  Bug  in  Ontario,  by 
H.  F.  Hudson   (pp.  46-50;  Bumblebees  and  Their  Ways,  by  F.  W.  L.  Sladen 


ECONOMIC   ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY.  53 

(pp.  50-56)  ;  Progress  of  the  Introduction  of  the  Insect  Enemies  of  the  Brown- 
tail  Moth.  Euproctis  chrysorrhcea,  into  New  Brunswick  and  Some  Biological 
Notes  on  the  Host,  by  J.  D.  Tothill  (pp.  57-61)  ;  San  Jos6  Scale  in  Nova  Scotia, 
by  G.  E.  Sanders  (pp.  61-66)  ;  Recent  Work  on  the  x^pple  Maggot  in  Ontario, 
by  W.  A.  Ross  (pp.  67-72)  ;  Insects  of  the  Season  in  Ontario,  by  L.  Caesar 
(pp.  75-84)  ;  Insect  Pests  of  Southern  Manitoba  During  1912,  by  N.  Griddle 
(pp.  97-100)  ;  Some  New  or  Unrecorded  Ontario  Insect  Pests,  by  L.  Caesar 
(pp.  100-105)  ;  Notes  on  Injurious  Insects  in  British  Columbia  in  1912,  by 
R.  C.  Treherne  (pp.  10(>-111)  ;  and  Arsenite  of  Zinc  as  a  Substitute  for 
Arsenate  of  Lead,  by  L.  Caesar  (pp.  Ill,  112). 

Insects  of  the  year  in  British  Columbia,  T.  Cunningham  {Proc.  Brit. 
Columbia  Ent.  Soc,  n.  ser.,  1911,  No.  1,  pp.  15-22). — Brief  accounts  are  given 
of  the  occurrence  of  the  more  important  insect  pests  in  British  Columbia  during 
1911. 

Some  new  and  unusual  insect  attacks  on  fniit  trees  and  bushes  in  1912, 
F.  V.  Theobald  (Jour.  Bd.  Agr.  [London],  20  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  106-116,  pi.  1). — 
Among  some  of  the  more  important  insects  noted  are  the  apple  leaf  sawfly 
{LygcBonematus  mcestus)  ;  the  beech  Orchestes  (Orchestes  fagi),  which  seri- 
ously injured  apples;  the  garden  chafer  {Phyllopertha  horticolo),  observed  to 
attack  apples  in  its  adult  stage;  the  V  moth  {Halia  toavaria)  on  currants  and 
gooseberries;  the  pear  leaf  curling  midge  (Cecidomyia  pyri)  ;  the  red  bug 
Atractonomus  mali  attacking  apples;  the  ash  and  willow  scale  {Chionaspis 
salicis)  attacking  currants;  the  sycamore  coccus  iPseudococciis  aceris)  attack- 
ing apple  trees;  the  delicate  strawberry  aphis  {Myzus  fragarice)  ;  the  northern 
currant  aphis  (Rhopalosiphum  britienii)  ;  the  dark  green  Ribes  aphis  {Aphis 
grossulariw)  ;  and  a  phytoptid  attacking  apple  leaves. 

Report  on  economic  zoology  for  the  year  ending  September  30,  1912,  F.  V. 
Theobald  {Jour.  Southeast.  Agr.  Col.  Wye,  1912,  No.  21,  pp.  111-221,  pis.  17, 
figs.  33). — This  is  the  author's  annual  report  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  248)  on  the  more 
important  insect^ pests  of  the  year,  which  are  taken  up  under  the  headings  of 
animals  injurious  to  fruit  trees  and  bushes,  hops,  cereals,  pulse,  root  crops, 
vegetables,  flowers,  and  forest  trees,  those  causing  annoyance  to  man,  and  those 
injurious  to  furniture,  stored  food.  etc. 

A  sealed  paper  carton  to  protect  cereals  from  insect  attack,  W.  B.  Parker 
{U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  15,  pp.  8,  figs.  8).— This  bulletin,  based  upon  observa- 
tions and  experiments  made  in  California,  has  been  summarized  by  the  author 
as  follows: 

"  Cereals  may  become  infested  before  they  are  packed,  after  the  packages  are 
placed  in  warehouses,  and  in  the  grocery  stores.  Insects  find  their  way  in  at 
the  small  holes  which  are  usually  present  at  the  corners  of  unsealed  packages 
or  at  holes  accidentally  punched  in  the  sides.  Thorough  sterilization  at  180° 
F.  kills  all  insect  life;  and  if  the  cereal  is  run  from  the  sterilizer  either  through 
a  sterile  cooler  or  directly  into  sterile  packages  and  immediately  sealed,  it  will 
not  become  infested  unless  the  package  is  broken.  Sterilization  of  the  knocked- 
down  cartons  before  packing  and  cleanliness  with  regard  to  the  exclusion  of 
insects  from  the  packing  room  will  greatly  facilitate  the  preparation  of  sterile 
packages  and  is  strongly  recommended.  It  is  absolutely  necessary  that  all  ma- 
chinery connecting  the  sterilizer  and  the  packages  be  free  from  insects.  If  the 
cereal  is  passed  through  chutes  or  conveyors  which  can  not  be  sterilized  or  are 
not  kept  sterile,  it  will,  through  these  sources,  become  infested  even  though  the 
cereal  was  previously  sterile  and  was  packed  in  sterile  packages." 

Spontaneous  septicemia  in  the  cockchafer  and  the  silkworm  due  to  cocco- 
bacilli,  E.  Chatton   {Compt.  Rend.  Acad.  Sci.  [Paris],  156  {1913),  No.  22,  pp. 


64  EXPEKIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

1707-1709).— In  Investigations  conducted  in  May,  1912,  the  anthor  found  Cocco- 

'bacillus  acridiorum  to  cause  the  death  of  cockchafers  in  from  2^  to  48  hours 
when  injected  into  the  body  cavity.  When  ingested,  however,  it  does  not 
affect  the  coclichafer. 

The  author  also  found  a  septicemia  to  be  caused  by  a  coccobacilUis  {Bacillus 
melolonthcB).  This  is  much  similar  to  C.  acridiorum,  but  differs  in  a  constant 
manner  both  in  its  morphological  and  cultural  characteristics,  including  a  some- 
what greater  length  and  the  production  of  fluorescence  in  gelatin  after  cultiva- 
tion for  5  or  6  days,  and  also  by  its  pathogenic  action  on  the  silkworm.  When 
injected  into  the  body  cavity  an  uncultivated  virus  killed  the  cockchafer  in 
from  12  to  24  hours,  but  when  ingested  it  is  innocuous.  B.  melolonthoe  was 
found  in  the  digestive  tract  of  75  per  cent  of  healthy  cockchafers,  in  some  cases 
in  great  numbers,  as  is  always  the  case  in  septicemic  specimens.  Thus  the 
septicemia  appears  to  be  of  intestinal  origin,  as  occurs  in  the  locust.  It  was 
found  that  the  silkworm  possesses  a  complete  natural  immunity  against  G. 
acridiorum,  while  B.  melolonthce  is  as  virulent  in  the  silkworm  as  in  the  cock- 
chafer when  injected  and  as  inactive  when  ingested. 

Another  coccobacillus  (B.  homhycis)  proved  to  be  the  cause  of  a  septicemia 
in  the  silkworm.  During  the  rearing  of  some  2,000  worms  from  5  to  10  indi- 
viduals are  said  to  have  succumbed  daily  to  this  disease.  In  its  morphology 
this  bacillus  resembles  B.  melolonthw,  but  it  does  not  form  fluorescence  in  gelatin 
and  is  clenrly  differentiated  from  C.  acridiorum  by  its  greater  virulence.  Like 
B.  melolonthw  it  proves  fatal  to  the  silkworm  in  from  12  to  24  hours  when 
injected  into  the  body  cavity.  By  ingestion  the  author  infected  4  out  of  27 
individuals.  Thus  it  is  more  virulent  than  either  B.  melolonthw  or  C.  acrid- 
iorum, but  is  much  less  widely  distributed  and  abundant  in  the  digestive  tube 
of  healthy  silkworms  than  is  B.  melolonthw  in  the  cockchafer.  See  also  a 
previous  note  (E.  S.  R.,  29  p.  855). 

In  this  disease  of  the  silkworm,  which  has  previously  escaped  recognition, 
no  external  symptoms  are  noticed  before  death.  The  coccobaciUosis,  a^  termed 
by  the  author,  is  essentially  different  from  the  well-known  flacherie,  grasserie, 
and  polyhedral  body  disease. 

The  coccobacilli  infections  of  insects,  F.  Picaed  and  G.  R.  Blanc  (Compt. 
Rend.  Acad.  Sci.  [Paris],  157  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  79-81;  abs.  in  Rev.  Appl.  Ent., 
1  {1913),  Ser.  A,  No.  9,  pp.  336,  337). — In  further  investigations  of  its  path- 
ogenicity (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  855),  Coccobacillus  cajw  was  found  to  cause  the  death 
of  various  Coleoptera,  Hemiptera,  Orthoptera,  and  Lepidoptera  into  which  it 
was  injected,  including  the  cockchafer,  brown-tail  moth,  silkworm,  etc.  During 
the  course  of  examinations  made  of  the  gipsy  moth,  which  was  unusually 
abundant  in  southern  France  during  the  year,  the  authors  discovered  a  cocco- 
bacillus, causing  a  fatal  septicemia,  which  they  name  Bacillus  lymantruE.  In 
investigations  conducted  it  was  found  possible  to  kill  Arctia  caja  caterpillars 
with  a  few  drops  of  a  culture  of  G.  cajw  when  introduced  into  the  pharynx  by 
means  of  a  pipette  without  flnding  a  trace  of  the  organism  in  the  blood.  It  is 
pointed  out  that  G.  cajw,  B.  bombycis,  B.  melolonthw,  and  B.  lymantriw  differ 
from  G.  acridiorum  in  that  the  last-named  is  fatal  to  the  locust  when  ingested 
but  innocuous  to  the  silkworm. 

Locust  bacterial  disease,  C.  P.  Lounsbuey  {Agr.  Jour.  Union  So.  Africa,  5 
(1913),  No.  J^,  pp.  607-611). — This  is  a  report  of  experiments  with  Gocco- 
bacillus  acridiorum  in  which  the  so-called  "elegant  grasshopper"  {Zonocerus 
elcgans),  a  nonmigratory  species,  was  used  as  migratoi*y  locusts  were  not 
available.  The  results  led  the  author  to  conclude  that  this  disease  at  best  can 
be  employed  only  as  a  supplementary  measure  in  dealing  with  an  invasion  of 
locusts  under  the  conditions  that  prevail  in  South  Africa. 


ECONOMIC    ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY.  55 

Fung-US  diseases  of  scale  insects  and  white  fiy,  P.  H.  Kolfs  and  H.  S.  Faw- 
CETT.  revised  by  P.  H.  Rolfs  (Florida  Sta.  Bui.  119,  pp.  71-82,  figs.  19). — A 
revised  edition  of  Bulletin  94,  previously  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  20,  p.  556). 

A  study  of  caprification  in  Ficus  nota,  C.  F.  Baker  {Philippine  Jour.  Sc-i., 
Sect.  D,  8  (1913),  No.  2,  pp.  63-83,  figs.  /#).— Following  a  general  discussion  of 
the  subject,  the  author  describes  several  new  species  of  fig  insects  occurring  at 
Los  Bancs,  namely,  Bl<istophaga  nota,  the  normal  inhabitant  of  the  gall 
flowers  and  active  caprifier  of  F.  nota;  Agaonella  larvalis  n.  g.  and  n.  sp., 
common  in  F.  nota  and  probably  a  guest  in  its  relation  to  the  Blastophaga ; 
Sycophaga  nota,  not  at  all  common  in  gall  figs  of  F.  nota  and  apparently  a 
guest;  Sycoryctes  philippinensis,  found  in  great  numbers  in  November  in  gall 
figs  of  F.  nota,  and  thought  by  the  author  to  be  a  parasite  in  its  relation  to 
the  Blastophaga  ;  Philotrypcsis  similis,  common  in  F.  nota;  P.  ashincadii,  fre- 
quent in  gall  figs  and  probably  parasitic  on  Blastophaga  ;  and  P.  collaris,  foimd 
occasionally  in  gall  figs  and  probably  parasitic  on  Blastophaga. 

Synoptic  lists  of  the  male  and  female  fig  insects  found  in  F.  nota  are 
api>ended. 

A  systematic  outline  of  the  Reduviidse  of  North  America,  S.  B.  Feackeb 
(Proc.  Iowa  Acad.  »S'ci,  19  (1912),  pp.  217-252) .—This  paper  consists  largely  of 
keys  to  the  genera  and  species  of  the  "assassin  bugs"  of  North  America.  A 
bibliography  of  the  more  important  literature  and  an  index  to  the  genera  and 
species  are  included. 

The  British  species  of  the  genus  Macrosiphum,  I  and  II,  F.  V.  Theobald 
iJ<jt(r.  Econ.  Biol.,  8  (1913),  Nos.  2,  pp.  47-94,  fiU^^.  30;  3,  pp.  113-154,  fius.  29).— 
In  ihe  first  paper  the  author  deals  with  25  species  of  aphids  of  the  genus 
Macrosiphuin  which  occur  in  Great  Britain,  of  which  4  are  described  as  new  to 
science.  The  second  paper  deals  v.'ith  35  additional  species,  of  which  8  are 
described  as  new  to  science. 

Report  of  the  entomolog-ists,  W.  E.  Rumsey  and  L.  M.  Peairs  (West  Vir- 
ginia Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pp.  20-24)' — In  experiments  conducted  with  a  view  to 
perfecting  a  spray  which  will  destroy  the  eggs  of  the  apple  aphis  when  applied 
while  the  trees  are  dormant,  a  block  of  31  2-year-old  apple  trees  on  the  station 
grounds  was  made  use  of.  Applications  of  lime-sulphur  1 :  8,  soluble  oil  1 :  10. 
Kiloscale  1 :  10,  blackleaf  40  1 :  20,  and  nicotin  sulphate  1 :  65  and  weaker 
strengths  of  all  these  were  made  on  March  27.  The  results  seem  to  indicate  that 
commercial  lime-sulphur  at  the  strength  of  from  1 :  8  to  1 :  10  if  thoroughly  ap- 
plied will  destroy  the  winter  eggs  of  the  aphis.  In  tests  made  of  summer  sprays, 
including  soluble  oil  1 :  36  and  1 :  45.  lime-sulphur  1 :  45,  and  nicotin  sulphate 
1 :  900  applied  May  20,  and  of  several  combination  si^rays  applied  June  7.  the 
nicotin  sulphate  gave  decidedly  the  best  results,  killing  the  aphis  without  dam- 
aging the  trees. 

The  so-called  aerostatic  hairs  of  certain  lepidopterous  larvas,  W.  A.  Riley 
(Science,  n.  ser.,  37  (1913),  No.  958,  pp.  715,  TiG).— Attention  is  called  to  the 
fact  that  it  appears  to  have  been  very  clearly  established  that  the  so-called 
aerophores  do  not  aid  in  rendering  the  larvte  more  buoyant,  but  that  they  contain 
a  poisonous  fluid  which  serves  to  protect  the  caterpillars  against  insectivorous 
birds. 

On  the  parthenogenesis  and  oviposition  of  the  potato  tuber  moth 
(Phthorimsea  operculella),  F.  Picard  (Gompt.  Rend.  Acad.  Sci.  [Paris],  156 
(1913),  No.  14.  pp.  1097-1099)  .—When  placed  with  potato  tubers  the  moths 
wero  found  to  oviposit  in  from  1  to  2  days  following  mating,  from  40  to  80  eggs 
being  deposited  within  1  to  3  days.  The  moth  is  said  to  oviposit  on  a  large  num- 
ber of  solanaceous  plants,  on  rugous  surfaces  and  in  the  depressions  about  the 
25842°— No.  1—14 5 


56  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECOED. 

buds  of  tlae  tubers,  accidental  cracks  in  the  surface  of  the  tuber,  depressions 
along  the  nervures  of  the  leaves,  etc. 

The  author  has  found  parthenogenesis  to  occur  in  but  9  cases  out  of  more 
than  100  which  he  has  observed.  Altogether  but  23  females  and  21  males  werd 
produced  parthenogenetically  by  these  9  females,  as  many  of  the  eggs  deposited 
did  not  hatch.  Forty  is  said  to  be  the  maximum  number  of  eggs  deposited  by 
unfertile  moths;  these  moths  live  much  longer  than  the  fertile  ones.  During 
July  and  August  the  life  cycle  vpas  passed  within  a  month,  but  with  the  parth«in- 
ogeuetic  generation  from  1^  to  3  months  were  required  for  the  same  develop- 
ment. 

The  insects  of  the  dipterous  family  Phoiidae  in  the  United  States  National 
Museum,  J.  R.  Malloch  {Proc.  U.  8.  Nat.  Mus.,  43  {1913),  pp.  411-529,  pis. 
7). — Two  genera  and  92  species  are  described  as  new.  The  paper  includes  a 
list  of  the  species  the  habits  of  which  are  more  or  less  known. 

Descriptions  of  new  genera  and  species  of  muscoid  fiies  from  the  Andean 
and  Pacific  coast  regions  of  South  America,  C.  H.  T.  Townsend  (Proc.  U.  8. 
Nat.  Mus.,  43  (1913),  pp.  301-367). — This  paper  contains  descriptions  of  72 
species  of  muscoid  flies  of  South  America.  See  also  a  previous  note  (E.  S.  R., 
26,  p.  860). 

Merodon  equestris  in  southern  British  Columbia,  P.  Norman  (Proc.  Brit. 
Columbia  Ent.  8oc.,  n.  ser.,  1911,  No.  1,  pp.  22-26). — The  narcissus  fly  {M. 
equestris)  is  said  to  have  been  Imported  into  British  Columbia  about  6  years 
ago.  The  adult  is  active  from  the  end  of  March  to  the  beginning  of  September, 
but  practically  all  the  injury  is  done  during  the  month  of  May.  Upon  hatching 
out  from  the  egg,  which  appears  to  be  deposited  in  the  center  of  the  crown  of 
leaves,  the  larva  enters  the  bulb,  where  6  months  are  passed  in  the  larval  stage 
and  where  it  hibernates.  In  February  it  leaves  the  bulb  and  pupates  about 
half  an  inch  below  the  surface  of  the  soil,  emerging  as  an  adult  toward  the  end 
of  March. 

The  southern  com  rootworm,  or  budworm,  F.  M.  Websteb  (U.  8.  Dept.  Agr. 
Bui.  5,  pp.  11,  figs.  2). — ^A  summarized  account  of  the  literature,  together  with 
recent  observations  of  Diabrotica  duodecimpunctata,  its  distribution,  food  plants, 
injury,  habits  of  the  larvae,  oviposition,  seasonal  history,  natural  enemies,  and 
remedial  and  preventive  measures. 

The  western  corn  rootworm,  F.  M.  Webster  (U.  8.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  8,  pp.  8, 
figs.  5). — A  summarized  account  of  Diahrotica  longicomis  similar  to  that  of 
D.  duodecimpunctata  above  noted. 

The  coconut  leaf -miner  beetle,  Promecotheca  cumingii,  C.  R.  Jones  {Philip- 
pine Jour.  8ci.,  Sect.  D,  8  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  121-133,  pis.  2;  PhiUppine  Agr. 
Rev.  [English  Ed.},  6  {1913),  No.  5,  pp.  228-233,  pi.  1,  fig.  i).— This  beetle  is 
said  to  be  a  source  of  injury  through  feeding,  both  in  the  adult  and  larval 
stages,  upon  the  leaves  of  the  young  coconut.  The  author  here  presents  an 
account  of  its  life  history  and  habits  and  methods  of  control.  Observations 
have  shown  that  a  little  over  44  per  cent  of  the  larvae  and  pupae  and  an  average 
of  about  5  per  cent  of  the  eggs  are  parasitized. 

The  occurrence  of  a  cotton  boll  weevil  in  Arizona,  W.  D.  Pierce  {U.  8. 
Dept.  Agr.,  Jour.  Agr.  Research,  1  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  89-98,  pi.  1,  figs.  9). — This 
is  a  report  of  studies  made  by  the  author  during  August,  1913,  in  association 
with  A.  W.  Morrill,  of  the  Arizona  Experiment  Station,  as  to  the  occurrence  of 
a  boll  weevil,  which  had  previously  been  discovered  by  O.  F.  Cook  and  H.  B. 
Wright,  and  reported  by  the  former  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  458),  as  developing  upon 
Thurheria  thespesioides  in  Arizona.  The  weevil  has  been  found  to  occur  in 
Ventana  Canyon,  Santa  Catalina  Mountains,  and  in  Stone  Cabin  and  Sawmill 
Canyons,    in    the    Santa    Rita    Mountains,    where    it    breeds    commonly    upon 


ECONOMIC  ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY.  57 

T.  thcspcsioide.s,  a  i)l;iiit  so  nearly  like  cotton  that  the  Mexicans  and  natives 
call  It  wild  cotton. 

A  close  examination  of  this  weevil  has  disclosed  many  minor  points  of  dif- 
ference from  the  usual  form  of  the  cotton  boll  weevil  {Anihonomua  grandis). 
The  Arizona  form  may  be  found  in  hibernation  in  cells  until  September  1, 
while  the  eastern  form  is  never  found  in  cells  in  cotton  bolls  after  March  15. 
On  Thurberia  the  Arizona  form  seems  to  be  confined  to  one  or  not  more  than 
two  annual  generations  and  is  found  at  an  altitude  of  4,000  ft.  and  higher,  while 
the  cotton  boll  weevil  has  many  generations  and  has  never  been  found  above 
an  altitude  of  2,000  ft.  Experiments  have  shown  that  the  cotton  boll  weevil 
will  readily  and  eagerly  feed  upon  Thurberia  squares  and  bolls  and  that  the 
Thurberia-  weevil  will  feed  upon  and  develop  in  cotton  squares.  It  is  stated 
that  B.  R.  Coad  has  succeeded  in  rearing  undoubted  crosses  between  the  two 
varieties  from  females  of  each  form,  although  these  hybrid  offspring  were 
somewhat  undersized. 

The  evidence  presented  has  led  the  author  to  conclude  that  the  two  forms 
represent  merely  two  subspecies,  or  varieties,  or  geographic  races  of  a  single 
species,  and  he  here  describes  the  Arizona  form  as  a  new  variety  under  the 
name  A.  grandis  thurheriw. 

It  is  not  known  whether  the  Thurberia  weevil  hibernates  as  an  adult  out- 
side of  its  cell,  but  it  has  been  found  that  many  individuals  pass  the  winter  and 
even  the  summer  in  the  cells  formed  during  the  preceding  fall.  The  natural 
dormant  period  of  the  Arizona  weevil  lasts  about  9  months.  Thurberia  weevils 
extracted  from  their  cells  in  May  and  sent  to  Victoria,  Tex.,  immediately  began 
to  feed  and  develop  upon  cotton  and  produced  several  generations.  Thus  the 
Thurberia  weevil  has  either  acquired  by  long  years  of  adversity  an  ability 
to  survive  for  a  longer  period  without  food,  assuming  A.  grandis  to  be  the  origi- 
nal species,  or,  if  the  Thurberia  weevil  is  the  true  original  form,  then  the 
ability  to  obtain  a  plentiful  supply  of  early  food  has  caused  the  species  to  lose 
some  of  its  resistance  to  adversity.  The  development  of  the  Thurberia  weevil 
on  its  native  host  has  not  been  studied,  but  it  has  been  observed  at  Victoria 
on  cotton  and  the  period  required  for  its  development  found  to  be  practically 
the  same  as  for  the  cotton  boll  weevil.  Thurberia  weevils  removed  from  hiber- 
nation in  June  and  transplanted  on  cotton  began  reproducing  at  once  and  con- 
tinued to  do  so  throughout  the  season. 

The  host  plant  of  this  new  form  grows  at  altitudes  of  from  2,250  to  7,000  ft. 
and  is  found  at  the  bottom  of  the  canyons,  on  the  canyon  walls,  and  on  the 
top  of  the  ridges,  growing  usually  where  protected  more  or  less  from  the 
greatest  heat  of  the  sun.  It  begins  flowering  in  some  localities  in  July,  while 
in  others  it  is  just  beginning  to  bud  in  the  latter  part  of  August.  The  flower- 
ing continues  into  October.  The  plants  are  perennial,  growing  to  over  10  ft. 
in  height  with  a  spread  of  about  10  ft. 

At  least  two  species  of  parasites,  a  species  of  Cerambycobius  and  an  un- 
determined braconid,  attack  the  Thurberia  weevil  in  the  Santa  Rita  Mountains. 

This  new  weevil  becomes  of  economic  importance  in  that  cotton  is  now  being 
cultivated  under  irrigation  in  several  localities  in  Arizona  and  in  the  Imperial 
and  Colorado  River  valleys  in  California.  Thurberia  is  said  to  occur  in  nejirly 
every  mountain  range  in  southwestern  Arizona  where  there  is  any  moisture. 
In  the  vicinity  of  the  Santa  Cruz  Valley  cotton  is  grown  within  5  miles  of 
Thurberia  plants,  and  the  weevil  was  found  abundant  within  not  more  than 
10  miles  from  such  cotton.  Thurberia  is  also  known  to  occur  in  Fish  Creek 
Canyon,  one  of  the  sources  of  the  Salt  River,  in  which  valley  the  most  exten- 
sive cotton  plantings  in  Arizona  are  found,  and  in  the  mountains  to  the  nortti 
and  south  of  the  Gila  River  Valley. 


58  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECORD. 

Since  tlie  weevil  will  probably  cleave  to  its  native  food  plant  until  com- 
pelled to  seek  sustenance  elsewhere,  the  author  is  of  the  opinion  that  a  whole- 
sale destruction  of  the  native  food  plant  might  invite  a  quicker  than  natural 
adaptation  to  cotton  on  the  part  of  this  weevil.  It  is  thought  that  the  intro- 
duction of  parasites  of  the  cotton  boll  weevil  w^ould  be  of  considerable  assistance 
in  reducing  the  Arizona  weevil  and  that  they  would  not  cause  its  dispersal. 
It  is  pointed  out  that  there  is  danger  of  a  distribution  of  weevil-infested  buds 
through  the  drainage  system  by  summer  freshets.  Attention  is  called  to  the 
fact  that  it  is  of  extreme  importance  that  the  Thurljeria  weevil  be  kept  out  of 
western  Texas  and  any  part  of  the  Southeast,  since  if  accidentally  introduced 
into  otlier  sections  it  might  be  able  to  stand  much  greater  variations  of  climate 
than  A.  grandis  and  become  a  much  more  powerful  enemy  of  cotton. 

Life  history  of  Otiorhynclius  ovatus,  the  strawberry  root  weevil,  under 
lower  Fraser  conditions,  R.  C.  Treherne  {Proc.  Brit.  ColumMa  Ent.  Soc, 
n.  ser.,  1912,  No.  2,  pp.  41-50;  ahs.  in  Rev.  Appl.  Ent.,  1  (1913),  8er.  A,  No.  S, 
pp.  92-94). — This  insect  is  reported  to  have  caused  considerable  loss  to  growers 
in  the  lower  Fraser  Valley  and  those  sections  of  British  Columbia  along  the 
Pacific  coast  where  strawberries  are  grown  commercially.  It  does  not  appear 
to  attack  the  crown  but  feeds  on  the  roots  of  the  plant  only,  the  larva  having 
been  found  from  6  to  8  in.  below  the  surface.  It  is  said  to  be  far  more 
numerous  than  is  O.  sulcatus. 

The  incubation  period  of  the  egg  is  about  21  days,  the  length  of  the  larval 
stage  at  least  7  months,  and  of  the  pupal  stage  from  21  to  24  days.  The  larva 
is  more  or  less  omnivorous,  having  been  taken  in  clover  and  timothy  grass  sod, 
on  wild  strawberry  from  sea  level  up  to  an  elevation  of  500  ft.,  on  the  roots 
of  the  peach,  on  rhubarb,  Rumex  acetosella,  Poteniilla  glandulosa,  Balsamorhiza 
sagiUata,  Poa  serotina,  and  P.  pratensis;  it  has  also  been  found  in  potato 
fields,  though  there  is  no  direct  proof  of  its  attacking  potato.  The  larvae 
attack  the  plant  roots  by  making  longitudinal  slits  in  portions  of  the  epidermis, 
subsequently  girdling  the  roots  either  directly  or  in  a  spiral  manner.  The  most 
serious  injury  is  done  in  early  spring  when  the  larvae  are  nearly  full  grown  and 
attack  the  main  roots,  which  are  sometimes  cut  off  2  in.  or  so  from  the  crown. 

The  pupal  stage  is  passed  at  from  4  to  6  in.  or  even  8  in.  below  the  surface. 
The  female  deposits  some  50  eggs  within  a  period  of  4  to  5  days;  this  period 
may  be  extended  to  as  long  as  15  days.  Oviposition  takes  place  from  the  end 
of  June  to  the  end  of  August,  varying  somewhat  according  to  the  season. 

Strawberries  grown  on  the  matted  row  system  are  not  as  a  rule  seriously 
affected  the  first  year  after  planting,  unless  the  soil  was  previously  infested 
by  the  insect.  The  injury  is  noticeable  the  third  summer,  often  reducing  the 
crop  fully  50  crates  to  the  acre. 

The  following  remedial  measures  are  suggested :  The  growth  of  strong  varie- 
ties; the  running  of  chickens  over  the  grounds;  trapping  the  adult  weevils  under 
boards  (only  useful  to  small  growers)  ;  the  use  of  some  sticky  material  as  traps; 
spraying  with  arsenate  of  lead  (only  useful  after  the  first  crop  is  harvested 
and  when  the  weevils  are  very  numerous). ;  chemicnl  remedies,  potassium  cyanid 
and  carbon  bisulphid.  but  the  author  is  doubtful  whether  any  remedy  of  this 
kind  can  be  used  to  kill  the  eggs,  larvjie,  or  adults  which  will  not  at  the  same 
time  destroy  the  plant ;  burning  the  plants  immediately  after  the  first  crop  has 
been  gathered  by  covering  them  with  dry  straw  and  setting  fire  to  it;  plowing 
at  the  end  of  July  or  at  the  beginning  of  August,  with  frequent  cultivation 
previous  to  or  during  the  winter;  autumn  planting;  plant  renewal  during  the 
middle  of  the  second  summer;  and  1-year  crops  instead  of  2-year  crops,  though 
this  is  not  satisfactory.  Rotation  of  crops  is  strongly  advocated  in  the  follow- 
ing order,  derived  from  local  experience — strawberries,  potatoes,  and  rhubarb. 


ECONOMIC  ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY.  59 

Not  more  tliaii  1  aero  in  lU  should  be  laid  down  to  struwberrie.s  iu  au  infected 
locality. 

Annual  report  of  the  Bee-Keepers'  Association  of  the  Province  of  Oninrio, 
1912  (Anti.  Rpl.  Bee  Keepers'  A.svsoc.  Oniaiio,  19J2,  pp.  72). — This  consists  of 
the  procotHliugs  of  the  annual  meeting,  held  at  Toronto  in  November,  1912. 

The  BombidaB  of  the  New  World,  II,  H.  J.  Franklin  {Trans.  Auier.  Ent. 
/Sot'.,  89  {WIS),  No.  2,  pp.  73-200,  pis.  22).— This  second  part  of  the  work  pre- 
viously noted  (E.  S.  II.,  28,  p.  75S)  deals  with  the  species  occurring  south  of  the 
United  States.  Tables  are  given  for  the  determination  of  queens,  workers,  and 
males  of  American  species  of  Bombus  south  of  the  northern  boundary  of  Mexico, 
of  which  9  species  are  described  as  new  to  science.  It  is  stated  that  females 
and  males  of  but  2  species  of  Psithyrus  each  have  so  far  as  known  been  collected 
in  the  New  World  south  of  the  United  States,  one  of  the  males  having  not 
hitherto  been  described.  A  list  of  unclassified  names  and  descriptions  is 
appended. 

Studies  in  the  wood  wasp  superfamily  Oryssoidea,  with  descriptions  of 
new  species,  S.  A.  Kohweb  {Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  43  {1913),  pp.  141-158,  pis.  2, 
figs.  6). — This  contribution  from  the  Bureau  of  Entomology  of  this  Department 
deals  with  the  habits,  geographical  distribution,  external  anatomy,  relationships, 
and  classification  of  the  superfamily. 

A  study  in  insect  parasitism,  R.  L.  Webster  {Proc.  Iowa  Acad.  Sci,  19 
{1912),  pp.  209-213). — This  paper  reports  studies  made  at  the  Iowa  Experi- 
ment Station  of  parasitism  of  the  southern  tobacco  worm  {Phlegcthontius  sexta), 
a  pest  commonly  met  with  iu  Iowa  on  the  tomato  and  potato. 

The  braconid  Apanteles  congrcgatus,  its  most  common  primary  parasite,  was 
found  to  be  highly  parasitized  by  the  two  hyperparasites  2Iesochorus  lutcipes 
and  Hypopteromalus  riridcscens.  Six  different  lots  consisting  of  a  total  of 
2,393  Apanteles  were  collected  from  September  7  to  October  IS.  Apanteles  de- 
veloped from  1,112,  Hypopteromalus  from  779,  and  Mesochorus  from  27,  leaving 
475  from  which  nothing  was  reared. 

A  revision  of  the  Ichneumonidas  based  on  the  collection  in  the  British 
Museum  (Natural  History),  with  descriptions  of  new  g'enera  and  species, 
C.  MoRLEY  {London,  1913,  pt.  2,  pp.  iZ+iZ/O,  pi.  i).— This  second  part  of  the 
work  previously  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  p.  662)  deals  with  the  tribes  Rhyssides  and 
Echthromorphides  of  the  subfamily  Pimplinae  and  Anomalides  and  Paniscides 
of  the  subfamily  Ophioniua?. 

Descriptions  of  new  Hymenoptera,  V,  J.  C.  Crawford  {Proc.  U.  S.  Nat. 
Mus.,  43  {1913),  pp.  163-188,  pgs.  2).— Among  the  2  genera  and  30  species  here 
described  as  new  to  science  are  Eurytoma  piurw  and  Gerainhycohius  toicnscndi, 
both  reared  from  the  Peruvian  cotton  square-weevil  {Anthonomus  vcstitus)  in 
Peru;  Coccidoctonus  trinidadensis,  reared  from  Pulvinaria  pyriformis  on  honey- 
suckle in  Trinidad;  Spintherus  pulchripcnnis,  reared  from  Pissodes  sp.  at  Co- 
lumbia Falls,  Mont.;  Cecidostiha  asUmeadi,  a  parasite  of  Polygraphus  rufipennis 
at  Morgantown,  W.  Va. ;  Cecidostiha  tliomsoni  from  Pissodes  sp.,  at  Columbia 
Falls,  Mont.;  Gatolaccus  toicnscndi  from  A.  vestitus  in  Peru;  GJirysocharis 
parksi,  G.  ainsliei,  Glosterocerus  utahensis,  Pleurotropis  rugosithorax,  Deros- 
ti^ns  punctiventris,  and  Diaulinus  hcgini,  reared  from  Diptera  of  the  genus 
Agromyza  at  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah;  Glosterocerus  ivinnemance,  reared  from  the 
eggs  of  Arge  salicis  at  Plummer's  Island,  Maryland;  Diaulinopsis  caUichroma 
and  Diaulinus  websteri,  both  reared  from  Agromyza  jucunda  at  Tempe,  Ariz.; 
and  Comedo  fiookeri,  reared  from  Pyropliila  pyramidoides  at  Vienna,  Va. 

Descriptions  of  one  new  family,  eig-ht  new  g-enera,  and  thirty-three  new 
species  of  ichneumon  flies,  H.  L.  Viereck  {Proc.  U.  8.  Nat.  Mus.,  43  {1913), 
pp.  575-593). — Among  the  species  of  economic  importance  here  described  as  new 


60  EXPERIMENT   STATION   KECORD. 

to  science  are  Meteorus  arcJtipsidis,  reared  from  Archips  argyrospila  at  Bethany 
Center,  K  Y. ;  Rogas  laphygmw,  reared  from  Lapliygma  frugiperda  at  Browns- 
ville, Tex.;  Angitia  plutcllw,  reared  from  Plutella  omissa  at  Rocky  Ford,  Colo, 
Campoplex  epinotiw,  reared  from  Epinota  arctostaphylina  at  Carmel,  Cal. ;  C 
polychrosidis,  reared  from  Polychrosis  carduiana  at  Hyattsvllle,  Md. ;  Cymodu 
soiisis  aristotelice,  parasitic  on  Aristotelia  pndibwidella  at  Kirkwood,  Mo. ;  Her 
pestomus  hyponomeutw,  reared  from  Hyponomeuta  malinellus  in  Japan ;  Hypo 
thereutes  nigrolineatus,  a  parasite  of  Ileliophila  alhilinea  at  Springer,  N.  Mex. 
etc. 

Notes  on  sawfiies,  with  descriptions  of  new  species,  S.  A.  Rohwer  (Proc. 
U.S.  Nat.  Mus.,  If3  {1913),  pp.  205-251,  figs.  6).— Several  of  the  species  here 
described  as  new  are  of  economic  importance,  including  Arge  salicis,  the 
larva  of  which  was  taken  from  Salix  niger,  at  Plummer's  Island,  Maryland; 
Diprion  grandis,  the  larvae  of  which  feed  on  Pinus  scropulorum,  at  Crawford, 
Nebr. ;  and  PcrcUsta  quercus,  which  defoliates  white  oaks  at  Forest  Hills,  Mass. 

The  life  history  of  Ixodes  angustus,  S.  Hadwen  {Proc.  Brit.  ColumUa  Ent. 
Soc,  n.  ser.,  1911,  No.  1,  pp.  37,  38). — This  tick,  although  found  on  a  variety 
of  animals,  in  British  Columbia  occurs  principally  on  squirrels  {Sciurus  hud- 
soniiis  douglasi  and  8.  hudsonius  vancouverensis) .  The  life  cycle  is  said  to  be 
passed  in  221  days. 

FOODS— HUMAISr  NUTEITION. 

The  municipal  abattoir,  R.  M.  Ajllen  and  J.  W.  McFarlin  {Kentucky  Sta. 
Bui.  173,  pp.  213-265,  pis.  7,  figs.  6). — In  connection  with  the  Kentucky  state 
pure  food  and  drug  work,  an  inspection  has  been  carried  on  of  slaughterhouses 
and  meat  markets  throughout  the  State,  as  well  as  investigations  to  determine 
the  best  remedy  for  the  conditions  found,  since  these  could  not  be  controlled  by 
the  pure  food  law  and  the  general  health  statutes  of  the  State  or  by  the  existing 
city  ordinances. 

The  bulletin  makes  a  strong  plea  for  the  municipal  abattoir  and  discusses 
such  questions  as  building  and  equipment,  city  and  private  ownership,  license 
and  inspection  fees,  the  municipal  abattoir  under  the  United  States  laws,  and 
needed  state  legislation.  A  proposed  ordinance  for  municipal  abattoirs  is  given 
and  Kentucky  plans  for  a  model  abattoir.  Offal  waste,  the  relation  of  the 
municipal  abattoir  problem  to  breeder  and  feeder,  and  systems  of  meat  inspec- 
tion are  considered  and  the  results  of  a  recent  meat  conference  in  Louisville  pre- 
sented. It  is  stated  that  since  the  municipal  abattoir  question  has  been  under 
consideration  decided  change  has  been  noted  in  the  sanitary  condition  of  Ken- 
tucky slaughterhouses. 

The  results  of  the  investigation  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  the  "  municipal 
plants  should  be  organized  only  to  the  extent  of  economical  and  efficient  inspec- 
tion. It  would  seem  that  the  extent  of  centralization  for  inspection  can  well 
follow  that  amount  of  trade  cooperation  among  the  butchers  necessary  to  estab- 
lish economical  slaughtering,  refrigeration,  tankage,  and  similar  trade  advan- 
tages. One  plant,  killing  a  few  animals,  can  not  afford  the  overhead  invest- 
ment and  running  expense  of  modern  refrigeration  and  adequate  tankage 
facilities,  A  group  of  butchers  can  install  such  equipment,  at  a  great  saving  to 
each  individual,  and  thus  we  should  be  able  to  yoke  together  the  necessity  for 
trade  economy  and  cooperation  with  the  necessity  for  centralized  inspection. 

"  One  outstanding  point  for  such  investigation  is  the  fact  that  the  wasteful 
and  costly  methods  on  the  part  of  the  local  butcher,  such  as  the  giving  away 
of  offal,  the  purchase  and  hauling  of  ice,  lower  prices  for  carelessly  handled 
hides  and  tallow,  from  small  plants  and  through  several  middlemen,  and  the 


FOODS — nUMAN    NUTRITION.  61 

maintenance  of  pl;mts  and  labor,  for  a  few  animals,  capable  of  greatly  increasotl 
slaughterings,  afford  little  or  no  element  of  economic  competition  from  tlie  nn- 
organizetl,  uninspected  local  meat  supplies,  and  these  economic  errors  have  a 
substantial  and  direct  influence  in  fixing  the  high  meat  prices," 

Emaciation  in  meat  inspection,  F.  Gklttneb  {Ztsc?ir.  Flcisch  u.  Milchhyg., 
23  {1913),  yo.  20,  pp.  ^67-473). — It  is  the  opinion  of  the  author  that  the  whole 
animal  body  should  be  regarded  as  unfit  for  human  food  if  complete  emaci;ition 
has  taken  place,  and  that  its  value  as  human  food  is  very  considerably  reduced 
if  emaciation  has  taken  place  to  any  great  extent. 

The  presence  of  succinic  acid  in  meat  extracts  and  in  fresli  meat,  H. 
EiNBECK  (Hoppc-Seyler's  Ztschr.  Physiol.  Chcm.,  87  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  i//5- 
15S). — The  examination  of  several  samples  of  commercial  beef  extracts  showed 
the  presence  of  succinic  acid  in  amounts  varying  from  0.3  to  0.5  per  cent. 
The  amount  of  succinic  acid  in  several  samples  of  fresh  beef  varied  from  0.1 
to  0.5  per  cent. 

Muscle  extractives. — XIV,  Carnosin  and  carnosin  nitrate,  W.  Gulewitsch 
{Hoppe-Scyler's  Ztschr.  Physiol.  Ghem.,  87  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  i-ii).— Experi- 
mental data  are  given  regarding  the  optical  properties  of  carnosin  and  carnosin 
nitrate  which  were  obtained  in  pure  form  from  meat  extractives.  For  earlier 
work,  see  previous  notes  (E.  S.  R.,  18,  pp.  67,  1067;  10,  p.  64). 

Muscle  extractives. — XV,  The  presence  of  carnosins,  methylguanidins, 
and  carnitins  in  horseflesh,  J.  Smouodinzew  {Hoppe-Scyler's  Ztschr.  Physiol. 
Chem.,  87  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  12-20). — The  examination  of  muscle  from  a  freshly 
killed  horse  showed  the  presence  of  these  substances  in  the  following  amounts : 
Carnosin,  1.82;  methylguanidin,  0.83;  and  carnitin,  0.2  per  cent. 

Fish  milt  as  human  food,  J.  Konig  and  J.  Ggossfeld  {Biochem.  Ztschr.^ 
54  {1913),  No.  5-6,  pp.  333-350). — The  results  are  presented  of  a  study  of  the 
composition  of  herring  milt  and  carp  milt,  special  reference  being  made  to  the 
nature  of  the  nitrogenous  and  fatty  constituents. 

Among  the  nitrogen  compounds  found  were  the  meat  bases,  xanthin  and 
ereatinin,  free  amino  acids,  and  protamin  in  combination  with  nucleic  acid. 
The  fat  contained  about  20  per  cent  lecithin  and  from  11  to  17  per  cent  of 
cholesterin. 

Fish  roe  as  human  food,  J.  Konig  and  J.  Grossfeld  {Biochem.  Ztschr., 
54  {1913),  No.  5-6,  pp.  351-394,  pis.  2,  fig.  1).—A  study  was  made  of  the  chemi- 
cal composition  of  several  varieties  of  fish  roe,  including  among  others  that 
of  herring,  carp,  pike,  and  cod.     Several  varieties  of  caviar  were  also  studied. 

The  fish  roe  showed  a  low  water  content.  Among  the  meat  bases  found 
were  xanthin  and  creatin,  and  among  the  free  amino  acids  taurin,  Hyrosin, 
and  glycocoll.  The  proteins  were  rich  in  sulphur  and  phosphorus,  but  pro- 
tamin was  found.  The  fat  showed  a  high  content  of  lecithin,  nearly  CO  per 
cent,  and  from  3  to  14  per  cent  of  cholesterin.  The  lechithin  content  was  high- 
est in  the  case  of  the  roe  with  a  low  fat  content.  The  sulphur  and  phosphorus 
were  present  in  organic  combination. 

Lacto — a  frozen  dairy  product,  M.  Mortensen  and  B.  W.  Hammer  {Iowa 
Bta.  Bui.  140,  pp.  149-155). — This  bulletin  contains  data  reported  in  an  earlier 
publication  (E.  S.  R.,  25,  p.  03)  and  new  material  which  has  accumulated,  in- 
cluding a  discus:^ion  of  the  general  question  of  the  souring  of  the  milk. 

Recent  experiments  with  Bacillus  lulgaricus  show  that  this  organism  is 
capable  of  forming  considerably  more  acid  than  the  organism  ordinarily  used 
as  a  starter,  so  the  acid  fermentation  should  be  watched.  By  ripening  the 
milk  so  that  it  has  an  acidity  of  0.9  per  cent,  good  products,  according  to  the 
authors,  can  be  obtained  with  the  formulas  given.  Sometimes  this  organism 
gives  a  disagreeable  flavor  to  the  milk  which  can  be  overcome  in  part  at  least 


62  EXPEEIMENT   STATION    EECORD. 

by  the  use  of  the  ordinary  lactic  acid  used  by  the  butter  maker  in  conjunction 
with  B.  J)ulgaricus. 

"The  growth  of  B.  hul(jancus  results  in  a  slimy  condition  of  the  milk,  the 
sliminess  being  so  marked  with  some  cultures  that  the  milk  can  be  pulled  out 
in  strings  several  feet  long.  This  stringy  condition  can  be  greatly  reduced  or 
entirely  eliminates!  by  violent  agitation.  Although  this  slimy  condition  is  ob- 
jected to  by  some  persons  when  the  milk  is  to  be  used  as  a  drink,  it  is  an 
advantage  when  the  milk  is  to  be  used  for  making  lacto  because  it  improves 
the  body  of  the  product  to  a  considerable  extent. 

"Z?.  hulgaricus  grows  best  at  a  temperature  considerbly  higher  than  the 
temperature  ordinarily  used  for  propagating  starters.  While  the  best  temper- 
ature is  not  exactly  known  it  probably  lies  above  100°  F.  A  temperature  of 
99°  F.,  which  is  one  of  the  temperatures  commonly  employed  in  bacteriological 
laboratories,  gives  very  good  results.  Cultures  can  be  propagated  at  room 
temperatures,  but  growth  is  quite  slow.  ...  If  exceptionally  clean  milk  is 
available,  little  trouble  should  be  experienced  when  careful  pasteurization  is 
practiced,  but  if  the  milk  is  bixlly  contaminated  considerable  difficulty  is  likely 
to  be  encountered.  An  exposure  to  a  steam  pressure  of  5  lbs.  for  1.5  minutes 
gave  good  results  with  milk  that  was  highly  contaminated  and  with  which 
pasteurization  at  180°  F.  for  2  hours  was  of  no  avail  in  stopping  the  undesirable 
changes.  .  .  . 

"Another  method  commonly  employed  in  laboratories  consists  in  heating  the 
milk  to  the  temperature  of  boiling  water  for  from  20  to  40  minutes  on  each 
of  3  successive  days.  In  this  procedure,  the  bacterial  spores  are  supposed  to 
germinate  between  heatings  and.  in  the  vegetative  stage,  the  micro-organisms 
are  killed  by  the  succeeding  exposure.  This  continued  heating  of  course 
darkens  the  milk  and  imparts  a  cooked  taste,  but  the  cooked  taste  is  not  as 
noticeable  after  fermentation  with  B.  liuJf/aricus  as  before.  .  .  . 

"In  various  places  in  the  United  States  a  certain  micro-organism  has  been 
found  that  is  closely  related  to  B.  hulgaricus.  This  bacterium  produces  more 
acid  than  the  organisms  used  for  starter  making,  although  not  so  much  as 
B.  hulgaricus.  Moreover,  some  of  the  cultures  are  slimy.  Milk  fermented  by 
it  has  an  exceptionally  clean  acid  flavor.  This  organism  has  also  been  used  to 
ferment  milk  for  making  lacto  aad  an  excellent  product  obtained.  It  is  r;ither 
difficult  to  propagate  without  the  facilities  of  a  laboratory." 

Composition  and  nutritive  value  of  "  taralli  ",  a  special  bread  mside  in 
Naples,  A.  Cutolo  {Bol.  Soc.  Nat.  NapoU,  2.  ser.,  24  {1910),  pp.  158-164).— 
Analytical  data  are  given,  together  with  a  description  of  the  methods  of 
analysis,  and  the  product  is  compared  with  other  breads  as  to  composition  and 
nutritive  value. 

A  digestion  experiment  with  banana  meal,  Kakizawa  (Arch.  Ilyg.,  80 
(1913),  No.  7-8,  pp.  302-309)  .—The  experiment  described  was  divided  into  4 
periods  of  3  days  each.  The  subject  was  maintained  upon  a  diet  of  milk,  bread, 
sausage,  cheese,  sugar,  and  butter  which  furnished  a  daily  ration  of  approxi- 
mately 74  gm.  protein,  117  gm.  fat,  and  ISO  gm.  carbohydrate.  The  greater 
part  of  the  bread  was  replaced  by  banana  meal  in  the  second  period  and  by 
oatmeal  in  the  fourth  period. 

The  coefficient  of  digestibility  of  the  total  dry  substance  in  the  food  was  90.S 
per  cent  during  the  banana  meal  period,  91.9  per  cent  during  the  oatmeal 
period,  and  92.3  and  92.6  per  cent  in  the  2  periods  where  bread  was  the  chief 
source  of  carbohydrate.  The  proportion  of  the  total  nitrogenous  material  in 
the  diet  digested  during  the  banana  meal  period  was  S8.9  per  cent;  during  the 
oatmeal  period,  S6.2  per  cent;  and  during  the  2  other  periods,  88.3  and  87.6 
per  cent. 


FOODS — HUMAN    NUTRITION".  63 

On  the  nature  of  the  sugars  found  in  the  tubers  of  arrowhead,  K.  I^Iiyake 
(Jour.  Biol.  Chem.,  15  {1013),  No.  2,  pp.  221-220).— It  was  found  iu  the 
experiments  here  reported  that  arrowhead  tubers  contained  both  glucose  and 
fructose.  The  nonreduciug  sugars  were  found  to  consist  of  sucrose  and  a 
sugar  which  apjieared  to  be  raffiuose.  No  evidence  was  found  of  the  presence 
of  maltose,  pentuio,  and  mannose,  either  free  or  combined. 

Studies  on  the  factors  affecting-  the  culinary  quality  of  potatoes,  O.  Butlkk, 
F.  B,  :\IoRRisoN,  and  F.  E.  Boll  {Jour.  Amcr.  ^oc.  Agron.,  5  {1913),  No.  J, 
pp.  1-33,  figs.  4). — In  this  investigation  the  effect  of  chemical  composition, 
structure,  and  methods  of  cookiug  and  storage  on  the  cooking  quality  of  pota- 
toes was  studied.  A  number  of  different  varieties  of  potatoes  were  included 
in  the  investigation,  each  variety  being  baked,  steamed,  boiled,  and  fried.  The 
factors  noted  in  passing  upon  the  quality  of  the  cooked  product  were  dis- 
coloration, mealiness,  sweetness,  and  bitterness,  the  value  given  to  each  quality 
being  recorded  on  tbe  score  card.  The  methods  of  cooking,  judgment  of  the 
product,  and  chemical  analysis  are  discussed  in  detail.  The  conclusions  drawn 
are  as  follows : 

Potatoes  high  in  water  content  are  less  mealy  than  those  of  a  relatively  low 
water  content.  Neither  the  percentage  of  starch  in  a  potato  nor  the  ratio  of 
albuminoid  nitrogen  to  starch  is  indicative  of  the  degree  of  mealiness.  "The 
presence  of  sugar  in  a  potato  is  detrimental  to  its  quality.  The  percentage, 
however,  that  may  be  tolorated  varies  v.ith  dilVerent  varieties.  The  ratio  of  total 
nitrogen  to  starch  is  no  criterion  of  quality."  The  degree  of  development  of 
the  tuber  is  not  correlated  with  quality  or  mealiness.  Fried  potatoes  are  re- 
garded as  of  better  quality  than  those  cooked  by  any  other  method,  wbile  the 
quality  of  boiled  and  steamed  potatoes  is  about  the  same. 

It  is  claimed  by  the  authors  that  the  quality  of  boiled  potatoes  is  affected 
by  the  temperature  at  which  they  have  been  stored  to  a  greater  degree  than 
are  potatoes  cooked  in  any  other  way.  Potatoes  of  fair  or  poor  quality  are 
best  stored  at  20°  C,  and  the  quality  of  all  potatoes  is  injured  by  storing  at  as 
low  temperatures  as  1  to  5°  C.  "Potatoes  for  culinary  purposes  should  be 
stored  in  a  dry  cellar  at  8  to  10°  C." 

The  authors  claim  that  mealiness  in  the  potato  is  due  to  the  separation  of 
the  cells  in  cooking  rather  than  to  their  disintegration  due  to  the  swelling  of 
the  starch  grains. 

Chemistry  of  the  household,  Margaret  E.  Dodd  {Chicago,  1911,  pp.  12+169, 
pis.  12,  figs.  31). — A  discussion  is  given  of  some  of  the  chemical  principles 
involved  in  the  more  common  i>rocesses  of  the  household,  including  the  chemistry 
of  water,  combustion  and  fuels,  lighting,  foods,  cooking,  laundry,  cleaning,  etc. 

Handbook  of  hyg-iene. — III,  Food  and  nutrition,  edited  by  T.  Weyl  {Iland- 
hucJi  (Icr  Hygiene. — 3.  Band,  Nahnnngstniltel  und  Ernahning.  Lcipsic,  1913, 
2.  ed.,  trp.  [VIin-\-291-\-XII-\-29S-Jfl8-\-VI-{-Jfl9-593,  figs.  Jo).— Parts  1  and  2 
have  already  been  noted  (E.  S.  It.,  23,  p.  401).  Parts  3  and  4  (pp.  293-593)  con- 
tain, respectively,  Hygiene  of  Nutrition  of  Individuals  and  Groups,  by  W.  Schinn- 
burg.  jmd  Hygiene  of  the  Alcohol  Question,  by  A.  Deibriick.  and  the  general 
index  to  the  whole  volume. 

A  further  contribution  to  the  knowledg-e  of  beri-beri,  W.  Caspari  and 
M.  MoszKowsKi  {Berlin.  Klin.  WchnscJir.,  50  {1913),  No.  33,  pp.  1515-1519).— 
The  results  are  reported  of  a  metabolism  experiment  in  which  one  of  the  authors 
subsisted  for  several  months  on  a  diet  the  chief  constituent  of  which  was 
polished  rice. 

Symptoms  were  developed  which  suggested  the  cardiac  form  of  beri-beri.  but 
disappeared  very  shortly  after  a  small  amount  of  extract  of  rice  bran  was  added 
to  the  diet. 


64  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECOED. 

Control  experiments  were  carried  out  at  the  same  time  with  pigeons  and 
animals,  under  the  same  conditions,  and  gave  similar  results.  In  these  experi- 
ments evidence  was  found  which  pointed  to  a  great  destruction  of  albumin, 
which  the  authors  claim  could  only  be  explained  as  the  result  of  severe  intoxi- 
cation. This  they  claim  is  confirmed  by  experiments  in  which  birds  were  main- 
tained in  good  health  for  several  mouths  upon  a  diet  consisting  of  hen's  eggs, 
with  small  amounts  of  salt  and  sugar.  When  polished  rice  was  added  to  the 
egg  diet  in  the  case  of  a  part  of  the  pigeons,  every  one  of  those  receiving  the 
polished  rice  developed  symptoms  of  beri-beri,  while  the  control  animals  which 
received  only  the  egg  diet  developed  no  such  symptoms. 

The  authors  conclude  from  these  results  that  beri-beri  is  not  due  to  the  lack 
of  some  substance  in  the  diet,  but  to  the  presence  of  some  toxic  substance,  and 
is  therefore  an  intoxication.  The  beneficial  results  obtained  by  the  use  of  pur- 
gatives by  other  authors  in  an  experimental  study  of  beri-beri  are  in  accord 
with  this  view. 

A  typhoid  outbreak  apparently  due  to  polluted  water  cress  {Engin.  Neivs, 
10  {1913),  No.  7,  p.  322,  fig.  1). — A  report  of  an  epidemic  of  typhoid  fever 
which  was  apparently  caused  by  eating  polluted  water  cress  is  given. 

Lessons  from  a  probable  water  cress  typhoid  outbreak  {Engin.  News,  10 
{1913),  No.  1,  PV'  311,  312). — The  necessity  for  greater  care  to  prevent  the 
contamination  of  vegetable  foods  which  are  to  be  eaten  in  an  uncooked  condition 
is  emphasized.     See  abstract  above. 

The  relation  of  growth  to  the  chemical  constituents  of  the  diet,  T.  B. 
Osborne  and  L.  B.  Mendel  {Jour.  Biol.  Chem.,  15  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  311-326, 
figs.  7). — Experiments  are  reported  in  continuation  of  previous  work  (E.  S.  R., 
25.  p.  864;  28,  pp.  863,  864). 

Animals  fed  upon  a  diet  of  purified  protein,  starch,  lard,  and  protein-free 
milk,  which  had  grown  abnormally  for  some  time  and  then  ceased  to  grow  and 
declined,  were  restored  to  a  satisfactory  condition  of  growth  by  the  use  of  milk 
or  by  replacing  a  part  of  the  lard  in  the  diet  with  unsalted  butter.  The  work 
is  to  be  continued. 

Studies  on  the  metabolism  of  ammonium  salts,  I,  II,  III  {Jour.  Biol. 
Chem.,  15  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  321-335,  331-339,  3Jfl-355) .—This  includes  3  papers. 

I.  The  elimination  of  ingested  ammonium  salts  in  the  dog  upon  an  adequate 
mixed  diet,  F.  P.  Underbill  (pp.  327-335). — It  was  found  in  these  experiments 
that  the  ingestion  of  the  ammonium  salts  of  several  organic  acids  failed  to 
increase  the  amount  of  ammonia  nitrogen  excreted  in  the  urine,  while  under 
comparable  conditions  the  ingestion  of  the  ammonium  salts  of  several  inor- 
ganic acids  caused  an  increase  in  the  output  of  ammonia  nitrogen,  which  varied 
with  the  different  acids.  No  explanation  is  given  for  this  temporary  retention 
of  the  ammonium  salts.  All  of  the  inorganic  ammonium  salts  tested  and  some 
of  the  organic  ammonium  salts  caused  an  increase  of  the  total  nitrogen  excre- 
tion above  the  normal  and  temporarily  stimulated  nitrogen  catabolism.  Sodium 
chlorid  caused  a  lowering  of  the  amount  of  ammonia  nitrogen  eliminated. 

II.  A  note  on  the  elimination  of  ingested  ammonium  salts  during  a  period  of 
prolonged  inanition,  F.  P.  Underbill  (pp.  337-339). — The  ingestion  of  ammonium 
carbonate  by  a  starving  animal  failed  to  cause  any  increase  in  the  urinary 
excretion  of  ammonia  nitrogen.  Ammonium  chlorid,  however,  caused  a  distinct 
increase  in  the  output  of  ammonia  nitrogen  as  well  as  of  total  nitrogen.  The 
output  of  both  ammonia  nitrogen  and  total  nitrogen  remained  for  some  time 
at  a  high  level. 

III.  The  utilization  of  ammonium  salts  icith  a  nonnitrogenous  diet,  F.  P. 
Underbill  and  S.  Goldschmidt  (pp.  341-355). — In  the  case  of  dogs  maintained 
upon  a  nonnitrogenous  diet  of  high  energy  value  the  ingestion  of  ammonium 


FOODS — HUMAN   NUTRITION.  65 

chlorid  showed  no  reteDtiou  of  nitrogeu.  This  is  contrary  to  the  results 
obtained  by  otlier  workers.  The  conclusion  is  reached  that  ammonium  chlorid 
is  incapable  of  acting  as  a  source  of  nitrogen  supply  for  the  body.  It  would 
appear  from  these  experiments  that  in  considering  the  influence  of  ammonium 
salts  upon  metabolism  distinction  must  be  made  between  the  organic  and  the 
inorc:anic  ammonium  salts. 

The  amount  of  indol  obtained  by  artificial  digestion  and  decay  of  different 
proteids,  W.  von  Moraczewski  (Biochem.  Ztachr.,  51  {1913),  No.  4,  pp.  340- 
354)- — The  author  determined  the  quantity  of  indol  obtained  from  artificial 
digestion  of  casein,  the  effect  of  sugar,  fat,  etc.,  upon  the  amount  formed,  and 
particularly  the  conditions  of  indol  formation,  namely,  pancreatic  digestion 
and  putrefaction.  Other  proteid  substances,  including  thymus,  egg  white,  egg 
yolk,  serum  globulin,  lactalbumin,  fibrin,  brain,  edestin,  meat  of  different  sorts, 
lentils,  etc.,  were  subjected  to  digestion  and  to  putrefaction  and  the  quantities 
of  indol  specific  for  each  were  measured. 

The  influence  of  the  diet  on  the  excretion  of  indol  and  indican  by  healthy 
men,  W.  von  Moraczewski  and  E.  Herzfeld  {Biochem.  Ztsclir.,  51  {1013), 
No.  4,  PP-  314-339). — The  amount  of  substance  giving  an  indol  reaction  obtained 
from  urine  by  distillation  was  compared  with  the  indican  content  of  the  urine 
on  different  diets.  An  increase  was  noted  on  a  fat,  a  vegetable,  and  a  gelatin 
diet,  and  a  decrease  on  a  carbohydrate  and  a  sugar  diet.  Adding  protein 
caused  an  increase  as  compared  with  carbohj'drate  and  a  decrease  as  compared 
with  fat. 

The  indol  was  determined  directly  in  the  feces  and  also  after  fermentation. 
The  quantity  obtained  in  both  cases  was  increased  by  fat  and  also  by  a  diet 
rich  in  protein,  while  carbohydrates  diminished  indol  in  both  portions  and 
vegetables  protected  protein  from  putrefactive  changes.  The  nitrogen  and 
chlorids  of  the  feces  showed  the  same  relation.  A  direct  connection  between 
the  indican  of  the  urine  and  the  indol  of  the  feces  was  often  noted,  both  increas- 
ing or  diminishing  at  the  same  time. 

The  influence  of  starvation  upon  the  creatin  content  of  muscle,  V.  C. 
Myers  and  M.  S.  Fine  {Jour.  Biol.  Ghcm.,  15  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  2S3-304).— 
Numerous  experiments  are  reported  which  are  a  continuation  of  previous 
work  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  SG5). 

During  the  early  part  of  starvation  the  creatin  concentration  of  the  muscle 
is  increased,  but  it  decreases  at  the  close  of  the  period,  owing  to  the  great  loss 
of  creatin  in  the  urine  during  starvation  due  to  decomposition  of  the  muscle 
tissue.  It  is  the  opinion  of  the  authors  that  the  evidence  in  support  of  the 
view  that  creatin  and  creatinin  are  independent  in  metabolism  is  weaker  than 
that  in  support  of  the  view  that  urinary  creatinin  is  derived  from  the  muscle 
creatin. 

The  influence  of  carbohydrate  feeding-  upon  the  creatin  content  of  muscle, 
V.  C.  Myers  and  M.  S.  Fine  {Jour.  Biol.  Chem.,  15  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  305-310).^ 
Experiments  with  animals  which  were  fed  almost  exclusively  upon  carbo- 
hydrate for  varyiu.?  periods  of  time  showed  that  the  effect  of  carbohydrate 
feeding  upon  the  creatin  content  of  the  muscle  is  very  similar  to  that  observed 
in  starvation.  After  a  long  period  of  carbohydrate  feeding  an  even  greater 
reduction  in  the  creatin  content  of  the  muscle  than  that  which  occurs  in 
starvation  may  be  observed.  The  decreased  elimination  of  creatin  after  carbD- 
hydrate  feeding  is  due  to  the  sparing  action  of  carbohydrate  on  protein 
metabolism. 

Calorimetry  of  the  work  of  the  kidneys,  F.  Tangl  {Biochem.  Ztschr..  53 
{1913),  No.  1-2,  pp.  36-40). — Experiments  carried  out  with  the  calorimeter, 
described  in  the  following  article,  indicated  that  S.2  per  cent  of  the  total  heat 


66  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

production  of  the  animal  body  could  be  attributed  to  the  work  of  the  kidneys, 
in  the  case  of  the  rat,  and  7.9  per  cent  in  the  case  of  the  dog. 

A  calorimeter  for  small  animals,  F.  Tangl  {Biochem.  Ztschr.,  53  (1913), 
Ao.  1-2,  pp.  21-35,  figs.  3).— A  description  is  given  of  a  small  calorimeter  of  the 
open-circuit  type  which  consists  essentially  of  two  small  copper  cylinders  in- 
serted in  Dewar  flasks,  which,  in  turn,  are  inclosed  in  a  copper  box  with  cork 
insulation. 

The  difference  in  temperature  between  the  two  cylinders  is  measured  by 
means  of  thermoelectric  junctions  connected  to  a  galvanometer.  One  of  the 
cylinders  contains  a  rheostat  and  in  the  other  is  placed  the  animal  whose  heat 
production  is  to  be  studied.  During  an  experiment  electricity  is  supplied  to  the 
rheostat  to  generate  a  quantity  of  heat  sufficient  to  compensate  that  given  off  by 
the  animal  in  the  other  cylinder,  and  thus  the  two  cylinders  are  kept  at  the 
same  temperature.  The  amount  of  heat  produced  by  the  subject  is  determined 
from  the  amount  of  current  supplied  to  the  rheostat. 

Provision  is  also  made  for  the  measurement  of  the  carbon  dioxid  and  water 
vapor  produced  during  the  experiment,  so  that  the  instrument  may  serve  both 
as  calorimeter  and  respiratory  apparatus. 

Micro-calorimeter  for  the  determination  of  the  heat  production  of  bac- 
teria, K.  VON  KoRosY  (Hoppe-Seyler's  Ztschr.  Physiol.  Chem.,  86  {1913),  No.  5, 
pp.  383-400,  figs.  2). — ^A  description  is  given  of  a  micro-calorimeter  which 
utilizes  the  heat  of  vaporization  of  ether  as  a  means  of  indicating  the  heat 
production.  The  number  of  calories  developed  by  the  subject  is  measured 
directly  by  the  amount  of  ether  distilled  over  during  the  experiment. 

ANIMAL  PRODUCTION. 

The  measurement  of  the  intensity  of  inbreeding-,  R.  Pearl  (Maine  Sta.  Bui. 
215,  pp.  123-138). — In  this  treatise  is  presented  "  a  general  method  of  measuring 
the  intensity  or  degree  of  the  inbreeding  practiced  in  any  particular  case."  On 
the  basis  that  "  the  inbred  individual  possesses  fewer  different  ancestors  than 
the  maximum  possible  number,"  the  author  presents  the  following  formula  for 
determining  a  coefficient  of  inbreeding: 

100  (pn+i-qn+i) 
Vn+\ 

in  which  p^+i  denotes  the  maximum  possible  number  of  different  individuals 
involved  in  the  matings  of  the  n+1  generation  and  g^+i  the  actual  number  of 
different  individuals  involved  in  these  matiugs.  It  is  evident  that  the  coefficient 
of  inbreeding  Z  is  the  percentage  of  the  difference  between  the  maximum  pos- 
sible number  of  ancestors  and  the  actual  number  realized.  In  this  method  the 
author  starts  with  the  individual  in  question  and  works  backward,  assuming 
that  all  the  different  individuals  are  entirely  unrelated  until  the  contrary  is 
proved  by  the  finding  of  a  common  ancestor. 

In  the  mating  of  brother  with  sister  for  a  series  of  generations,  it  is  shown 
that  "  in  the  last  2  ancestral  generations  X  is  50  per  cent  inbred;  in  the  last  3 
generations  it  is  75  per  cent  inbred ;  and  in  the  last  4  generations  it  is  87.5  pel 
cent  inbred."  After  the  seventh  generation  there  is  relatively  little  change 
made  by  further  generations  of  this  sort  of  breeding.  It  is  shown  that  "  while 
increase  in  intensity  of  inbreeding  is  not  so  rapid  in  the  first  few  ancestral 
generations  by  parent  X  offspring  type  of  breeding  as  with  brother  X  sister 
type,  by  the  time  the  tenth  ancestral  generation  is  reached  the  values  are,  for 
practical  purposes,  the  same." 


ANIMAL   PKODUCTION.  67 

In  actual  iiedigreo  work  ihe  method  of  calculation  consists  in  delerminiu^  the- 
primary  reappearance  of  individuals,  by  which  is  meant  a  reappearance  a^  the 
sire  or  dam  of  an  individual  which  has  not  itself  appeared  before  in  the  lower 
ancestral  jrenerations.  These  primary  reappearances,  together  with  all  the  fore- 
going ancestors  which  they  involve,  are  then  enumerated  for  each  generation 
and  the  consequent  additions  substituted  in  the  (p„+.— Q'n+i)  po?ition  of  the 
formula,  while  the  maximum  possible  number  of  ancestors  for  the  particular 
ancestral  generation  involved  i.^  substituted  for  p„+i.  The  result  i^hows  the 
percentage  of  inbreeding.  The  author  demonstrates  the  relation  of  the  coeflB- 
cients  of  inbreeding  to  the  hereditary  constitution  of  the  individual. 

It  is  believed  that  this  method  *' is  equally  applicable  to  all  pedigrees  and  to 
all  degrees  and  types  of  inbreeding  " ;  and  that  "  the  proposed  coefficients  of 
inbreeding  may  be  made  extremely  useful  in  studies  of  the  problem  of  the  effef;t 
of  inbreeding,  whether  in  relation  to  its  purely  theoretical  aspects,  or  in  the 
practical  fields  of  stock  breeding  and  eugenics." 

A  contribution  toward  an  analysis  of  the  problem  of  inbreeding,  R. 
Pkarl  (Atner.  Nat.,  Jfl  (1913),  Xo.  562,  pp.  5117-614,  fiO^.  2).— This  article  is  an 
elaboration  on  material  reported  above. 

The  feeding  of  farm  animals,  O.  Kellneb  {Dig  Erndhnnig  der  LanJwirf- 
schaftUchen  Nittziere.  Berlin,  1912,  6.  ed.,  rev.  and  enl,  pp.  XII -\-6JfO).— This, 
is  the  sixth  edition  of  this  treatise,  revised  and  enlarged  (E.  S.  R.,  17,  p.  63). 
It  comprises  a  very  comprehensive  study  of  the  feeding  of  domestic  animals  and 
includes  summarized  accounts  of  feeding  experiments  previously  reported  from 
other  sources. 

The  development  of  agricultural  feeding  knowledge,  F.  Honcamp  {Landiv. 
Vers.  Stat.,  19-80  (1913),  pp.  1-70). — In  this  treatise  the  author  outlines  in  a 
general  way  the  work  of  the  various  German  investigators  in  animal  nutri- 
tion and  the  various  steps  in  the  development  of  general  feeding  knowledge. 

Results  of  nuclein  feeding  of  animals  {TicrcirztL  ZentbL,  36  (1913),  Nos. 
25,  pp.  384-389;  26,  pp.  401-405). — A  special  feed  (lavocat),  rich  in  nuclein  and 
of  a  high  phosphorus  content,  when  fed  to  horses  and  cattle  proved  of  value  as 
a  stimulant  and  body  builder.  This  was  especially  true  of  old  horses,  young 
calves,  and  animals  affected  with  digestive  ailments. 

[The  value  of  calcium  chlorid  in  animal  production],  R.  Emmerich  and 
O.  EOEW  (Deut.  Landw.  Tierzuclit,  17  (1913),  Xo.  28,  pp.  3.55^.35).— Experiments 
in  feeding  calcium  chlorid  to  calves  and  pigs  resulted  in  an  increase  in  weight 
of  from  10  to  25  per  cent  as  compared  with  animals  on  feeds  lacking  in  this 
element.  In  these  experiiv.ents  the  calcium  chlorid  was  added  to  the  drinking 
water,  and  the  feed  included  fish  meal  and  skim  milk,  both  relatively  high  in 
calcium. 

On  the  values  of  feeding  materials,  F.  Mach  (Landw.  Vers.  Stat..  79-80 
(1915),  pp.  815-846,  fig.  1). — This  reports  analyses  of  sesame  cake,  pojipy  cake, 
palm-seed  cake,  oil  cake,  and  rice  meal,  with  comments  and  tables  on  the  rela- 
tive market  value  of  these  and  other  concentrate  feeds  as  determined  by  their 
feeding  value. 

Inspection  of  commercial  feeding  stuffs,  P.  H.  Smith  and  C.  L.  Reals 
{Massachusetts  Sta.  Huh  146,  pp.  3-61). — This  bulletin  contains  analyses  and 
discussion  of  the  following  commercial  feeding  stuffs:  Cotton-seed  meal,  linseed 
meal,  gluten  meal,  gluten  feed,  distillers'  dried  grains,  malt  sprouts,  brewers' 
dried  grains,  wheat  middlings,  wheat  bran,  rye  feeds,  molasses  feeds,  calf 
meals,  puffed  wheat,  corn  meal,  ground  oats,  rye  meal,  hominy  meal,  provender, 
dried  beet  pulp,  corn  bran,  meat  scraps,  meat  and  bone  meal,  blood  meal,  fish 
menl.  milk  albumin,  alfalfa  meal,  and  proprietary  mixed  feeds. 


68 


EXPERIMENT   STATION    RECORD. 


There  is  inclnded  a  tabulation  of  wholesale  market  prices  of  commercial 
feediDg  stuffs  for  1912-13. 

Inspection  of  feeding  stuffs  {Islew  York  State  Sta.  Bui.  366,  pp.  235-356).^ 
This  bulletin  contains  analyses  of  the  following  commercial  feeding  stuffs: 
Cotton-seed  meal,  linseed  meal,  malt  sprouts,  dried  distillers'  grains,  dried  brew- 
ers' grains,  gluten  meal,  gluten  feed,  corn  bran,  hominy  feeds,  mixed  and  pro- 
prietary feeds,  molasses  feeds,  cotton-seed  feeds,  poultry  and  animal  feeds, 
beef  scrap,  tankage,  alfalfa  meal,  dried  beet  pulp,  peanut  bran  and  meal,  buck- 
wheat by-products,  corn  meal,  pea  meal,  wheat  middlings,  rolled  oats,  ground 
bread,  wheat  bran,  puffed  rice,  puffed  wheat,  shredded  wheat  waste,  cob  meal, 
and  miscellaneous  mixed  and  proprietary  feeds. 

There  is  included  a  report  of  tests  of  the  percentage  of  sand  found  in  feeds 
compounded  with  screenings,  from  0.13  to  4.2  per  cent  being  found.  The  text 
of  the  New  York  State  law  relating  to  the  sale  and  inspection  of  feeding  stuffs 
and  other  data  are  also  given. 

Studies  in  the  blocd  relationship  of  animals  as  displayed  in  the  composi- 
tion of  the  serum  proteins. — II,  A  comparison  of  the  sera  of  the  ox,  sheep, 
hog",  g'oat,  dog,  cat,  and  guinea  pig  with  respect  to  their  content  of  various 
proteins,  J.  H.  Woolsey  (Jour.  Biol.  Chem.,  i//  (1013),  No.  5,  pp.  // ^3-) 39). —The 
following  table  summarizes  the  average  results  obtained  in  a  comparison  of 
the  sera  of  various  animals : 

Proportions  of  the  various  proteins  in  animal  sera. 


Kind  of  protein. 

0. 

serum. 

Pheep 
serum. 

Hog 
serum. 

Goat 
serum. 

Dog 
serum. 

Cat 
serum. 

Guinea 

pig 
serum. 

Per  cent. 

8.1 

29.0 

70.0 

Per  cent. 
6.4 
17.0 
82.0 

Per  cent. 

6.0 

36.0 

04.0 

Per  cent. 
6.5 
22.0 
75.0 

Percent. 
7.7 
18.0 
81.0 

Per  cent. 
6.5 
30.0 
69.0 

Per  cent. 
4.2 

Total  globulin  .             

16.0 

Total  albumin                       .  . 

84.0 

Notes  on  native  live  stock,  J.  B.  Thompson  {Guam  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pp. 
8-22,  pis.  4,  figs.  5). — The  native  stock  of  Guam  is  of  an  inferior  grade  due  to  a 
lack  of  care  and  to  indiscriminate  inbreeding.  The  prevailing  type  is  the 
straight-backed,  humpless  taunts  species,  with  occasional  indications  of  zebu 
intermixture.  The  cattle  are  employed  for  draft,  carriage,  saddle,  beef,  and 
dairy  purposes.  Their  milk-producing  qualities  are  inferior,  due  to  a  lack  of 
nitrogenous  feed  and  little  effort  to  develop  dairy  strains.  The  native  cattle 
have  good  active  grazing  habits  and  fatten  easily  on  pasture.  They  are  hardy 
and  well  adapted  to  climatic  conditions. 

The  prospects  for  success  in  cattle  raising  are  deemed  good,  owing  to  the 
demand  for  beef,  prices  paid,  the  large  areas  of  grazing  land,  the  green  feed 
available  throughout  the  year,  and  the  tropical  climate.  No  contagious  or  in- 
fectious diseases  are  observed  among  cattle  in  Guam,  and  although  both  the 
Texas  cattle  tick  and  Australian  cattle  tick  are  present,  the  native  cattle  are 
immune  to  Texas  fever.  A  former  intermixture  of  Jersey  blood  resulted  in 
materially  improved  dairy  stock. 

Weights  and  body  measurements  of  Guam  cattle  and  carabao  are  reported. 
The  native  carabaos  do  not  withstand  heat  as  well  as  do  cattle.  They  are 
lower  in  body  temperature,  373  showing  an  average  temperature  of  100.7°  F., 
but  under  exertion,  a  rapid  rise  in  temperature  is  noted,  28  animals  averaging 
104.7°  on  a  hot  day  in  June.     For  heavy  draft  work  in  the  mud,  the  carabao 


ANIMAL   PRODUCTION. 


69 


has  no  equiil,  while  they  are  also  used  for  beef  anrl  milk,  yielding  a  fair 
amount  of  milk  rich  in  fat. 

Horses  are  scarce  and  the  offspring  of  a  poor  grade  of  stock  introduced  from 
the  Philippines.  The  domesticated  hogs  are  of  2  types:  First,  the  long,  lean, 
slow-maturing  kind,  the  sows  being  prolific  and  good  mothers;  second,  the 
short,  fine-boned,  early-maturing  tyi)e  probably  from  Chinese  or  Japanese 
stock,  the  sows  bearing  small  litters  and  being  poor  mothers. 

The  native  chickens  are  of  mixed  breeds.  They  are  somewhat  larger  than 
the  Leghorn,  but  are  poor  egg  layers.  There  is  a  ready  demand  for  both  eggs 
and  fowls  in  the  island.  Chicken  pox  and  other  serious  infectious  diseases  are 
prevalent. 

Pure-bred  stock  was  imported  by  the  station  in  1911  from  the  United  States, 
consisting  of  2  Ayrshire  bulls  and  2  heifers,  4  Morgan  fillies  and  2  stallions, 
2  Berkshire  sows  and  2  boars,  and  a  pen  each  of  Barred  Plymouth  Rock  and 
Single-combed  Brown  Leghorn  hens.  The  object  was,  first  the  acclimatization 
of  a  pure-bred  strain,  and  second,  the  improvement  of  native  stock.  One  of 
the  bulls  died  of  what  was  believed  to  be  Texas  fever.  The  remaining  animals 
were  hand  picked  for  about  4  months,  when  it  was  thought  that  they  had  under- 
gone at  least  partial  immuuization.  Daily  temperatures  were  kept  of  the  cattle 
for  over  6  months,  in  which  periods  of  abnormally  high  temperatures  were  ob- 
served in  each  of  the  various  animals,  but  the  general  condition  has  remained 
good.  The  horses,  hogs,  and  chickens  are  also  reported  in  good  condition.  The 
horses  are  being  fed  on  native  roughage.  The  crossing  of  the  Berkshire  on 
native  stock  has  resulted  in  an  Improvement  over  the  ordinary  native  pig. 
Troubles  due  to  climatic  conditions  are  being  experienced  in  the  use  of 
incubators. 

Color  inheritance  in  swine,  W.  W.  Smith  (Amer.  Breeders  Mag.,  4  {1913), 
No.  2,  pp.  113-123,  figs.  5). — Experiments  in  crossing  Yorkshire  and  Berkshire, 
and  Yorkshire  and  Poland  China  swine  indicated  "(1)  the  complete  dominance 
of  the  Yorkshire  white  over  the  Berkshire  or  Poland  China  black  in  the  Fi  or 
first  hybrid  generation;  (2)  a  general  tendency  for  the  original  parent  colors 
to  be  expressed  separately,  and  in  the  proportion  of  3  dominants  to  1  recessive. 
In  the  individuals  of  the  F2  or  second  hybrid  generation." 

Hogging"  down  corn. — A  successful  practice,  J.  M.  Evvaed,  W.  J.  Kennedy. 
and  H.  H.  Kildee  (Iowa  Sta.  Bui.  I43,  pp.  309-554,  figs.  5).— This  bulletin 
reports  3  years'  experimental  work  in  determining  the  practicability  of  allow- 
ing hogs  to  harvest  the  corn  crop,  the  value  of  such  a  system  as  compared  with 
the  dry  lot  method,  and  to  ascertain  the  relative  importance  of  different  sup- 
plemental crops  and  concentrated  feeds  when  hogs  are  fed  in  this  way. 

Reports  received  from  a  large  number  of  farmers  to  whom  inquiries  were 
sent  indicate  that  the  hogging  down  of  corn  is  in  common  practice  and  is  being 
found  profitable.  Experiments  testing  the  value  of  several  supplementary  crops 
when  fed  in  conjunction  with  hogged-down  corn  gave  the  following  results 
with  10  spring  shotes  per  acre : 


Returns  from  hogged-down  com  and  supplemeniary  crops. 


Supplementary  crops. 

Average 
daily  gain 
in  weight 

per  hog. 

Gain  of 
pork  ac- 
credited 
per  acre. 

Rape  and  pumpkins 

Pounds. 

0.931 

.828 

.706 

.418 

Pounds. 
6.51  7 

Soy  beans 

48.3  8 

Canadian  field  peas 

333  8 

Hairy  vetch 

292.8 

70 


EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 


Tlie  following  table  shows  the  comparative  returns  from  supplemented  and 
uusupplemented  corn  in  the  field  and  dry  lot,  using  an  average  of  11.25  shotes 
weighing  70  lbs.  each  per  acre: 

Comparative  returns  from  supplements  in  hogginp  down  and  dry-lot  feeding. 


Method  of  feeding. 

A verage 
daily 
gain  in 
weight 
per  hog. 

Cost  per 
100  lbs. 

gain; 
com  at 

50  cts.. 

Net  re- 
turns 
per  acre, 

hogs  at 
6  cts.  per 

pound. 

Net 
value  of 
com  per 
bushel. 

Grain  per 
100  lbs, 

hve 
weight 
daily. 

i logged  dowa: 

Corn  alone                                                      . . - 

rounds. 

0.42 

1.23 

.84 

1.44 

.fi? 
1.17 

$5.41 
3.69 
3.87 
3.56 

5.43 
4.35 

$2.10 
18.31 
10.70 
19.27 

2.33 
12.82 

SO.  47 
.78 
.70 
.87 

.55 
.  75 

Pounds. 
3.37 

Corn  aud  10  per  cent  meat  meal 

4.79 

Corn  and  soy  beans           

3.86 

Corn,  10  per  cent  meat  meal,  and  green  rye 

Dry  lot: 

4.38 
4.19 

(^om  and  10  per  cenf  meat  meal 

4.64 

Comparing  the  average  cost  of  production  per  100  lbs.  gain  with  and  without 
the  various  supplemental  crops  and  feeds,  the  following  results  were  obtained : 
Hogged  down  with  soy  beans  $2.73,  with  cowpeas  $2.87,  rape  and  pumpkins 
$1.86,  Canadian  field  peas  $4.42,  hairy  vetch  $5.85,  corn  without  supplement 
$3.14,  with  meat  meal  $2.43,  and  with  rye  pasture  and  meat  meal  $2.69. 

Replies  received  from  a  large  number  of  farmers  estimate  the  saving  per 
bushel  of  corn  by  the  hogging-down  method  at  an  average  of  6.89  cts.  It  is  the 
general  conclusion  that  spring  farrowed  shotes,  weighing  from  100  to  170  lbs. 
are  the  most  adaptable  to  hogging-down  conditions,  although  younger  pigs  and 
old  sows  may  be  so  fed  to  advantage. 

The  farD:!ers'  reports  indicated  an  average  production  of  12  lbs.  of  pork  per 
bushel  of  corn  fed,  when  hogged  down.  Actual  experiments  gave  the  following 
results:  With  standing  corn  without  supplement,  7.76  lbs.  per  bushel  of  corn 
(this  is  considered  low  and  is  accounted  for  by  unfavorable  conditions)  ;  com 
and  meat  meal  15.73  lbs. ;  corn,  meat  meal,  and  green  rye  18.37  lbs. ;  corn  and 
soy  beans  13.05  lbs. ;  dry  lot  corn  and  meat  meal  15.30  lbs. ;  and  dry  lot  corn 
alone  9.20  lbs.  The  average  size  of  a  field  hogged  down  at  one  time  was  re- 
ported as  19  acres,  carrying  approximately  13  hogs  per  acre.  The  carrying 
capacity  of  an  acre  of  standing  corn  for  a  period  of  80  days,  with  shotes 
weighing  from  125  to  150  lbs.,  is  estimated  at  from  14  to  15  head  when  corn 
is  yielding  40  bu.  per  acre,  and  21  to  22  head  when  corn  is  yielding  60  bu. 

The  commonly  accepted  time  to  turn  hogs  into  the  field  is  when  the  corn  is 
well  dented.  The  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  this  method  of  harvesting 
the  corn  crop  are  discussed,  and  a  method  of  temporary  fencing  is  described. 

Horse  breeding  and  Mendelism,  R.  Motloch  {Dent.  Landic.  Tierzucht,  17 
U918),  Nos.  32,  pp.  311-3S0;  33,  pp.  389-391).— In  this  article  the  author  dis- 
cusses the  relative  influence  of  environment  and  of  ancestry  upon  the  character- 
istics of  the  individual  horse,  with  especial  emphasis  on  the  transmission  ol 
acquired  characters. 

The  inheritance  of  coat  color  in  horses,  W.  S.  Anderson  (Amer.  Nat.,  47 
{1913),  No.  562,  pp.  615-62Jf)  .—After  extensive  studies  of  the  color  markings  of 
11,739  horses,  and  from  the  results  obtained  by  previous  investigators,  the 
author  concludes  that  with  the  exception  of  black  and  brown,  chestnut  behaves 
as  a  recessive  to  all  other  coat  colors  in  horses.  Brown  is  dominant  to  chest- 
nut and  black  and  recessive  to  bay.  Gray  and  roan  are  dominant  to  bay.  An 
attempt  is  made  to  harmonize  the  theory  that  brown  is  recessive  to  bay  with 


ANIMAL   PEODUCTION.  71 

the  actual  results  obtained  in  a  niatinjjj  of  brown  X  brown  which  resulted  in 
a  large  percentage  of  bays.  The  author  believes  that  the  discrepancy  here  lies 
in  the  interpretation  of  colors. 

Horse  breaking-  in  Argentina  iPafttoml  Rev.,  23  {1913),  No.  9,  pp.  886-S88, 
figs.  3). — An  account  of  horse-breaking  methods  in  use  in  Argentina,  and  a 
comparison  w-ith  those  of  Australia. 

Studies  on  inheritance  in  poultry. — I,  The  constitution  of  the  White 
Leghorn  breed,  P.  B.  IIadley,  Dohotiiy  W.  Caldwkll,  and  C.  II.  Magoon 
(Rhode  Island  Sta.  Bui.  155,  pp.  151-216,  pis.  3). — By  means  of  suitable  matings 
of  wliite  and  dark  birds  a  completely  barred  pattern  w^as  secured  in  Fa,  and  a 
pure  strain  of  barred  fowls  has  been  built  up  from  these  barred  F2  individuals. 
This  barring  characteristic  is  thought  to  have  its  origin  in  a  factor  for  barring, 
present  in  the  gametes  of  the  White  Leghorn  male,  and  not  as  was  formerly 
believed  in  a  heterozygous  condition  of  black  and  white.  Evidence  indicates 
that  the  White  Leghorn  male  is  homozygous  for  this  character,  while  the  female 
is  heterozygous ;  also  that  the  White  Leghorn  male  carries  a  factor  for  black 
pigmentation.  However,  the  presence  of  an  inhibiting  factor,  which  represses 
the  manifestation  of  black  and  is  homozygous  for  the  White  Leghorn  male, 
naturally  brings  out  the  barred  pattern.  The  presence  of  these  inhibiting 
factors  is  apparently  peculiar  to  the  Leghorn  breed  of  fowls  as  a  whole,  but  may 
be  used  to  advantage  in  controlling  the  manifestation  of  a  variety  of  characters 
in  poultry.  It  is  believed  that  this  factor  for  barring,  present  in  the  White 
Leghorn,  accounts  for  various  unexplained  phenomena  often  observed  in  poultry 
breeding. 

A  former  discussion  has  been  previously  referred  to  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  372). 

[Inbreeding],  J.  H.  Robinson  {Farm  Poultry,  24  {1913),  No.  10,  pp.  214, 
215). — This  is  a  discussion  of  the  beneficial  or  detrimental  effects  of  inbreeding 
as  applied  to  poultry  raising,  in  which  the  author  practically  contends  that  it 
is  not  interbreeding  in  itself  that  is  harmful  but  interbreeding  without  rigid 
selection  or  some  change  of  condition. 

Report  of  the  poultryman,  H.  Atwood  {West  Virginia  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pp. 
57-50). — Uncompleted  experiments  indicate  that  chicks  are  less  vigorous  when 
hatched  from  eggs  laid  by  hens  which  have  been  laying  heavily  for  a  long 
time.  A  decided  lack  of  phosphorus  in  the  rations  resulted  in  a  material  de- 
crease in  the  number  of  eggs  laid.  The  composition  of  the  eggs  did  not  seem 
to  bo  materially  changed.  It  was  demonstrated  that  the  average  size  of  eggs 
laid  by  hens  varies  considerably  according  to  the  season,  the  eggs  being  heavier 
during  February  and  March  than  at  any  other  time;  also  that  the  eggs  from 
mature  fowls  are  heavier  than  eggs  from  pullets. 

Report  of  poultry  conditions  in  Indiana,  A.  G.  Philips  {Indiana  8ta.  Circ. 
40.  pp.  32,  figs.  20). — A  report  of  data  collected  relative  to  the  poultry  conditions 
in  Indinna,  in  which  lists  of  questions  were  sent  out  to  2.000  farmers.  These 
questions  related  to  the  extent  of  business,  kind  and  amount  of  stock,  selection 
or  breeding,  housing  and  yarding,  feeding,  hatching  and  rearing,  diseases  and 
parasites,  management,  and  marketing  of  poultry. 

The  refrigeration  of  dressed  poultry  in  transit,  Mary  E.  Pennington  et  al. 
{U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  17,  pp.  35,  pi.  1,  figs.  19).— The  purpose  of  this  investiga- 
tion was  to  determine  the  temi)eratures  prevailing  in  refrigerator  cars  hauling 
dressed  poultry  throughout  the  entire  transportation  period,  and  to  observe 
the  effect  of  such  temperatures  on  the  condition  of  the  poultry  when  it  arrives 
at  the  market.  The  experiments  reported,  covering  a  period  between  August. 
1909.  and  October,  1912,  include  120  car-lot  shipments  of  dressed  poultry  and 
aggregate  140,000  miles  of  haul.     Six  different  car  lines  are  repr3sented.     The 

25S42'— No.  1—14 6 


72  EXPEEIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

weatlier  conditions  varied,  depending  upon  the  season  and  the  territory  in- 
volved. In  all  of  the  work  commercial  surroundings  and  commercial  routine 
prevailed.  Thermographs,  or  self-registering  thermometers,  were  used  to 
record  the  car  temperatures  throughout  the  entire  transit.  When  the  ear  was 
opened  for  unloading,  a  laboratory  examination  was  made  of  samples  of  the 
fowls,  by  estimating  the  amount  of  ammoniacal  nitrogen  in  the  muscle  tissue, 
as  an  index  of  the  progress  of  flesh  changes,  and  the  amount  of  free  acid  in 
the  fat,  since  the  rise  in  acidity  is  an  indication  of  the  aging  of  the  whole 
carcass. 

Fresh  chickens  contain  about  0.0110  per  cent  of  ammoniacal  nitrogen.  It 
was  found  that  poultry  shipped  under  car  temperatures  of  from  18  to  26°  F. 
showed  0.0120  per  cent  ammoniacal  nitrogen;  under  27  to  30",  0.0122  per  cent; 
31  to  34°,  0.0131  per  cent;  and  35  to  39°,  0.0141  per  cent.  This  difference  in 
composition  at  the  end  of  the  railroad  haul  continues  with  increasing  magni- 
tude throughout  the  period  at  the  wholesale  commission  house  and  at  the  re- 
tailer's, while  in  the  commission  house  the  deterioration  in  the  high  tempera- 
ture shipments  is  always  at  least  one  stage  ahead  of  the  low  temperature 
shipments.  It  is  evident  that  even  such  excellently  handled  poultry  as  com- 
prised these  experimental  shipments,  if  exposed  to  unfavorable  temperatures 
during  transportation,  receive  an  impetus  toward  decay  that  can  not  be  over- 
come by  subsequent  irreproachable  treatment  on  the  market. 

The  results  indicate  that  the  most  favorable  temperature  for  poultry  trans- 
portation is  less  than  31°  F.  The  problem  of  maintaining  this  temperature  is 
largely  a  question  of  car  construction.  The  -many  different  cars  used  in  these 
shipments  furnished  a  great  variety  of  sizes,  insulations,  roofs,  doors,  ice 
bunkers,  and  other  elements  which  are  factors  in  the  sum  total  of  eflBciency. 
In  calculating  the  relative  efficiency  of  the  cars,  a  formula  was  devised  which 
would  take  into  account  the  various  factors  of  icing,  surface  exposure  of  the 
car,  atmospheric  temperature,  inside  temperature,  length  of  time  in  transit,  etc. 
The  insulation  of  the  car  in  relation  to  temperature  appeared  to  be  its  most 
vulnerable  and  its  most  important  part,  the  construction  of  the  ice  bunker 
coming  next  in  importance.  Certain  types  of  insulation  in  the  side  walls  and 
floors  of  the  cars  were  found  to  be  preferable  to  others.  The  cars  with  the 
best  insulated  and  best  built  roofs  proved  to  be  the  most  efficient.  Moist  floors 
were  found  to  be  a  serious  defect  in  the  present  construction  of  cars. 

The  wire  basket  type  of  bunker  is  thought  to  be  the  most  efficient,  since  an 
abundant  air  access  to  ice  and  salt  results  in  increased  efficiency.  Likewise 
the  holding  back  of  the  brine  in  the  tank  bunker  increases  the  ability  of  the 
bunker  to  chill  the  car  and  hence  results  in  increased  efficiency.  These  and 
other  points  in  construction  are  regarded  as  the  essential  features  of  the  most 
efficient  refrigerator  car  of  the  future. 

DAIRY  FARMING— DAIRYING. 

A  comparison  of  first,  second,  and  third  crop  alfalfa  hay  for  milk  pro- 
duction, W.  E.  Carroll  {Utah  Sta.  Bui.  126,  pp.  153-1S9).— In  view  of  the 
popular  disfavor  toward  second  crop  alfalfa  as  a  feed  for  dairy  cattle,  experi- 
ments were  conducted  during  2  seasons,  1911-12,  and  1912-13,  with  first,  second, 
and  third  crops  of  alfalfa  to  determine  the  relative  value  of  these  crops.  In 
these  experiments  the  alfalfa  was  fed  ad  libitum,  with  a  grain  mixture  of 
O.Go  lb.  daily  to  each  cow  per  pound  of  milk  fat  produced  per  week.  The  test 
periods  were  from  3  to  4  weeks'  duration,  and  the  feed  unit  system  was 
adopted. 


DAIKY    FARMING DAIRYING. 


73 


A  suniiiiary  of  the  feed  units  consumed  and  the  milk  f:it  i»ivxluced  wilh  the 
various  crops  is  shown  in  the  following  table: 

Feed   consumption  and   milk  fat   production  on  first,   second,   and    third  crop 

alfalfa  hays. 


Crop. 

Feed  units. 
consumed. 

Milk  fat 
produced. 

Milk  fat  for 
100  feed 

units  con- 
sumed. 

First 

14,055 
12,835 
14,120 

Pounds. 

7(t3 
687 
670 

Pounds. 
5.00 

Second 

5  36 

Thiid 

4  78 

■ 

While  these  experiments  indicate  that  second  crop  alfalfa  is  at  least  equal 
in  economy  to  the  other  crops,  it  is  noted  that  it  is  less  relished  and  that  other 
practical  difficulties  may  tend  to  reduce  its  actual  value. 

Manuring  for  milk,  F.  Wakerley  {Midland  Agr.  and  Dairy  Col.  Bui.  1, 
1012-13,  pp.  8,  pi.  1). — A  comparison  of  the  feeding  values  of  2  pastures  of  4 
acres  each,  and  treated  with  10  cwt.  ground  lime  per  acre,  one  being  also 
fertilized  with  4  cwt.  superphosphate  and  11  cwt.  sulphate  of  potash  per  acre. 
The  total  yield  of  milk  during  the  3  seasons,  1910-1912,  was  8,740  lbs.  on  the  un- 
manured  and  13,GG1  lbs.  on  the  manured  pasture. 

Winter  feeding  of  dairy  cows,  J.  Mackintosh  {Jour.  Southeast.  Agr.  Col. 
Wye,  1912,  No.  21,  pp.  51-82).— In  this  article  the  author  attempts  to  outline 
a  rational  system  of  dairy  cattle  feeding,  in  which  he  discusses  the  Kellner. 
Armsby,  Hansson,  and  Haecker  standards  of  feeding  and  suggests  a  number  of 
successful  dairy  rations  involving  home-grown  feeds. 

The  orig-inal  St.  Lambert  Jerseys. — An  account  of  their  breeding,  C.  Clark 
{KimhalVs  Dairy  Farmer,  11  {1913),  No.  18,  pp.  542-545,  figs.  10). — The  author 
reviews  the  foundation,  development,  and  capabilities  of  the  St.  Lambert  strain 
of  Jersey  cattle,  and  compares  this  American-bred  type  with  the  finer  boned 
Jersey  Island-bred  type. 

Comparative  experiment  between  Red  Danish  milch  cattle,  Jersey  cattle, 
and  Dane-Jersey  cattle,  J.  J.  Dunne  {Hoard's  Dairyman,  46  {1913),  No.  9,  pp. 
234,  235). — Comparing  these  3  groups,  consisting  of  15  cows  each  of  approxi- 
mately the  same  age,  during  a  period  of  2  seasons  as  regards  their  average 
yields  and  cost  of  production,  the  results  as  summarized  in  the  following  table 
were  obtained : 

Average  yearly  yield  and  cost  of  production  per  coio. 


Kind  of  cows. 

Yield  of 
milk. 

Yield  of 
milk  fat. 

Yield  of 
butter. 

Feed 
units 
con- 
sumed. 

Cost  of  a 
home- 
grown 

feed  unit. 

Red  Danish 

Pounds. 
8,183 
4,343 

6.  -^27 

Per  cent. 
3.53 
5.69 
4.  32 

Pounds. 
321.6 
279.6 
206.8 

6,114 
4,799 
5. 875 

Cents. 
1.63 
1.66 
1.72 

Jersey 

Dano-Jersey 

In  churning  and  buttermaking  experiments  the  Jersey  butter  was  firmer 
and  harder  than  the  Red  Danish,  due  to  a  lower  olein  content,  but  the  feed- 
ing of  rape  oil  reduced  this  hard  and  brittle  consistency. 


74  EXPERIMENT    STATION    EECOED. 

Milking  capacities  of  the  Trinidad  government  farm  cows,  H.  S.  Shrews- 
cuRY  (West  Indian  BuL,  13  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  28i-287).— Half-bred  zebus  pro- 
duce<l  au  avernge  daily  milk  yield  of  5.G  qt.,  testing  3.37  per  cent  fat,  and  are 
reported  as  good  dairy  animals  for  tbat  locality. 

Dairying  in  Jamaica,  H.  H.  Cousins  {Bui.  Dept.  Agr.  Jamaica,  n.  ser.,  2 
{1913),  No.  7,  pp.  253-296,  pis.  10).— A  general  treatise  on  dairying  conditions 
in  Jamaica,  in  wbicli  the  author  outlines  methods  of  improvement  of  the  native 
stock.  It  is  noted  that  importations  of  pure-bred  stock  are  being  made  from 
North  America.  The  Guernsey  is  given  preference  as  a  foundation  stock  for 
the  purely  dairy  animal,  while  the  Red  Poll  has  proved  valuable  as  a  dual  pur- 
pose breed.    Analyses  of  the  milk  of  various  breeds  and  crossbreeds  are  given. 

Ninth  biennial  report  of  the  state  dairy  bureau  [for  the  biennial  period 
ending  November  30,  1912]  {Bicn.  Rpt.  State  Dairy  Bur.  Cal,  9  {1911-12), 
pp,  ^0,  figs.  9). — A  general  report  of  dairying  opportunities  in  California,  with 
statistics  on  the  milk,  butter,  and  cheese  output  and  a  list  of  creameries  in 
operation  in  the  State. 

Quarterly  report  of  the  dairy  and  food  commissioner  of  Virginia,  W.  D. 
Saunders  {Quart.  Rpt.  Dairy  and  Food  Comr.  Ya.,  1913,  Mar. -May,  pp.  43-^6, 
50-55,  62-68). — This  report  includes  an  inspection  of  114  dairies  and  dairy 
farms  and  of  a  number  of  creameries,  collecting  stations,  and  cheese  factories, 
also  the  examination  of  misbranded,  adulterated,  and  otherwise  illegal  stock 
feeds. 

Michigan's  new  milk  and  cream  law,  R.  G.  Kirby  {Mich.  Farmer,  1^1 
{1913),  No.  8,  p.  1,  figs.  2). — An  account  of  the  new  Michigan  milk  and  cream 
law  looking  toward  sanitation  in  the  dairy  and  increased  purity  of  the  milk. 

Milk  and  cream  testing,  H.  H.  Dean  {Ann.  Rpt.  Ontario  Agr.  Col.  and 
Expt.  Farm,  38  {1912),  pp.  70-83). — This  continues  work  previously  reported 
(E.  S.  R.,  27,  p.  777). 

In  comparison  of  the  results  obtained  from  the  sampling  of  cream  for  com- 
posite samples  by  the  aliquot  and  ounce  methods,  it  was  found  that  on  a  de- 
livery of  over  1,400  lbs.  fat  the  total  difference  by  the  2  methods  was  8.9  lbs. 
in  favor  of  the  ounce  method.  Open  bottle  samples  of  cream  gave  "  results 
altogether  too  high  and  show  very  forcibly  the  need  of  keeping  composite  bottles 
tightly  stoppered."  ComiX)site  samples  kept  in  cold  storage  proved  to  be  in 
better  condition  at  the  end  of  one  month  than  were  those  kept  at  room  temper- 
ature. Contrary  to  expectation,  samples  kept  in  cold  storage  frequently  tested 
"  a  higher  percentage  of  fat  than  did  those  kept  at  room  temperature,"  this 
being  probably  due  to  the  more  accurate  sampling  possible  with  this  better 
cream.  Comparing  daily,  weekly,  semi-monthly,  and  monthly  tests  for  accu- 
racy of  results,  it  is  concluded  that  the  last  3  methods  "  will  credit  patrons  with 
approximately  correct  weights  of  fat  delivered,  as  compared  with  testing  each 
and  every  delivery  of  cream  to  the  creamerj-."  Tests  of  3  different  cream  scales 
indicated  that  a  sample  of  cream  may  be  tested  within  about  0.2  per  cent  of 
accuracy  on  a  12-bottle  cream  scale,  irrespective  of  the  number  of  the  bottles 
weighed  at  one  time. 

Tests  with  formalin  as  a  preservative  in  composite  milk  and  cream  samples 
"  show  that  about  one-half  a  cubic  centimeter  of  formalin  will  preserve  a  pint 
sample  of  milk  or  cream  in  good  condition  for  testing  for  a  month.  When  1  cc. 
of  formalin  was  used  the  tests  were  not  satisfactory  unless  an  extra  volume  of 
sulphuric  acid  was  used  (20  and  21  cc.  instead  of  17.5  cc.)." 

It  was  found  that  the  greatest  differences  in  the  cream  transported  in  an 
ordinary  can  and  a  jacketed  can  was  6°  F.  in  temperature  and  0.05  per  cent 
acidity  in  favor  of  the  cream  in  a  jacketed  can.  The  average  difference  was  3.6° 
in  temperature  and  0.022  per  cent  acidity.     As  a  rule,  there  was  not  sufficient 


DAIRY   FARMING DAIRYING.  75 

decrease  in  the  acidity  of  tlie  cream  in  the  jaclieted  can  to  pay  for  the  extra 
expense  and  inconvenience. 

Tests  for  2  years  indicate  that  tlie  average  cost  of  pasteurizing  cream  for 
the  manufacture  of  100  lbs.  of  butter  is  3.3  cts.  A  combined  pasteurizer  and 
cream  vat,  it  is  said,  gave  satisfactory  results  in  reducing  the  cost  of  labor  in 
heating  and  cooling  milk  and  cream.  Results  from  stirring  milk  while  cooling 
V.  not  stirring  indicated  that  "there  was  little  or  no  dillerence  in  the  tem- 
perature of  the  milk  in  the  cans  not  stirred,  comparing  milk  in  the  center  of 
the  can  with  that  near  the  outside,  or  6  in.  from  the  outside.  The  milk  cooled 
more  rapidly  when  stirred,  and  had  slightly  less  acid  the  following  morning, 
but  there  was  veiy  little  difference  in  the  general  condition  of  the  2  lots. 
Under  ordinary  conditions  in  the  case  of  milk  for  cheese  making  it  would 
seem  as  if  stirring  were  not  necessary,  except  where  more  rapid  cooling  is 
desired," 

Butter  making",  H.  H.  Dean  (Ann.  Rpt.  Ontario  Agr.  Col.  and  Expt.  Farm, 
38  {1912),  pp.  S3-0i).— Continuing  work  previously  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  p.  779), 
the  effect  of  neutralizers  of  acidity  in  cream  for  butter  making  was  studied, 
with  the  result  that  "butter  scored  about  3  points  higher  by  adding  milk  lime 
to  the  cream  before  pasteurizing,  and  3*  points  higher  by  adding  the  m'lk  lime 
after  pasteurization,  as  compared  with  the  scores  of  butter  from  similar  lots 
of  cream  which  were  not  neutralized."  The  use  of  a  smsiU  quantity  of  con- 
centrated milk  lime  proved  preferable  to  a  larger  quantity  of  limewater.  It  is 
suggested  that  the  prevention  of  the  development  of  acidity  by  keeping  the 
cream  cold  and  more  frequent  delivery  would  prove  preferable  to  the  use  of  a 
large  quantity  of  "neutralizer." 

Comparing  the  results  obtained  from  the  use  of  raw  v.  pasteurized  cream 
for  butter  making,  it  is  concluded  that  "  there  was  a  greater  loss  of  fat  in  the 
buttermilk  from  the  lots  pasteurized.  The  'overrun'  or  yield  of  butter  was  less 
from  the  lots  of  cream  pasteurized.  There  was  not  much  difference  in  the 
quality  of  the  butter  as  indicated  by  the  scores.  This  is  different  from  the 
results  got  in  previous  experiments,  and  is  accounted  for  by  the  relatively  high 
scores  given  to  the  raw  lots  vrhen  fresh." 

With  a  view  to  determining  to  what  extent  the  acidity  of  the  cream  pasteur- 
ized alTected  the  percentage  of  fat  lost  in  the  buttermilk,  a  series  of  experiments 
was  conducted  and  showed  an  increased  loss  of  fat  in  the  buttermilk  as  a  con- 
sequence of  increased  acidity  of  the  cream  at  the  time  of  pasteurization.  It 
is  explained  that  this  is  probably  due  to  an  "increased  coagulation  of  the 
caseous  matter  which  entangles  more  of  the  fat  globules  and  prevents  their 
churning  or  massing  in  the  form  of  butter."  It  is  stated  that  "  the  cream  pas- 
teurized with  the  higher  acidity  produced  butter  which  gave  a  lower  average 
score  as  compared  with  butter  made  from  similar  cream  pasteurized  on  arrival 
at  the  crenn.ery  when  moderately  sweet." 

Contihuing  previous  tests  on  the  conditions  affecting  the  salt  and  moisture 
in  butter,  it  was  found  that  salt  added  to  butter  in  a  wet  condition  was  "  better 
distributed  and  more  in  solution  than  were  the  dry  salt  lots."  The  average 
percentage  of  moisture  retained  in  the  finished  butter  was  practically  the 
same  with  both  saltings.  Tests  on  the  retention  of  salt  in  the  butter  by  the 
2  methods  do  not  agree.  "Butter  churned  to  about  the  size  of  wheat  granules 
contained  more  moisture  and  less  salt  than  did  similar  butters  churned  to 
lump  size."  Grittiness  in  butter  is  ascribed  to  an  overabundance  of  salt.  It 
was  found  that  a  saturated  salt  solution  contained,  on  an  average,  29.25  per 
cent  salt,  and  a  table  is  given  showing  the  percentage  of  salt  that  butter  with 
a  moisture  content  ranging  from  13.5  to  16  i>er  cent  is  capable  of  holding  in 
solution.     Quantities  of  salt  ranging  from  4.29  to  5.77  lbs.  per  100  lbs.  butter 


76 


EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 


were  added  to  cliurnings,  with  a  resulting  retention  of  salt  of  from  3.156  to 
3.45  lbs.,  the  loss  being  accounted  for  in  the  chum  water  and  on  the  worker. 
A  loss  of  moisture  and  salt  in  butter  was  found  in  the  process  of  printing  and 
packing,  and  after  1,  2,  and  3  months  in  cold  storage  there  was  a  steady  de- 
crease in  moisture  content,  the  salt  content  remaining  fairly  uniform. 

Some  butter-making  experiments  and  analyses,  R.  Crowe  {Jour.  Dept.  Agr. 
Victoria,  11  {1013),  No.  6,  pp.  357-366,  figs.  -^).— In  testing  the  supposed  value 
of  salt  as  a  butter  preservative  it  was  found  that  after  a  period  of  5  weeks' 
storage  unsalted  butter  scored  higher  than  did  salted.  The  author  believes 
that  the  presence  of  salt  facilitates  bacterial  development  in  butter.  Analyses 
of  19.470  samples  of  Victorian  butter  showed  an  average  composition  of  83.5 
per  cent  fat,  13.84  per  cent  moisture,  0.76  per  cent  curd,  1.82  per  cent  salt, 
and  0.2  per  cent  boric  acid. 

Cheddar  cheese  investig-ations  and  experiments,  H.  H.  Dean  (Ann.  Rpt. 
Ontario  Agr.  Col.  and  Expt.  Farm,  38  {1912),  pp.  56-70). — Continuing  work 
previously  reported  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  p.  777),  analyses  of  the  milk  delivered  at 
Ontario  cheeseries  during  1912  showed  an  average  casein  content  of  2.14  per 
cent,  the  highest  percentage  being  2.58,  the  lowest  1.79;  and  an  average  fat 
content  of  3.52  per  cent,  the  highest  4.53,  the  lowest  2.79  per  cent. 

Comparing  the  results  of  2  years,  1911  and  1912,  one  a  wet  the  other  a  dry 
season,  no  apparent  effect  of  season  upon  the  casein  and  fat  content  of  milk 
was  noted.  "  The  averages  for  milk  fat  and  casein  for  the  season  of  1911 
were  3.77  and  2.37;  for  1912,  3.61  and  2.18,  respectively.  .  .  .  These  results 
do  not  coiflside  with  the  theory  that  a  dry,  hot  season  tends  to  produce  milk 
with  low  fat  and  casein  contents  and  a  wet  season  the  reverse.  As  in  previous 
years,  the  milk  during  the  months  of  September  and  October  tends  to  be  rela- 
tively higher  in  fat  and  casein  content,  due  doubtless  to  advancing  lactation 
among  cows,  consequently  less  milk  is  required  to  make  a  pound  of  cheese 
than  is  the  case  earlier  in  the  season.". 

In  vat  tests,  the  average  number  of  pounds  of  milk  required  to  make  a 
pound  of  cheese  was  10.79,  which  is  practically  the  same  as  for  1911.  The 
lowest  amount  required  was  9.68  lbs.  In  October,  the  highest  11.43  lbs.  in  Au- 
gust. The  average  number  pounds  of  cheese  per  pound  of  fat  in  milk  for  the 
different  months  proved  to  be  fairly  uniform,  ranging  between  2.43  lbs.  for 
August  and  2.58  lbs.  for  July  and  October;  and  per  pound  of  casein  3.9  lbs. 
in  August  and  4.15  lbs.  in  July. 

Comparing  cheese  made  from  2  separate  vats,  one  containing  milk  of  low  fat 
and  casein  content  (3.42  and  2.09  per  cent),  and  the  other  high  fat  and  casein 
content  (3.84  and  2.36  per  cent),  the  following  results  were  obtained: 

Production  of  cheese  from  mills  of  Jiigh  and  low  fat  and  casein  content. 


Kind  of  milk. 

Cheese 

per  pound 

of  fat  in 

milk. 

Cheese 

per  povmd 

of  casein 

in  milk. 

Fat  con- 
tent of 
cheese. 

Average 
shrink- 
age. 

Cheese 

per  1,000 

pounds 

milk. 

Milk  re- 
quired 
per  pound 
of  cheese. 

Low  fat  and  casein 

High  fat  and  casein 

Pounds. 
2.64 
2.50 

PouT^s. 
4.33 
4.02 

Per  cent. 

35.  45 

36.  49 

Per  cent. 
2.  S03 

2.801 

Pounds. 
90.70 
96. 23 

Pounds. 
11.02 
10.39 

The  average  percentage  of  moisture  in  the  cheese  was  the  same  for  both 
lots,  3.45. 

Comparing  cheese  made  from  normal  and  from  overripe  milk,  it  is  concluded 
that  "  the  overrii)€  milk  of  similar  composition  to  that  in  normal  condition  pro- 


VETERINARY   MEDICINE.  77 

duced  2.2  lbs,  less  cheese  per  1,000  lbs.  of  milk.  The  2  previous  years  the  differ- 
ences were  2.4  and  2.5  lbs.  less  per  1,000  lbs.  milk  from  the  overripe  lots.  Both 
lots  contained  practically  the  same  percentages  of  moisture  in  both  green  and 
ripe  cheese.  The  quality  of  the  cheese  was  inferior  in  all  cases  made  from  the 
overripe  milks.  To  increase  the  yield  of  cheese  and  improve  the  quality  it  is 
important  that  patrons  of  cheeserios  shall  cool  the  milk  on  the  farm  so  as  to 
have  it  arrive  at  the  factory  in  a  sweet  condition." 

No  difference  was  noted  as  to  the  effect  of  acid  at  time  of  adding  rennet  to 
milk.  "An  average  increase  of  0.027  per  cent  acid  in  the  whey  at  the  time  of 
dipping,  or  removal  of  the  curd  from  the  whey,  reduced  the  yield  of  cheese  per 
100  lbs,  of  milk  by  0.4  lb.  Last  year  the  reduction  was  0.42  lb.,  and  the  previous 
year  it  was  0.73  lb.  All  3  years'  results  emphasize  the  importance  of  separat- 
ing curd  and  whey  when  comparatively  sweet  in  order  to  have  a  'good  average', 
or  lessen  the  weight  of  milk  required  to  make  1  lb.  of  cheese.  The  lots  dipped 
with  high  acid  had  greater  loss  of  fat  in  the  whey,  greater  shrinkage,  less  mois- 
ture in  curd  and  cheese,  and  scored  an  average  of  nearly  one  point  less." 

In  determining  the  effect  of  varying  weights  of  salt  applied  to  curds  (2^,  2i, 
2|  lbs.  salt  per  1,000  lbs.  milk),  it  was  noted  that  increasing  the  salt  reduced  the 
loss  by  shrinkage  during  the  ripening.  There  was  a  slight  decrease  in  moisture 
content  of  the  cheese,  both  green  and  ripe,  as  the  salt  was  increased,  and  the 
highly  salted  cheese  averaged  slightly  higher  in  the  scoring, 

"  Cheese  ripened  in  cold  stornge  retained  more  of  the  original  moisture  in  the 
cheese  at  the  end  of  one  month  than  did  cheese  ripened  in  the  ordinary  ripening 
room.  Most  of  the  loss  of  moisture  in  both  lots  took  place  from  the  first  inch 
of  the  cheese,  which  included  the  rind.  The  greatest  loss  was  during  the  first 
week  of  ripening.  The  results  of  2  seasons'  work  agree  in  showing  that  the 
loss  of  moisture  from  a  cheese  during  ripening  takes  place  nearly  altogether 
from  the  surface,  and  that  the  moisture  in  the  center  of  the  cheese  remains 
fairly  constant  for  at  least  a  month." 

There  was  less  shrinkage  in  ripening  cheese  in  a  room  of  40°  F..  than  in  one  of 
60°  or  70°.  The  average  percentage  of  moisture  was  approximately  the  same. 
The  quality  of  the  cheese  was  superior  in  the  lots  ripened  at  the  low^er  temper- 
ature. 

In  a  comparison  of  pasteurized  v.  raw  milk  or  cream,  it  was  concluded  that 
*•  the  yield  of  cheese  was  slightly  greater  by  adopting  pasteurization  for  Camem- 
bert  and  cream  cheese,"  there  being  no  difference  in  the  case  of  Gervais  cheese. 
The  moisture  content  was  variable  and  the  results  were  inconclusive.  The 
quality  of  cheese  was  superior  in  the  case  of  the  pasteurized  milk  or  cream. 

Caerphilly  cheese,  Miss  G.  N.  Da  vies  (Jour.  Agr.  [New  Zeal.},  7  (1913), 
No.  1,  pp.  JtO-IfJf,  figs.  S). — Directions  are  given  for  renneting,  cutting,  scalding, 
pitching,  vatting,  salting,  pressing,  curing,  and  other  processes  in  the  manufac- 
ture of  Caerphilly  cheese. 

VETERINARY    MEDICINE. 

Protective  ferments  of  the  animal  organism,  E.  Abderhalden  (Sclnitzfer- 
mcnte  dcs  ticrischen  Organismus.  Berlin.  1912,  pp.  Xn-\-110,  figs.  S). — This  is 
a  contribution  in  regard  to  the  methods  whereby  the  animal  body  protects  itself 
against  detrimental  body  and  blood  substances  and  substances  foreign  to  the 
cells.  The  subject  is  treated  under  the  following  headings:  Enzyms  of  the 
cells;  formation  of  protective  enzyms,  including  protein  substances  foreign  to 
the  body  and  the  blood  with  particular  reference  to  anaphylaxis,  foreign  carbo- 
hydrates, fats,  nucleoproteids,  and  nucleins;  the  origin  of  protective  ferments; 


78  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECOKD. 

the  detection  of  native  bodj'  substances  foreign  to  the  blood;  biological  diag- 
nosis of  pregnancy;  the  optical  method  and  its  use  in  pathology;  the  signifi- 
cance of  milk  for  the  suckling;  the  use  of  the  optical  method  in  the  field  of 
infectious  diseases;  etc.    A  large  bibliography  is  appended. 

Investigations  in  regard  to  streptolysin,  O.  von  Hellens  {Centbl.  Bakt. 
[etc.],  1.  AM.,  Orig.,  68  (1913),  No.  7,  pp.  602-6U,  fi9-s.  12).— The  results  of  this 
extensive  investigation  show  that  streptolysin  formation  takes  place  very  rapidly 
and  can  be  noted  1  hour  after  inoculation,  A  maximum  formation  can  take 
place  within  7  to  S  hours.  The  greatest  amount  of  hemolysin  formation,  which 
depends  upon  the  nutrient  medium  and  the  strain  of  bsicteria  employed,  is  said 
to  be  between  the  seventh  and  eighteenth  hour.  As  soon  as  it  reaches  its  fas- 
tigium  it  begins  to  decrease,  and  in  the  first  24  hours  this  decrease  is  very  rapid. 
In  the  greatest  number  of  cases  no  hemolysin  was  noted  after  8  to  13  days. 
In  anaerobic  cultures  streptolysin  formation  and  depreciation  take  place  in 
almost  the  same  manner  as  in  aerobic  cultures.  In  the  latter  cases,  however, 
they  were  produced  a  little  more  slowly,  and  a  lower  amount  was  formed. 

The  best  nutrient  medium  for  the  streptococcus  was  a  horse  serum-bouillon 
containing  from  40  to  50  per  cent  of  a  serum  inactivated  at  56°  C.  for  one-half 
hour.  Rabbit  serum  (10  per  cent)  bouillon  was  inferior  to  ascitic  fluid  (33  per 
cent)  bouillon.  Only  a  slight  development  of  streptolysin  took  place  in  a  plain 
alkaline  peptone  bouillon,  but  when  5  per  cent  of  peptone  was  added  to  cultures 
in  other  media  there  was  a  marked  increase,  in  one  case  over  300  per  cent. 
Evidently  a  prolysin  (Walbum)  is  present  in  such  cultures  which  is  destroyed 
whep,  the  bacteria  are  continuously  cultivated  in  the  thermostat.  The  hemo- 
lysin present  in  seruui'-  and  ascitic  fluid-bouillon  cultures  is  filterable.  The  fil- 
trate from  horse  serum  bouillon  cultures  is  from  1.1  to  1.4  times  weaker  than 
the  cultures  themselves. 

In  human,  horse,  bovine,  sheep,  goat,  dog,  pig,  rabbit,  guinea  pig,  and  pigeon 
blood  appreciable  quantities  of  antistreptolysin  could  not  be  noted.  The  hemo- 
lytic action  of  streptolysin  showed  a  different  intensity  at  different  temperatures, 
being  from  4  to  6  times  more  active  at  37°  C.  than  at  room  temperature,  while  at 
nearly  freezing  temperature  it  is  practically  inactive.  The  greatest  resistance 
toward  hemolysin  was  noted  with  the  blood  of  the  goat  and  sheep,  that  of  man, 
horses,  bovines,  and  pigeons  coming  next,  and  this  being  followed  by  rabbit,  dog, 
pig,  and  guinea  pig  blood.  A  decoloration  of  the  blood  of  the  horse,  bovine, 
sheep,  and  goat  took  place  as  a  result  of  hemolysis.  The  blood  corpuscles  of 
man,  the  pig,  and  the  guinea  pig  were  agglutinated  in  some  cases.    ■ 

The  hemolytic  principle  of  streptolysin  was  soluble  in  ether,  and  almost  the 
entire  quantity  present  in  the  culture  could  be  extracted  with  this  solvent.  The 
streptolysin  present  in  the  filtrate  was  labile  and  was  inactivated  rapidly  by 
cooling  to  —16°,  at  +4  to  5°,  at  room  temperature,  or  by  heating  at  37°  or 
above.  Horse  serum  bouillon  streptolysin  was  the  most  resistant.  The  strep- 
tolysin extracted  from  the  filtrates  was  thermostable.  The  addition  of  hydro- 
chloric acid  seemed  to  increase  the  inactivation  of  streptolysin  by  heat.  The 
rate  of  preventing  inactivation  by  sodium  hydroxid.  seemed  to  bear  some  relation 
to  the  hydrogen  ion  concentration  of  the  solution. 

The  laws  and  rules  and  regulations  governing  live  stock  sanitary  control 
■work  in  Tennessee,  1913-14  (Xashville:  Tenn.  Dept.  Agr.,  1913,  pp.  Jfi,  fig.  1). — 
A  compilation  of  the  various  laws,  rules,  and  regulations  relating  to  live  stock 
sanitary  control  work  in  Tennessee. 

The  results  of  meat  inspection  in  Brunswick,  1905-1911,  C.  Sander  (Beitr. 
Statis.  Braunschifcig,  1913,  No.  26,  pp.  23-47). — A  statistical  report  of  inspection 
work. 


VETERINARY   MEDICINE.  79 

Conditions  influencing'  the  transmission  of  East  Coast  fever,  G.  11.  F, 
NuTTALL  and  E.  Hindle  (Paru-ntology,  G  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  321-332).— Ex\)(iri- 
uients  in  the  transmission  of  East  Coast  fever  here  reported  led  the  authors  to 
conclude  that  "  infected  ticks  do  not  produce  infection  during  the  first  2  d:iys 
when  feeding  on  cattle.  Infected  ticks  are  still  infective  after  feeding  upon  a 
rabbit  for  3  days.  Heating  infected  ticks  to  37°  C.  for  3  days  does  not  render 
them  infective  during  the  first  2  days  after  they  become  attached  to  the  host. 
The  partial  feeding  of  infected  ticks  for  2  days,  followed  by  starvation  for  17 
days,  renders  thorn  noninfective.  Inoculations  of  emulsions  of  infective  ticks 
collected  from  cattle  on  the  fifth  day  of  engorgement  failed  to  produce  infection. 
Infective  ticks  are  rendered  noninfective  by  exposure  to  a  temperature  of  about 
10°  for  3  weeks.  Their  infectivity  may  be  restored  by  subsequently  warming 
them." 

Piroplasmosis,  G.  H.  F.  Nuttall  (Parasitology,  6  {1013),  No.  3,  pp.  302-320, 
figs.  14;  BiiJ.  Johns  Hopkins  Hosp.,  24  {1913),  No.  272,  pp.  307-316,  figs.  22).^ 
This  is  a  summarized  account  of  the  present  knowledge  of  piroplasmosis. 

Experimental  investig-ations  on  the  therapeutic  action  of  yeast  in  alimen- 
tary, multiple  polyneuritis  in  g-uinea  pigs  and  pigeons,  ]M.  Barsickow 
{Biochem.  Ztschr.,  48  {1913),  No.  5,  pp.  418-424,  pi.  J).— Dried  living  yeast 
cells,  zymin  (acetone  permanent  yeast),  Cerolin  (an  alcoholic  extract  of  the 
fatty  substances  present  in  yeast),  and  a  yeast  killed  by  drying  at  120°  C.  were 
used  in  these  experiments.  No  difference  was  noted  in  the  therapeutic  efi!ects 
between  those  preparations  containing  enzyms  or  living  yeast  cells  and  dead 
yeast  cells  which  contain  no  enzyms.  It  is  concluded  that  in  all  probability  the 
therapeutic  properties  of  yeast  depend  upon  the  nuclein  or  salts  of  nucleic  acid 
which  it  contains. 

Cultivation  of  the  rabies  organism,  Anna  W.  Williams  {Jour.  Amer.  Med. 
Assoc,  61  {1913),  No.  17,  pp.  1509-1511,  figs.  £).— The  author  reports  observa- 
tions made  during  the  course  of  studies  of  Negri  bodies,  in  which  attempts 
were  made  to  cultivate  the  virus. 

The  parasite  of  rabies,  O.  Bartholow  {Jour.  Amer.  Med.  Assoc.,  61  {1913), 
No.  17,  pp.  1555,  1556). — A  critical  review  of  recent  literature. 

Note  on  rinderpest,  E.  W.  Oliver  {Dept.  Land  Rcc.  and  Agr.  United  Pror. 
Agra  and  Oudh.  Agr.  8er.,  1913,  Bui.  28,  pp.  13,  pi.  1,  figs.  11).— A  general 
description  of  this  disease,  including  vernacular  names  for  rinderpest  as  use<l 
in  various  parts  of  India,  diagnosis,  and  treatment,  based  upon  observations  in 
India  and  South  Africa. 

The  morphology  of  Trypanosoma  simiae  n.  sp.,  D.  Bruce  et  al.  {Proc. 
Roy.  Soc.  [London],  8er.  B,  85  {1912),  No.  B  581,  pp.  477-481,  pi.  1,  figs.  5).— 
*•  T.  simice  n.  sp..  is  a  well-defined  species,  easily  separated  by  its  mori^hology 
alone  from  the  other  trypanosomes  which  have  been  described  as  causing  disease 
among  domestic  animals.  It  sets  up  a  chronic  disease  in  goats,  but  is  chiefly 
remarkable  for  its  rapidly  fatal  action  on  monkeys.  In  Nyasaland  it  is  carried 
by  (ilossina  ynorsitans  and  in  this  district.  Central  Angoniland,  this  tsetse  fly 
is  found  to  be  heavily  infected  with  this  trypanosome."' 

Trypanosomes  of  the  domestic  animals  in  Nyasaland. — I,  Trypanosoma 
simiae  n.  sp.,  II,  III,  D.  Bruce  et  al.  {Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  [London],  Ser.  B,  87 
(1913),  No.  B  592.  pp.  48-57,  58-66.  pis.  5).— Continuing  the  studies  noted  above, 
the  authors  find  that  as  regards  the  susceptibility  of  various  animals,  T.  simiw 
belongs  to  the  same  group  as  7'.  pecorum,  aud  like  the  latter  is  erratic  in  its 
action.  It  affects  goats,  sheep,  pigs,  aud  monkeys,  while  oxen,  antelope,  dogs, 
rabbits,  guinea  pigs,  and  rats  are  practically  immune.  The  reservoir  of  the 
virus  is  the  warthog. 


80  EXPEKIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

T.  simice  multiplies  in  the  iutestines  and  in  the  labial  cavity  of  the  proboscis 
of  Glossina  morsitans.  Here  only  developmental  forms  are  found,  never  in- 
fective forms.  The  T.  simiw  growing  in  the  intestines  of  the  '  fly  '  has  no  spe- 
cific characters  by  which  it  can  be  distinguished  from  other  species  of  pathogenic 
trypanosomes  found  in  tsetse  flies.  The  final  stage  of  the  development  takes 
place  in  the  hypopharynx,  wherein  the  infective  form  of  the  parasite,  similar  in 
shape  to  the  trypanosome  found  in  the  blood  of  infected  animals,  is  produced. 
The  flies  do  not  become  infective  until  about  20  days  after  their  first  infected 
feed. 

Trypanosome  diseases  of  domestic  animals  in  ITyasaland. — II,  Trypano- 
soma caprse,  D.  Beuce  et  al.  {Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  [London],  Ser.  B,  86  (1913), 
Ko.  B  587,  pp.  278-284,  pi.  1,  fig.  i).— "  T.  caprw  belongs  to  the  same  group  as 
T.  vivax  and  T.  uniforme,  and  affects  the  same  animals,  cattle,  goats,  and  sheep. 
Monkeys,  dogs,  and  the  smaller  laboratory  animals  are  immune.  The  carrier 
is  Glossina  morsitans.  The  reservoir  of  the  virus  is  the  wild  game  living  in  the 
*  fly  country.'  " 

The  trypanosomes  found  in  the  blood  of  wild  animals  living  in  the  sleep- 
ing- sickness  area,  Nyasaland,  D.  Bruce  et  al.  (Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  [London], 
Ser.  B,  86  (1913),  No.  B  587,  pp.  269-277). — "Thirty-one  and  seven-tenths  per 
cent  of  the  wild  game  in  the  *  fly  country '  below  Kasu  Hill  harbor  pathogenic 
trypanosomes.  The  species  of  trypanosomes  found  are  Trypanosoma  'brucei  vel 
rJiodesiense  7.8  per  cent,  T.  pecorum  14.4,  T.  simice  1.7,  T.  caprw  11.1,  and  T. 
ingens  1.7.  It  is  self-evident  that  these  wild  animals  should  not  be  allowed  to 
live  in  '  fly  country,'  where  they  constitute  a  standing  danger  to  the  native  in- 
habitants and  the  domestic  animals.  .  .  .  Active  measures  should  be  taken 
for  their  early  and  complete  blotting  out.  .  .  . 

"  No  pathogenic  trypanosomes  have  up  to  the  present  been  found  by  the  com- 
mission in  the  blood  of  animals  living  in  fly-free  areas." 

Morphology  of  various  strains  of  the  trypanosome  causing  disease  in 
man  in  Nyasaland,  D.  Bruce  et  al.  {Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  [Londoti],  Ser.  B,  86 
{1913),  Nos.  B  589,  pp.  394-^07,  figs.  7;  pp.  408-421,  figs.  7;  B  592,  pp.  26-35,  pis. 
S.  figs.  2). — The  authors  conclude  that  the  5  wild  game  strains  resemble  each 
other  closely,  and  all  belong  to  the  same  species  of  trypanosome  {Trypanosoma 
rliodesiensc  (Stephens  and  Fantham).)  The  human  strain  differs  to  some 
extent,  but  also  belongs  to  the  same  species.  "  There  is  some  reason  for  the 
belief  that  T.  rhodesiense  and  T.  hriicei  (Plimmer  and  Bradford)  are  one  and 
the  same  species." 

"  The  trypanosome  of  the  Mzimba  strain  is  the  snme  species  as  that  occurring 
in  the  wild  game  inhabiting  the  Proclaimed  Area,  Nyasaland.  It  has  already 
been  concluded  that  this  species  is  Trypanosoma  brucei  vel  rJiodesiense.  Hence 
it  would  appear  that  wild  Glossina  morsitans  occurring  in  a  district  100  miles 
north  of  the  Proclaimed  Area  are  infected  with  the  trypanosome  which  causes 
the  human  trypanosome  disease  of  Nyasaland." 

Studies  on  the  biochemistry  and  chemotherapy  of  tuberculosis,  IV,  V,  VI 
(Jour.  Infect.  Diseases,  12  {1913),  Nos.  1,  pp.  68-92;  2,  pp.  249-275)  .—These 
parts  continue  previous  work  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  177). 

IV.  Preliminary  report  of  experiments  in  the  vital  staining  of  tubercles, 
Lydia  M.  DeWitt  (pp.  68-92). — "Among  the  dyes  so  far  tested,  trypan  blue, 
trypan  red,  isamin  blue,  pyrrhol  blue,  Ehrlich's  rectified  methylene  blue,  medici- 
nally pure  methylene  blue,  methylene  blue  of  the  U.  S.  Pharmacopoeia,  new 
methylene  blue  N,  new  methylene  blue  GG,  and  to  some  extent  neutral  red  and 
pyronin  have  been  found  to  penetrate  tubercles  in  guinea  pigs.  Basic  fuchsin, 
crystal  violet,  and  the  other  new  methylene  blues  are  now  being  tested.  .  ,  . 


VETEEINARY   MEDICINE.  81 

•'  The  dyes  above  mentioned  are  well  borne  for  a  long  period  if  the  dose  of 
the  methylene  blues,  basic  fuclisin,  and  crystal  violet  is  not  too  large.  Almost 
any  dose  of  the  first  4  dyes  mentioned  is  well  borne.  The  individual  bacillus 
Itself  is  penetrated  and  well  stained  by  all  the  methylene  blues,  by  basic  fuch- 
sin,  and  crystal  violet,  by  erythrosin  and  the  eosins ;  not  so  well  by  trypan 
blue,  trj-pan  red,  isamin  blue,  pyrrhol  blue,  pyronin,  and  neutral  red.  Methy- 
lene blue,  Bismarck  brown,  and  brilliant  cresyl  blue  are  the  only  dyes  which 
have  a  possible  bactericidal  power  over  the  organism,  though  many  of  the 
others  seem  to  inhibit  its  growth  in  the  test  tube." 

These  experiments  confirm  von  Linden's  findings  in  so  far  that  they  demon- 
strate the  possibilities  of  staining  the  tubercle  bacillus  in  vitro,  and  also  Bhow 
that  the  dyes  penetrate  the  tubercles  in  vivo.  No  stained  tubercle  bacilli  were 
ever  found  in  the  tubercles  or  in  tuberculous  pus  stained  with  dye. 

y.  The  behavior  of  the  tubercle  bacillus  toward  fat  dyes,  Hope  Sherman 
(pp.  249-273). — "All  the  dyes  used,  whether  fat-soluble  or  not,  stain  pure  cul- 
tures of  tubercle  bacillus,  en  masse,  because  of  the  presence  of  stainable  sub- 
stances outside  the  bacilli.  Sudan  III  does  not  stain  individual  tubercle  bacilli, 
either  in  smears  of  pure  culture,  in  tuberculous  pus,  or  in  tuberculous  tissue. 
Sudan  yellow  and  Sudan  brown  stain  the  bacilli  faintly,  in  pure  culture 
smears,  upon  prolonged  exposure,  or  on  heating.  Scarlet  red  resembles  Sudan 
III  in  behavior,  but  is  slightly  less  inefficient,  about  half  the  tests  for  indi- 
vidual staining  being  doubtful  or  even  faintly  positive. 

"Nile  blue  sulphate  gives  a  faint  and  rather  unsatisfactory  bacillus  stain, 
as  does  Janus  green,  for  the  most  part.  A  single  smear  stained  with  Janus 
green  showed  deeply  stained  bacilli,  but  this  could  not  be  duplicated.  Indulin 
stains  the  bacilli  faintly  upon  prolonged  application.  Indophenol  blue  does 
not  show  any  bacillus  stain.  Dimethylaminoazobenzol  gives  a  faint  and  un- 
satisfactory bacillus  stain.  Basic  fuchsin,  which  is  only  slightly  fat-soluble, 
eosin,  and  methylene  blue,  which  are  not  fat-soluble,  stain  the  individual  bacilli 
deeply  in  a  relatively  short  time. 

"All  the  dyes  used  stained  the  impure  ether  extract  of  tubercle  bacilli,  while 
the  purified  ether  extract  was  less  readily  stained  by  the  majority  of  the  dyes 
not  classed  as  '  fat  dyes.'  The  behavior  of  the  dyes  toward  the  impure  ether 
extract  corresponds  with  their  behavior  toward  cultures  of  the  bacilli,  and  is 
very  different  from  that  toward  the  individual  bacilli.  These  facts  seem  to 
indicate  that  masses  of  ether-soluble  substance  exist  on  the  surface  of  cultures 
as  well  as  within  the  bacterial  protoplasm,  and  it  is  with  this  extracellular 
material  that  the  dyes  combine.  Basic  fuchsin  and  eosin,  and  to  a  less  extent 
Bismarck  brown  resemble  the  regular  fat  dyes  in  the  ease  with  which  they 
stain  the  ether  extract.  Dilute  solutions  of  Nile  blue  sulphate  and  neutral 
red  are  more  efiicient  than  the  saturated,  in  the  staining  of  the  ether  extract. 
The  fat  dyes  are  not  serviceable  for  the  detection  of  tubercle  bacilli  in  pus 
or  in  tissue,  nor  for  their  staining  in  pure  cultures. 

"Experiments  with  crushed  bacilli  confirm  Beninns'  view  that  the  acid- 
fastness  of  the  tubercle  bacillus  depends  upon  the  physical  integrity  of  the 
bacterial  cell.  The  fatty  constituents  of  the  tubercle  bacillus  are  not,  per  se, 
the  cause  of  the  stainiiig  reaction  characteristic  of  this  organism." 

VI.  Intra-vitam  staining  of  tuberculous  guinea  pigs  with  fat-soluble  dyes  {sup- 
plementary note),  H.  J.  Corper  (pp.  274,  275). — If  indulin,  dimethylaminoazoben- 
zol (1  per  cent  in  oil),  and  Bismarck  brown  (1  per  cent  in  oil  and  water)  are  fed 
to  tuberculous  guinea  pigs,  they  do  not  appear  to  enter  the  organs  nor  tuber- 
culous areas  to  any  appreciable  extent  when  given  for  a  period  of  about  65 
days.  Alkanin  and  annate,  1  per  cent  in  oil,  do  not  enter  within  a  period  of 
14  days. 


82  EXPERIMENT    STATION    EECOED. 

Contribution  to  the  study  of  pulmonary  tuberculosis  induced  experi- 
mentally by  inhalation,  V.  Grysez  and  D.  Petit-Dutaillis  {Compt.  Read. 
Soc.  Biol.  [Paris],  73  {1912),  No.  37,  pp.  728-730;  ahs.  in  Ztschr.  Immunitatsf. 
u.  Expt.  Ther.,  II,  Ref.,  6  {1912),  No.  12,  pp.  927,  928).— In  the  experiments  78 
guinea  pigs  were  exposed  in  a  si:)ecially  constructed  lead  chamber  to  a  si)ray 
of  an  emulsion  of  bovine  tubercle  bacilli.  Twenty  of  the  animals  received  one 
inhalation,  and  of  these  19  died  within  17  to  133  days.  All  showed  well- 
disseminated,  cheesy  foci,  and  3  cavern  formations.  A  second  group  of  animals 
received  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  and  8  inhalations  in  from  2  to  36  hours.  The  guinea 
pigs  which  received  4  and  5  inhalations  per  day  showed  only  slight  sclerotic 
lesions,  and  almost  one-half  of  the  animals  were  free  from  tubercular  changes. 

In  a  third  group  where  numerous  inhalations  were  given  at  intervals  of 
from  8  to  30  days,  appreciable  evidences  of  tuberculosis  were  present  in  all 
animals.    Some  of  the  animals  died,  others  were  killed. 

New  researches  upon  inhalation  tuberculosis,  P.  Chausse  {Bui.  Soc.  Cent. 
Med.  V4t.,  89  {1912),  No.  16,  pp.  361-363)  .—This  is  a  summary  of  a  thesis 
submitted  in  competition  for  the  Trasbot  prize  of  1912.  See  also  previous 
notes  (E.  S.  R.,  26,  pp.  179,  783). 

Experimental  pulmonary  tuberculosis  in  the  dog,  P.  A.  Lewis  and  C.  M. 
Montgomery  {Jour.  Expt.  Med.,  17  {1913),  No.  5,  pp.  527-534,  pl-  i).— Large 
quantities  of  tubercle  bacilli  of  the  bovine  type  introduced  directly  into  the 
lungs  by  way  of  the  air  passages  failed  to  reproduce  a  chronic  pulmonary 
tuberculosis  in  the  dog. 

Milk-borne  tuberculosis  with  special  reference  to  impending-  preventive 
legislation,  S.  Delepine  {Jour.  State  Med.,  21  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  336-363,  figs. 
2). — This  is  an  extended  article  dealing  with  the  improvement  in  the  mortality 
from  tuberculosis  which  has  been  effected  in  Manchester,  England,  by  methods 
of  inspection  and  inoculation.  Results  obtained  in  the  course  of  15  years  are 
summarized  as  follows:  "The  proportion  of  tuberculous  milk  (as  supplied  to 
consumers)  has  been  reduced  to  nearly  one-third  of  the  original  amount.  The 
number  of  farms  with  cows  suffering  from  tuberculous  mastitis  has  been  re- 
duced to  nearly  the  same  extent.  The  inf activity  of  the  milk  which  still  re- 
mains tuberculous  has  been  reduced  to  a  much  greater  extent.  The  proportion 
of  cases  of  tuberculosis  in  children  under  5  years  of  age  has  been  reduced  by 
one-half." 

The  author  discusses  pending  legislation  looking  toward  tuberculosis  control 
and  eradication. 

Combating  bovine  tuberculosis  with  especial  reference  to  the  clinical  and 
bacteriological  diagnosis  of  the  disease,  R.  von  Ostertag  {Die  Bekdmpfung 
der  Tuherkulose  des  Rindes  mit  besonderer  Beriiclcsichtigung  der  klinischen  uiid 
haktcriologischen  Feststellung.  Berlin,  1913,  pp.  XII+591,  figs.  88;  rev.  in 
Berlin.  Tierdrztl.  Wchnschr.,  29  {1913),  No.  17,  p.  308). — The  successive  sections 
of  this  work  take  up  the  occurrence  and  distribution  of  the  disease,  the  signifi- 
cance which  it  has  from  an  economic  and  sanitaiy  standpoint,  and  the  necessity 
for  combating  the  disease  in  bovines;  investigations  which  have  been  conducted 
and  the  possibility  of  eradicating  the  disease:  the  significance  of  the  various 
kinds  of  tuberculosis,  i.  e.,  open  forms  and  nonoccult  cases,  for  the  distribution 
of  the  disease;  clinical  and  bacteriological  methods  for  diagnosing  tuberculosis 
(with  88  illustrations)  ;  laws  in  regard  to  the  control  and  eradication  of 
tuberculosis  in  bovines;  and  various  kinds  of  blanks  which  are  used  in  the 
control  of  tuberculosis,  official  work  in  regard  to  tuberculosis,  tariffs,  etc. 

The  introduction  and  spread  of  the  cattle  tick  (Boophilus  annulatus  var, 
microplus),  and  of  the  associated  disease  tick  fever  (babesiasis)  in  Austra- 


VETERINARY    MEDICINE.  83 

lia,  J.  A.  GiLRUTH  {Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  Victoria,  n.  scr.,  25  {1912),  No.  1,  pp.  15- 
22). — A  historical  account. 

The  hypodermic  affection  of  cattle. — The  ox  warble,  Coppens  {Ann.  MM. 
V^t.,  62  {1913),  Xos:  6,  pp.  309-328;  7,  pp.  3S-^-3SS)  .—The  first  part  of  this 
paper  relates  to  losses  caused  by  this  pest  through  its  injury  to  the  hide, 
flesh,  etc.;  the  second  part  to  its  biology;  and  the  third  part  to  methods  of 
control. 

Bush  sickness  investig-ations,  C.  J.  Rkakes  and  B.  C.  Aston  {Jour.  Agr. 
[New  Zeal.],  6  {1913),  Nos.  Jf.  pp.  399-401,  fig.  1;  6,  pp.  616-624,  figs.  2).— These 
reports  relate  to  experiments  in  which  various  top  dressings  were  applied  to  the 
soil  and  cattle  and  sheep  then  grazed  upon  the  treated  pastures.  The  best 
results  were  obtained  in  the  case  of  cattle  with  soil  dressings  of  (1)  supeiiDhos- 
phate,  (2)  sulphate  of  iron,  (3)  blood  and  bones,  and  (4)  guano;  in  the  case  of 
sheep,  with  (1)  sulphate  of  iron.  (.2)  basic  slag,  and  (3)  superphosphate. 

Vaccination  ag-ainst  g-angrenous  mammitis  in  sheep  and  g-oats,  J.  BRiDRf; 
{Bid.  Soc.  Cent.  MM.  Vqt.,  90  {1913),  No.  S,  pp.  i8//-JS7).— This  condition,  with 
the  vaccine  originally  used  against  it,  has  been  previously  discussed  (E.  S.  R., 
19,  p.  1185).  The  work  has  now  been  continued  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  a 
vaccine  which  will  produce  the  smallest  amount  of  lesions  post-injection.  Some 
tests  with  sheep  are  included,  from  which  the  conclusion  is  drawn  that  it  is 
possible  to  obtain  immunity  against  this  condition  by  the  treatment  recom- 
mended. 

Directions  for  using  antihog  cholera  serum,  J.  F,  Mitchell  {California  Sta. 
Circ.  106,  pp.  3-14,  fiO^.  6). — A  detailed  account  of  the  manner  of  immunizing 
hogs  against  hog  cholera. 

Virulent  anthrax  bacilli  in  the  saliva  of  an  affected  horse,  J,  G.  T.  Arntz 
{Berlin.  Ticrarztl.  Wchnschr.,  20  {1913),  No.  36,  p.  640;  abs.  in  Vet.  Rec,  26 
{1913),  No.  1311,  p.  2J7).— The  author  records  the  finding  of  virulent  anthrax 
bacilli  in  the  saliva  of  an  affected  horse  showing  considerable  swelling  of  the 
throat.  He  thinks  that  transmission  of  the  disease  is  possible  by  direct  contact 
through  the  saliva. 

The  bacteriology  and  vaccine  therapy  of  distemper  in  horses,  W.  Lintz 
{Jour.  Expt.  Med.,  17  {1913),  No.  5,  pp.  511-516).— ^egatixe  results  were 
obtained  in  the  attempt  to  immunize  sick  animals  passively  through  the  injec- 
tion of  serum  from  horses  which  had  recovered  from  the  disease.  A  vaccine 
consisting  of  800,000,000  each  of  the  pneumococcus  and  of  the  bacillus  isolated, 
injected  subcutaneously  in  the  region  of  the  neck,  had  a  curative  effect.  An 
immunity  conferred  by  vaccination  with  50,000,000  of  each  organism  apparently 
does  not  last  longer  than  one  year,  though  it  lasts  much  longer  if  3  inoculations 
are  given  at  intervals  of  3  days.  By  vaccinating  affected  as  well  as  unaffected 
horses  the  following  year  the  epidemic  was  promptly  eradicated,  not  a  single 
case  proving  fatal. 

The  diagnosis  of  dourine  by  complement  fi.xation,  J.  R.  Mohler,  A.  Eich- 
HORN,  and  J.  M.  Buck  {U.  8.  Dept.  Agr.,  Jour.  Agr.  Research,  1  {1913),  No.  2, 
pp.  99-107). — Dourine,  which  is  caused  by  Trypanosoma  equiperdum,  was  first 
seen  in  the  United  States  in  1886  and  was  noted  at  later  periods  in  Nebraska. 
South  Dakota,  and  Iowa,  and  in  Montana  in  1912.  The  disease  when  present 
in  a  chronic  or  latent  form  is  difficult  to  diagnose,  and  a  microscopic  examina- 
tion of  the  body  fluids,  etc.,  often  fails  to  reveal  the  causative  organism,  although 
it  may  occasionally  be  found  in  the  serous  exudate  of  the  plaques  and  also  in 
the  fluid  obtained  from  the  affected  genital  organs  and  in  the  edematous  fluid 
obtained  from  the  affected  genital  organs  of  stallions  and  mares.  In  Montana 
only  a  limited  number  of  animals  were  clinically  affected. 


84  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECORD. 

In  view  of  the  necessity  for  a  ready  means  of  diagnosis,  tlie  application  of 
the  complement  fixation  method  has  been  attempted,  using  some  dis- 
eased horses  sent  to  the  experiment  station  at  Bethesda,  Md.  The  problem  of 
greatest  difficulty  has  been  the  question  of  an  appropriate  antigen.  "  From  time 
to  time,  as  these  animals  died,  certain  tissues  were  obtained  which  it  was  sus- 
pected might  furnish  the  desired  results,  but  although  shake  extracts  of  the 
spleens,  livers,  kidneys,  and  bone  marrow,  as  well  as  alcoholic  and  acetone  prep- 
arations, were  employed  under  various  conditions,  the  results  were  rather  dis- 
couraging." 

From  the  literature  it  appears  that  the  best  results  may  be  obtained  from  the 
use  of  suspensions  of  pure  trypanosomes,  "  In  place  of  the  specific  trypanosome 
of  dourine  being  utilized,  the  writers  selected  the  surra  organism,  as  it  had 
been  previously  ascertained  by  several  investigators  that  the  reaction  obtained 
was  not  absolutely  si^ecific  for  any  one  trypanosome  infection  but  was  rather 
of  a  group  nature."  In  a  part  of  this  work,  instead  of  straight  suspensions  an 
antigen  was  made  of  the  blood  and  macerated  spleens  of  rats  killed  at  the  height 
of  surra  infection.  The  material  was  placed  in  a  bottle  containing  glass  beads, 
then  shaken  for  6  hours,  filtered  through  gauze,  and  carbolic  acid  added  to  the 
filtrate. 

The  smallest  quantity  of  serum  from  horses  which  gave  a  positive  reaction 
was  0.05  cc,  but  the  various  comparative  tests  indicated  that  fixation  in  tubes 
containing  0.2  cc.  of  serum  was  sufficient  for  diagnostic  purposes.  The  sera 
from  normal  animals,  or  those  affected  with  diseases  other  than  trypanoso- 
miasis, did  not  react.  As  the  method  of  preparing  antigen  described  above  did 
not  later  always  give  satisfactory  results,  antigen  was  prepared  by  drawing  the 
blood  of  an  infected  dog  into  centrifuge  tubes  containing  an  equal  amount  of 
1  per  cent  potassium  citrate  solution.  The  red  blood  corpuscles  were  cytolyzed 
with  saponin,  the  mixture  centrifuged,  and  the  supernatant  fluid  drawn  off.  The 
opaque  mass  or  residue  after  repeated  washing  with  sodium  chlorid  solution 
was  emulsified  and  titrated.  This  antigen  proved  very  satisfactory  with  the 
blood  from  the  horses  in  the  Montana  outbreak,  but  a  more  rapid  method  proved 
essential. 

"  Various  organs  from  rats  just  dead  from  surra  were  tried  out  in  both 
fresh  and  preserved  states,  and  the  results  which  were  obtained  from  the  fresh 
suspension  of  the  macerated  spleen  of  a  rat  just  dead  from  surra  were  the  most 
promising.  .  .  .  After  repeated  tests  on  horses  clinically  affected  with  dourine 
had  shown  the  antigen  to  be  uniformly  constant  in  its  action,  the  procedure  of 
diagnosing  dourine  by  this  method  was  definitely  adopted.  .  .  . 

"  Gray  or  white  rats  are  infected  with  surra  by  the  Injection  of  0.2  cc.  of 
blood  from  a  rabbit  infected  with  that  disease.  Since  tests  have  to  be  made 
every  day  to  keep  up  with  the  large  number  of  cases  submitted  and  as  the 
antigen  proves  effective  only  when  prepared  fresh,  it  was  arranged  that  at 
least  2  rats  should  die  daily  with  the  disease.  When  the  rats  appeared  to 
be  at  the  point  of  death  late  in  the  afternoon  it  was  found  that  placing  such 
rats  in  the  ice  chest  until  they  died  furnished  a  better  antigen  than  when  they 
have  died  in  the  cage  during  the  night  and  have  to  be  used  the  following 
morning.  The  spleens  of  the  rats  are  removed,  placed  in  a  mortar,  and  ground 
up  with  a  small  amount  of  salt  solution  to  a  pulpy  mass.  From  time  to  time 
more  of  the  salt  solution  is  added,  and  the  suspension  thus  obtained  is  filtered 
twice  through  a  double  layer  of  gauze  into  a  test  tube.  The  quantity  of  the 
suspension  from  each  spleen  is  made  up  to  40  cc.  by  dilution  with  salt  solution. 
This  suspension  constitutes  the  jintigen  for  the  tests  of  the  suspected  dourine 
sera.  .  .  .     Occasionally  the  antigen  does  not  prove  satisfactory  for  the  test 


EUEAL   ENGINEERING.  80 

ami  has  to  be  discarded.  In  these  cases  the  fixatiou  in  all  tubes  is  apparently 
due  to  the  excessive  amount  of  proteids  from  the  spleen.  Experience  has  shown 
that  the  excessively  large  spleens  contribute  such  an  antigen.  .  .  . 

"The  test  proper  for  the  diagnosis  of  dourine  is  carried  out  in  a  man- 
ner similar  to  that  practiced  for  the  diagnosis  of  glanders  [E.  S.  II.,  25,  p. 
181].  .  .  .  Since  the  testing  has  been  undertaken  by  the  method  described,  8.G57 
samples  have  been  examined  from  Montana  and  the  Cheyenne  and  Standing 
Rock  Indian  Reservations  in  North  Dakota  and  South  Dakota.  Of  these  1,076 
gave  positive  reactions,  which  appears  to  be  a  very  large  proportion,  but  when 
it  is  remembered  that  those  animals  were  kept  under  range  conditions  without 
sanitary  or  veterinary  control  and  also  that  before  the  disease  was  recognized 
as  dourine  it  had  been  diagnosed  for  a  long  period  as  some  other  affection,  it 
will  be  apparent  that  the  opportunity  for  the  spread  of  the  disease  was  ideal. 
With  the  present  system  of  diagnosis,  by  which  even  the  latent  cases  can  be 
determined,  it  is  hoped  to  eradicate  the  disease  quickly." 

A  bibliography  is  appendetl. 

RUEAL  ENGINEEEI^ja. 

Pumping  plants,  F.  C.  Kelton  (U.  8.  Geol.  Survey,  Water-Siipphj  Paper  S20, 
pp.  1S7-213,  pi.  1). — In  cooperation  with  the  Arizona  Experiment  Station,  tests 
of  20  representative  irrigation  pumping  plants  in  the  Sulphur  Spring  Valley 
are  reported,  the  object  being  to  ascertain  the  initial  cost,  consumption,  and 
cost  of  fuel,  yield  of  wells,  and  general  efficiency.  All  the  plants  tested  were 
of  the  distillate  centrifugal  type,  18  being  horizontal  and  2  vertical  pumps. 
The  actual  lifts  varied  from  IS  to  73  ft,  and  the  yields  ranged  from  69  to  1,080 
gal.  per  minute.  Of  the  pumps  tested  the  rapid  speed  tyVQ  appeared  to  be  the 
more  efficient. 

The  two  causes  which  were  preeminent  in  reducing  the  efficiency  of  the 
plants  are  said  to  be  (1)  the  insufficient  speed  maintained  by  the  pump,  and 
(2)  the  improper  timing  of  the  engine  ignition.  Efficiencies  ranging  from 
8.5  to  41.4  per  cent  were  obtained. 

The  cost  of  pumping  plants  per  rated  horsepower  varied  from  $40  to  $104. 
exclusive  of  cost  of  well  and  buildings,  with  an  average  of  $66.  The  average 
cost  per  useful  horsepower  was  $200.  The  average  fuel  cost  per  acre  foot  of 
water  pumped  was  $4.39  with  distillate  at  16^  cts.  per  gallon  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  valley  and  17^  cts,  in  the  southern  part,  5  per  cent  being  allowed 
for  losses  by  leakage  and  evaporation. 

Details  and  design  of  headgates,  B.  A.  Etcheverry  {Jour.  Electricity,  30 
(1913),  No.  11,  pp.  24S-251,  figs.  7).— This  article  deals  with  headgates  and 
gate  lifting  machineiy,  describing  the  lever  types,  inclined  plane  types,  pulley 
types,  and  a  lever  combined  with  inclined  plane  or  gearing.  The  mathematical 
and  mechanical  principles  of  each  are  analyzed,  and  formulas  for  the  design 
of  the  parts  are  derived. 

Inverted  siphon  construction,  B,  A.  Etcheverry  {Jour.  Electricity,  30  {1913), 
No.  25,  pp.  578-581,  figs.  5). — This  article  calls  attention  to  the  necessary 
auxiliaries  to  inverted  siphon  construction,  namely,  wasteway  and  sand  box, 
anchorage,  air  outlet  and  inlet  valves,  and  blow-offs.  It  describes  the  details 
of  the  design  and  construction  of  several  inverted  siphons  in  use  on  private 
irrigation  projects,  on  the  Umatilla  and  Belle  Fourche  projects,  and  on  irriga- 
tion projects  in  Spain.  Special  attention  is  called  to  difTerent  methods  of  re- 
enforcing  the  siphon  proper,  to  tyv^s  of  inlet  and  outlet,  and  to  novel  methods 
for  draining  away  .•seepage  water. 


86  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

Land  clearing-,  A.  J.  McGuire  {Minnesota  Sta.  Bui.  134,  pp.  32,  figs.  22). — ^The 
only  practical  methods  of  clearing  land  of  stumps  in  use  by  farmers  in  northern 
Minnesota  are  said  to  be  blasting  and  the  use  of  the  horsepower  stump  puller. 
The  stump  puller  is  considered  most  economical  for  small  stumps,  while  for 
stumps  so  large  that  they  can  not  be  handled  and  burned  when  they  are  pulled, 
blasting  is  said  to  be  best.  "  For  very  large  stumps  or  green  stumps  the  com- 
bined use  of  explosives  and  the  stump  puller  gives  the  most  satisfactory  re- 
sults." For  the  lowest  cost  and  quickest  results  it  is  suggested  that  all  trees 
and  brush  be  removed  at  one  time  and  a  pasture  or  meadow  established  to 
keep  down  brush  and  bring  returns.  Green  stumps  over  a  foot  in  diameter 
should  not  be  removed  unless  immediate  cultivation  is  necessary  as  they  may 
be  removed  more  readily  after  a  few  years  and  the  soil  will  be  in  a  better 
condition.  "When  an  explosive  is  used  it  should  be  placed  under  that  part 
of  the  stump  which  will  offer  the  greatest  resistance,  usually  the  center.  The 
depth  at  which  to  place  the  explosive  under  the  stump  may  generally  be  esti- 
mated by  the  diameter  of  the  stump  at  the  ground  line." 

"For  removing  stumps  from  clay  or  clay  loam  soil  the  lower  grades  of 
dynamite,  25,  27,  and  30  per  cent  are  quite  equal  to  the  higher  and  more  ex- 
pensive grades,  40  and  60  per  cent.  They  are  cheaper,  less  dangerous,  and 
leave  the  soil  in  better  condition."  It  is  claimed  that  an  explosive  known  as 
"virite"  is  being  used  successfully  when  the  soil  is  not  wet.  It  is  said  to  be 
somewhat  cheaper  than  dynamite,  does  not  produce  headache,  and  does  not 
freeze.  "A  pound  of  explosive  should  be  used  for  each  foot  of  diameter  of  the 
stump,  if  it  has  been  cut  some  time.  From  1*  to  If  lbs.  per  foot  in  diameter 
should  be  used  for  green  stumps." 

Dynamite  is  said  to  work  best  in  wet  soil  when  the  earth  is  thoroughly 
tamped  over,  if  care  is  taken  not  to  tamp  directly  on  the  dynamite.  Virite 
requires  a  soil  free  from  water  and  must  not  be  compressed  at  all  as  it  will 
not  explode,  so  that  only  the  upper  part  of  the  hole  should  be  thoroughly 
tamped. 

The  methods  of  priming,  blasting,  and  firing  charges  are  reviewed  and 
warnings  given  as  to  the  danger  of  improper  procedure  and  carelessness.  In 
this  connection,  it  is  suggested  that  before  using  dynamite  methods  of 
handling  it  be  studied  and  that,  if  possible,  an  experienced  man  be  employed 
for  a  day  or  two  as  an  instructor. 

Vitrified  brick  as  a  paving-  material  for  country  roads,  V.  M.  Peirce  and 
C.  H.  MooREFiELD  {U.  8.  Dcpt.  Agr.  Bui.  23,  pp.  34,  pls.  10,  figs.  3).— It  is  the 
purpose  of  this  bulletin  "  to  furnish  information  relating  to  the  construction  of 
brick  roads  and  to  supply  suggestions  for  aiding  engineers  in  preparing  specifica- 
tions under  which  such  work  may  be  satisfactorily  performed." 

The  principal  advantages  of  brick  roads  are  stated  as  follows:  (1)  They  are 
durable  under  heavy  traflic  conditions,  (2)  they  afford  easy  traction  and  good 
foothold  for  horses,  (3)  they  are  easily  maintained  and  kept  clean,  and  (4) 
they  present  a  very  pleasing  appearance.  The  principal  disadvantage  is  the 
high  first  cost.  One  of  the  most  essential  features  is  stated  to  be  the  selection 
of  the  brick,  and  in  this  connection  a  brief  discussion  of  raw  materials  and  proc- 
esses of  manufacture,  general  physical  characteristics  of  the  perfect  finished 
product,  and  field  and  laboratory  tests  is  given. 

In  the  construction  of  brick  pavements  or  roads  the  essential  features  to  be 
considered  in  preparing  the  subgrade  are  enumerated  as  (1)  thorough  drainage, 
(2)  firmness,  (3)  uniformity  in  grade  and  cross  section,  and  (4)  adequate  shoul- 
ders. Brick  pavements  should  be  supplied  with  strong  durable  curbings  of 
stone,  Portland  cement  concrete,  or  vitrified  clay  shapes,  both  on  the  sides  and 


BUBAL   ENGINEERING.  87 

at  the  ends.  A  firm  unyielding  foundation  is  a  most  essential  feature,  the 
proper  type  to  be  used  depending  largely  on  the  material  composing  the  sub- 
grade  and  the  character  of  traffic  for  which  the  road  is  designed.  Where  the 
traffic  is  comparatively  heavy  or  where  the  material  composting  the  subgrade  Is 
defective  in  any  way  a  monolithic  concrete  foundation  should  be  used.  An 
adjustable  cushion  of  fine  sand,  usually  2  in.  in  thickness,  is  necessary  between 
the  foundation  and  brick  for  correcting  slight  irregularities  in  the  foundation. 
The  brick  should  be  laid  on  edge  in  uniform  courses  running  at  right  angles  to 
the  line  of  the  pavement,  except  at  intersections,  and  joints  should  be  broken. 
After  laying,  the  pavement  should  be  carefully  inspected  to  detect  defective 
brick.  To  smooth  out  all  inequalities,  it  should  be  rolled  in  both  directions  with 
a  power  roller  weighing  from  3  to  5  tons.  In  order  to  keep  the  brick  in  proper 
position  and  protect  the  edges  the  joints  should  be  filled,  preferably  with  a 
Portland  cement  grout.  Longitudinal  expansion  joints  of  some  firm  and 
durable  bituminous  material  are  deemed  necessary  next  to  the  curb.  The  thick- 
ness of  joint  should  vary  with  the  width  of  the  pavement,  i  in.  being  suggested 
for  roadways  20  ft.  or  less  in  width,  f  in.  for  widths  of  20  to  30  ft,  1  in.  for 
widths  of  SO  to  40  ft,  and  li  in.  for  greater  widths. 

AYith  all  materials  considered  delivered  on  the  work  and  all  costs  expressed 
in  cents  the  probable  cost  of  constructing  the  brick  pavement,  including  the 
subgrade,  the  6  in,  concrete  foundation,  curbs,  etc.,  is  estimated  by  the  formula: 
Cost  per  square  yard=1.90L+0.213  C+0.138 -8+0.157  A +0.045  B,  in  which  C 
equals  cost  of  cement  per  barrel,  8  cost  of  sand  per  cubic  yard,  A  cost  of  coarse 
aggregate  per  cubic  yard,  B  cost  of  paving  brick  per  thousand,  and  L  cost  of 
labor  per  hour.  Ten  per  cent  should  be  added  to  allow  for  wear  on  tools  and 
machinery  and  for  unforeseen  contingencies.  Each  inch  subtracted  or  added  to 
the  thickness  of  foundation  will  make  a  corresponding  difference  of  from  8  to 
12  cts.  in  the  cost  per  square  yard. 

Typical  specifications  for  the  construction  of  brick  roads  are  presented,  and 
a  method  for  inspecting  and  testing  paving  brick  is  appended. 

In  conclusion  the  importance  of  proper  engineering  supervision  is  emphasized, 
and  it  is  stated  that  since  brick  pavements  are  probably  more  expensive  to  con- 
struct than  any  other  type  of  country  road  it  is  important  that  their  construc- 
tion should  be  carefully  planned  and  well  executed. 

The  production  of  sand  and  gravel  in  1912,  R.  W.  Stone  {V.  8.  GeoL 
8urvey,  Advance  Chapter  from  Mineral  Resources  of  the  United  States,  Calendar 
Year  1912,  pp.  18). — Data  are  given  showing  the  production  of  sand  and  gravel 
for  various  purposes  in  the  various  States  during  1912.  The  total  production  is 
reported  as  68,318,877  short  tons,  valued  at  $23,081,555,  a  net  increase  in  quan- 
tity of  1,471.018  short  tons  and  in  value  of  $1,922,972  over  the  production  of  1911. 

Tests  of  the  strength  of  cement  (Concrete- Cement  Age,  2  {1913),  No.  5, 
pp.  257,  25S). — In  an  abstract  of  a  paper  read  by  H.  C.  Johnson  before  the 
Concrete  Institute  at  London  are  given  the  tabulated  results  of  tests  of  16  dif- 
ferent brands  of  cement  and  mixtures  thereof,  conducted  to  emphasize  the 
need  of  test'ng  all  materials,  and  comprising  tests  for  tension,  compression, 
binding,  and  effects  of  varying  percentages  of  water.  The  author's  conclusions 
are  that  a  good  strength  in  paste  is  no  proper  indication  of  a  good  strength  in 
concrete;  that  the  best  tests  of  a  cement's  value  for  reenforced  concrete  or 
similar  work  are  mortar  compressions  cured  in  water  and  in  air;  that  any 
cement  having  a  higher  value  in  air  than  in  water  ought  to  be  condemned: 
that  not  less  than  22  per  cent  of  water  should  be  allowed  in  gaging  paste  and 
not  less  than  3  per  cent  plus  i  the  percentage  as  used  in  the  paste  in  giiging 
mortar;  that  the  standard  of  values  for  cement  to  be  used  in  reenforced  con- 
25842°— No.  1—14 7 


88  EXPERIMENT   STATION    RECORD. 

Crete  work  should  be  raised  by  25  per  cent ;  that  a  given  strength  of  concrete 
should  be  speeifipd  instead  of  a  given  mix;  and  that  cement  should  be  sold  by 
volume  ii  .tead  of  weight  and  in  paper  bags  containing  1  cu.  ft. 

Test  of  a  kerosene  oil  engine,  H.  D.  Wile  {Elect.  World,  62  (1913),  No.  8, 
p.  S89,  fig.  1). — The  engine  tested  resembles  the  ordinary  4-stroke-cycle, 
throttling-governor,  stationary  engine  with  mechanically  operated  valves  and 
make  and  break  ignition.  A  7.5  K.  W.  generator  was  directly  connected.  The 
mixer,  situated  on  top  of  the  cylinder,  supplies  both  water  and  fuel,  which  are 
atomized  by  the  piston  suction.  Four  series  of  tests  were  made  as  to  jacket 
water  temperature,  time  of  ignition,  amount  of  water  in  the  cylinder,  and 
economy   run. 

The  most  efficient  jacket  water  temperature  was  found  to  be  around  175°  F. 
and  the  best  angle  of  advance  of  ignition  was  36,  as  compared  with  the  aver- 
age angle  of  16°  for  gasoline  engines.  Water  in  the  cylinder  performs  four 
duties,  namely,  prevents  rapid  explosions,  excessive  pressures,  high  tempera- 
tures, and  the  heavy  deposit  of  carbon  on  the  walls  of  the  cylinder.  Other 
points  brought  out  are  that  the  best  ratio  of  kerosene  to  water  in  the  mixer 
was  as  3  : 1  and  that  the  addition  of  more  water  decreased  the  thermal  efficiency ; 
that  the  percentage  of  heat  absorbed  by  the  jacket  water  was  approximately 
16  per  cent ;  and  that  the  heat  lost  in  radiation  and  exhaust  was  approximately 
55  per  cent.  The  fuel  economy  was  considered  good,  0.872  lb.  of  kerosene  per 
brake  horsepower  being  the  lowest  consumption,  which  indicates  that  nonvola- 
tile or  low-grade  fuels  can  be  burned  successfully  in  small  units. 

Comparison  of  cost  of  fuel  for  oil,  gas,  and  steam  engines  and  current 
for  electric  motor,  W.  A.  Kritzee  {Gas  Engine,  15  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  316, 
Sit). — Several  tables  of  data  are  given  showing  the  cost  of  fuel  per  brake 
horsepower  for  1  hour,  for  24  hours,  for  300  days  of  10  hours  each,  and  for  300 
days  of  24  hours  each,  using  the  maximum,  average,  and  minimum  prices  for 
the  fuel. 

Wind  power,  Vogdt  {Deut.  Landw.  Presse,  40  {1913),  No.  49,  pp.  590,  591, 
flgs^  Sy — The  results  of  experiments  with  wind  power  indicate  that  the  pressure 
of  the  wind  on  a  wind  motor  per  unit  area  increases  with  the  square  of  the 
wind  velocity,  and  the  horsepower  with  the  cube  of  the  wind  velocity,  including 
skin  friction.  Under  these  conditions  it  is  stated  that  the  speed  of  a  windmill 
wheel  is  directly  proportional  to  the  wind  velocity.  On  this  basis  the  following 
formula   is   suggested  to   determine   approximately  the  available  power   of  a 

V  X  F  y.  v^ 

windmill   for   certain  wind   velocities:    N= j^q- — -.     In   this   y   equals   the 

weight  of  1  cubic  meter  of  air  in  kilograms;  F  the  average  area  in  square  meters 
of  the  windmill  wheel  at  right  angles  to  the  direction  of  the  wind;  v  the  wind 
velocity  in  meters  per  second ;  and  fir  0.81  meters  per  second  or  the  acceleration 
due  to  gravity.  In  this  connection  it  is  claimed  that  the  efficiency  of  the  wind 
power  plants  which  have  been  tested  vary  between  05  and  80  per  cent.  The 
operations  of  several  wind  motors  are  described. 

Electricity  on  the  western  farm  {Jour.  Electricity,  30  {1913),  No.  25,  pp. 
576,  577). — This  article  gives  operating  data  and  rate  schedules  of  several  power 
companies  supplying  electrical  power  to  farms  throughout  the  Western  States. 

The  rate  schedules  show  a  great  difference  in  the  methods  of  charging  for 
power  and  the  amount  of  the  charge.  The  greatest  demand  for  electrical  power 
appears  to  be  for  irrigation  pumping,  so  that  the  use  of  electricity  in  these  cases 
is  necessarily  a  seasonal  use.  It  is  concluded,  therefore,  that  it  is  to  the 
advantage  of  power  companies  to  have  the  consumer  make  his  installation  small 


RUKAL   ECONOMICS.  89 

and  openite  as  many  hours  per  day  as  possible  in  order  to  cut  down  the  ix)wer 
company's  plant  investment  and  increase  the  return  per  unit  of  installed 
capacity. 

Traction  farming  and  traction  engineering-,  J.  H.  Stephenson  (Chicago, 
1913,  pp.  330,  figs.  151). — This  is  a  practical  handbook  for  owners  and  operators 
of  gasoline,  alcohol,  and  kerosene  engines  on  the  farm,  comprising  descrip- 
tions of  some  of  the  makes  of  farm  tractors  with  directions  for  their  care  and 
operation,  and  also  two  chapters  by  S.  E.  Brown  on  water  supply  and  electric 
lighting  systems  for  the  farm.  A  section  is  devoted  to  threshing  machines  and 
the  science  of  threshing.  Chapters  on  the  operation  of  gas  and  oil  engines  are  as 
follows :  The  gasoline  farm  tractor,  fuel  consumption  of  gas  engines,  alcohol  as 
fuel,  kerosene  as  fuel  for  traction  engines,  balancing  of  engines,  piston  rings, 
valves,  leaky  pistons,  the  cylinder,  the  carbureter,  modern  ignition,  vaporizing 
of  fuel,  cooling  systems,  lubrication,  horsepower  calculations,  and  gasoline 
engine  troubles. 

The  care  and  repair  of  rubber  belts,  R.  Moore  {Power,  38  {1913),  No.  4, 
pp.  145,  146,  figs.  5). — This  illustrated  article  gives  instructions  for  splicing  and 
stitching  rubber  and  canvas  belts.  The  use  of  rubber  belts  on  too  small  pulleys 
is  not  recommended,  since  the  resulting  inside  compression  and  outside  tension 
is  likely  to  separate  the  plies.  It  is  stated  that  animal  fats  and  grease  should 
never  be  used  as  dressing  on  rubber  belts,  but  that  boiled  linseed  oil  is  good,  and 
also  equal  parts  of  black  lead,  red  lead,  French  yellow,  litharge,  and  enough 
Japan  drier  to  make  it  dry  quickly. 

The  construction  of  creameries,  M,  Mortensen  and  J.  B,  Davidson  {Iowa 
Sta.  Bui.  139,  pts.  1,  pp.  126-146,  figs.  11;  2,  pis.  21).— Fart  1  of  this  bulletin 
deals  with  the  factors  determining  the  success  or  failure  of  a  local  creamery, 
forms  of  organization,  and  data  as  to  the  location  and  construction  of  cream- 
eries as  regards  convenience,  sanitation,  heating,  lighting  and  ventilation,  and 
materials  of  construction.  Eight  typical  creameries  are  described  with  specifi- 
cations for  their  construction  and  bills  of  material.  Part  2  gives  building 
plans  for  these  creameries. 

Modem  silo  construction,  J.  B.  Davidson  {Iowa  Sta.  Bui.  14I,  pp.  159-229, 
figs.  63). — This  bulletin  covers  briefly  the  field  of  Bulletin  100  of  the  Iowa 
Station  (E.  S.  R.,  20,  p.  6S7)  and  Piulletin  117  (E.  S.  R.,  23,  p.  590)  and  adds 
descriptions  of  several  recent  developments  in  silo  construction,  among  which 
are  the  wooden  hoop  silo,  pit  silo,  and  the  Iowa  silo  used  as  a  water  tower. 
In  the  last  the  silo  walls  are  designed  of  sufficient  strength  to  support  a  water 
tank  for  the  general  farm  supply.  The  success  of  this  method  is  to  be  reported 
in  a  later  bulletin. 

RURAL  ECONOMICS. 

A  normal  day's  work  for  various  farm  operations,  H.  H.  Mowrt  {U.  S. 
Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  3,  pp.  44)- — Notes  and  data  based  in  part  on  personal  observa- 
tions and  in  part  on  replies  to  a  circular  of  inquiry  sent  to  25,000  selected 
farmers  as  to  the  average  or  normal  day's  work  for  various  farm  operations 
are  presented.  Tables  are  given  illustrating  a  normal  day's  work  in  using 
walking,  sulky,  and  gang  plows;  plowing  stubble  and  sod  with  a  traction 
engine;  using  spike-tooth,  spring-tooth,  and  disk  harrows,  a  land  roller,  a 
grain  drill,  a  broadcast  seeder,  knapsack  sower,  and  wheelbarrow  sower ;  in 
planting  cotton,  corn,  sweet  potatoes,  Irish  potatoes,  cabbage,  and  tomatoes; 
cutting  potatoes  for  seed  and  covering  same  after  planting;  making  rows  for 
planting;  hauling  and  spreading  manure  with  a  spreader  and  by  hand  and 


90  EXPEKIMENT   STATION    RECORD. 

dumping  manure  in  piles;  cultivating  corn,  potatoes,  beans,  cabbage,  and 
cotton;  spraying  an  orchard;  mowing,  raking,  tedding,  and  cocking  hay; 
harvesting  hay  and  corn  with  and  without  a  binder;  husking  corn;  digging 
potatoes;  threshing  grain;  hauling  to  market  with  wagon;  together  with  a 
number  of  other  farm  operations,  giving  the  average  work  factors  in  terms  of 
designated  units  per  man,  per  horse,  per  hour,  per  day,  etc. 

Among  the  author's  conclusions  are  the  following : 

"Daily  and  seasonal  working  factors  for  farm  labor  and  equipment  are  of 
primary  importance  in  farm  organization  and  management. 

"The  seasonal  and  daily  duty  of  men  and  equipment  for  an  agricultural  area 
can  be  reliably  approximated  by  averaging  many  estimates  for  each  operation 
made  by  farmers  in  the  region.  Figures  so  obtained  are  as  accurate  for  prac- 
tical purposes  as  those  secured  by  more  refined  methods.     .  .  . 

"Those  engaged  in  farming  have  quite  definite  conceptions  of  the  duty  for 
the  simpler  operations  where  but  one  or  two  men  and  one  or  two  teams  are 
involved.  Where  many  men  and  units  of  equipment  are  used  in  an  operation 
there  is  less  definite  conception  of  what  constitutes  a  fair  day's  work,  since 
fewer  have  had  experience  with  the  large  crews,  and  the  range  of  variation  is 
greater.     More  data  are  therefore  necessary  to  insure  useful  averages. 

"With  implements  of  heavy  draft  and  also  w^itli  many  of  the  lighter  imple- 
ments, the  increase  in  dimensions  is  not  attended  with  proportional  increases  in 
work  accomplished.  .  .  . 

"The  increase  in  the  number  of  men  in  the  crew  and  in  the  complexity  of 
the  operation  are  attended  by  lost  motion  and  decrease  in  efficiency  per  unit 
of  labor  and  equipment.  The  simpler  operations  are  the  most  economical  from 
the  standpoint  of  work  done  daily." 

To  work  a  grass  holding  at  a  living  profit,  and  the  cheap  cottage  problem, 
H.  B.  M.  Buchanan  (London,  1910,  pp.  102,  figs.  3). — This  book  discusses  the 
problem  of  producing  a  hay  crop,  and  tJie  management  of  cows,  pigs,  and 
poultry  on  a  small  holding. 

Land  tenure  in  England  and  Norway,  E.  Sundt  (Economist,  77  (1913), 
No.  3G62,  pp.  965,  966).— This  article  discusses  and  illustrates  the  effect  of 
feudalism  upon  agriculture  and  agricultural  population,  the  author  holding 
that  the  general  exodus  from  the  farm  to  towns  and  cities  in  England  is  due 
largely  to  the  system  of  land  tenure,  particularly  the  entailing  of  property. 
Free  trade  in  land  is  thus  impossible,  and  the  country  is  accordingly  "doomed 
to  a  continuation  of  farming  by  tenants." 

Irish  agricultural  laborers,  1912  (Dept.  Agr.  and  Tech.  Instr.  Ireland,  Agr. 
Statis.  1912,  pp.  45). — This  report  submits  notes  and  tables  showing  the  number 
and  earnings  of  Irish  migratory  agricultural  laborers,  the  wages  of  agricultural 
laborers,  and  the  number  of  persons  engaged  in  farm  work,  together  with  the 
number  and  power  of  the  various  agricultural  machines  and  implements  in  use 
in  Ireland  in  1912. 

The  total  number  of  agricultural  laborers  is  shown  to  have  decreased  from 
509,344  in  1871  to  199,900  in  1911.  There  is  also  as  much  complaint  among  the 
farmers  of  the  loss  of  efliciency  of  the  laborers  as  of  the  difficulty  in  securing 
them. 

The  total  number  of  jjersons  engaged  in  farm  work  on  June  1,  1912,  is  re- 
ported at  1,073.238. 

Persons  engaged  in  agricultural  pursuits  in  Prussia,  Hagmann  (Mitt. 
Deut.  Landiv.  GeselL,  28  (1913),  No.  34,  pp.  ^85-^86)  .—This  article  presents 
notes  and  tables  showing  observations  made  from  the  census  of  the  agricultural 


RURAL  ECONOMICS. 


91 


popnlation  of  Prussia  in  1007.     The  following  table  sliows  the  number  of  per- 
sons engaged  on  different-sized  farms: 

Persons  actively  engaged  in  agriculture  in  Prussia. 


Size  of  farm. 

Kind  of  labor. 

Number  of 
persons 

Male. 

Female. 

Total. 

per  100 
hectares. 

Under  2  hectares 

747,559 
073,416 
1,273,995 
754,476 
602, 992 

1,846,911 
824,383 

1,244,343 
620, 171 
432,278 

2,594,470 
1,497,799 
2.518,338 
1,374,647 
1,035,270 

259.5 

2-5  hectares 

87.7 

6-20  hectares 

43.4 

20-100  hectares  ...                             . 

20.9 

100  hectares  and  over 

17.5 

Total 

4,052,438 

4,968,086 

9,020,524 

43.0 

Other  tables  are  given  showing  the  number  of  persons  engaged  in  agriculture 
in  each  Province  or  subdivision,  also  the  kind  of  work  in  which  they  are 
engaged. 

Depopulation  of  rural  districts  in  France,  W.  H.  Hunt  {Daily  Cons,  and 
Trade  Rpts.  [U.  S.},  16  (1918),  No.  210,  pp.  1386,  1387).— This  report  shows 
that  according  to  an  inquiry  made  by  the  minister  of  agriculture  the  number 
of  persons  employed  in  agricultural  pursuits  in  France  decreased  from  4,000,000 
in  1862  to  3,000,000  in  1892  and  to  2,320,000  in  1913,  or  a  decrease  of  about  40 
per  cent  in  half  a  century.  "  Irregular  work,  long  periods  of  enforced  idleness, 
poverty  resulting  from  bad  harvests,  frequent  recurrence  of  certain  calamities — 
hail,  blight  mildew,  etc. — induce  them  to  abandon  the  soil  and  look  elsewhere 
for  better-paid  work." 

Data  are  given  showing  the  working  hours  and  farm  wages  for  day  laborers  in 
different  sections  of  the  country. 

Condition  of  Danish  agriculture  during  1911  (Tid^skr.  Landohonomi,  1912, 
Nos.  7,  pp.  434-463:  8,  pp.  489-504;  9,  pp.  537-553;  12,  pp.  698-721;  13,  pp.  761- 
778,  779-795). — The  general  condition  of  Danish  agriculture  in  its  various 
phases  during  the  year  1911  is  discussed  in  this  volume  by  different  specialists, 
as  follows:  Animal  husbandry,  by  A.  Appel ;  horse  raising,  by  J.  Jensen;  crop 
production,  by  K.  Hansen;  Denmark's  trade  in  agricultural  products  with  for- 
eign countries,  by  *N.  C.  Christensen ;  dairy  exports,  1911-1912,  by  B.  Boggild ; 
and  meteorological  conditions,  1911-12,  by  H.  Hansen. 

[Area,  population,  agricultural  production,  etc.,  in  Canada,  1911-12] 
(Canada  Yearbook,  1912,  pp.  1-301). — This  is  an  official  publication  giving  in 
addition  to  other  data  a  statistical  census  as  to  area,  population,  agricultural 
production,  imports,  exports,  etc.,  of  Canada  for  1911-12  by  Provinces  and  Ter- 
ritories, with  comparison  with  former  periods  in  a  number  of  instances. 

Tables  showing  the  urban  and  rural  population  give  for  the  whole  country 
3,280,964  of  the  former,  an  increase  of  62.28  per  cent  over  1901 ;  and  3.925,679 
of  the  latter,  an  increase  of  17.20  per  cent  during  the-  same  period.  In  the 
Provinces  of  Prince  Edward  Island,  Nova  Scotia,  New  Brunswick,  and  Ontario 
there  has  been  an  actual  decline  in  the  rural  population  since  1901.  but  a 
marked  increase  in  the  urban  population. 

The  estimated  total  area  under  field  crops  in  1912  was  32,449,420  acres,  yield- 
ing a  harvest  value  of  $511,951,100.  Tables  arc  given  showing  the  acreage, 
yield,  value,  etc.,  of  the  leading  crops,  together  with  data  as  to  the  production, 
value,  etc.,  of  butter  and  cheese  in  1900,  1907,  and  1910. 


92  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

AGRICULTURAL  EDUCATIOIT. 

Report  of  the  temporary  educational  commission  to  the  government  and 
legislature  of  the  State  of  North  Dakota  {[Fargo,  N.  Dak.],  1912,  pp.  61).— 
This  commission,  organized  in  December,  1911,  for  the  purpose  of  studying 
educational  systems  in  the  United  States  and  elsewhere  with  a  view  to  unifying 
and  systematizing  the  educational  system  of  North  Dakota,  outlines  in  this 
report  the  North  Dakota  educational  system,  what  a  state  educational  system 
should  be,  the  bases  of  institutional  organization,  the  scope  of  institutions,  and 
the  views  of  authorities  concerning  the  function,  control,  and  government  of  a 
state  university. 

Report  of  committee  on  agricultural  education,  T.  E.  Finegan  {N.  Y. 
Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  hi,  pp.  1253-1256,  pi.  1). — This  committee  of  the  New  York  State 
Agricultural  Society  presents  for  the  consideration  of  the  society  the  report  of 
the  state  advisoi-y  board,  established  in  1911  for  the  purpose  of  promoting  and 
directing  agricultural  education  and  the  advancement  of  country  life.  This 
report  recommends  "(1)  that  the  main  effort  toward  the  introduction  of  agri- 
cultural education,  whether  through  state  or  local  aid,  be  directed  toward  the 
study  of  agricultural  and  rural  subjects  in  the  public  high  schools;  (2)  that 
in  addition  to  those  institutions  already  authorized  to  train  teachers  of  agri- 
culture, special  and  adequate  provision  be  made  for  training  such  teachers  at 
the  State  Normal  College  and  in  one  or  more  normal  schools;  (3)  that  the 
state  department  of  education  give  direction  at  a  few  points,  distributed  with 
reference  to  the  leading  agricultural  industries,  to  the  development  of  adequate 
teaching  equipments  in  high  schools  which  may  serve  as  examples  and  illustra- 
tions for  further  extension  of  such  equipment;  (4)  that  the  special  state 
schools  already  established  be  developed  toward  teaching  home  economics  and 
agricultural  technology,  i the  latter  somewhat  specialized  for  each  school;  (5) 
that  the  further  development  of  the  special  state  schools,  when  this  may  safely 
and  wisely  be  accomplished,  shall  be  made  with  reference  chiefly  to  the  fruit 
and  vegetable  growing  interests,  under  which  policy  the  southeastern  and  west- 
ern parts  of  the  State  would  be  considered  by  the  establishment  of  one  school 
in  each  of  those  sections ;  and  thereafter  special  schools  of  agriculture  shall  be 
established  only  if  the  people  of  a  locality  determine  whether  they  desire  a 
school  and  will  take  a  substantial  part  in  its  financial  support;  (6)  that  this 
board  favors  legislation  enabling  cities  of  the  first  and  second  class  to  establish 
public  schools  of  agriculture  either  within  or  without  the  limits  of  said  cities; 
(7)  that  in  schools  of  agriculture  hereafter  established,  the  commissioner  of 
education,  the  commissioner  of  agriculture,  and  the  director  of  the  State  Col- 
lege of  Agriculture  at  Cornell  University,  shall  be  ex  ofiicio  members  of  the 
boards  of  trustees." 

Fourth  annual  report  of  the  eleven  district  agricultural  schools  of  Georgia, 
J.  S.  Stewart  {Bui.  Ga.  State  Col.  Agr.,  1  {1913),  No.  12,  pp.  38,  figs.  11).— 
Among  the  new  features  of  work  is  the  plan  to  give  the  girls  some  training  in 
general  agriculture  as  well  as  in  care  of  poultry,  milk,  and  vegetable  and  flower 
gardens,  and  the  making  of  butter.  The  teacliers'  training  course  was  taken  by 
53  students  during  the  past  year.  It  proved  popular  in  3  schools,  and  it  is 
believed  will  soon  become  a  valuable  means  of  teacher  training  for  rural 
schools.  The  complete  course  of  study,  which  appears  in  the  report,  has  again 
been  revised. 

Scientific  farming  on  elaborate  scale  in  the  common  schools,  S.  A.  Mineab 
{Rural  Educator,  2  {1913),  No.  2,  p.  24,  fig.  i).— According  to  this  article  there 
are  over  4.000  schools  in  the  State  of  Oklahoma  teaching  agriculture.  About 
3,500  are  rural  schools,  all  of  which  use  agricultural  text-books.    Indoor  experi- 


'    AGRICULTUr.AL   EDUCATION.  93 

mental  work  Is  carried  on  in  20  counties ;  object  lessons  in  more  than  16 
counties;  and  school  gardens,  hotbeds,  and  outdoor  experimental  farms  in  more 
than  8  counties. 

People's  high  schools  in  Denmark,  C.  G.  Rathmann  {School  and  Home  Ed., 
33  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  51-54,  figs.  3). — A  brief  st^atement  concerning  the  estab- 
lishment and  objects  of  people's  high  schools  in  Denmark  is  followed  by  an 
outline  of  the  daily  program  at  the  school  at  Wallekilde  on  the  island  of 
Zealand,  which  has  an  a^-icultural  course. 

The  g-irls'  agricultural  school  at  Berlaer,  C.  C.  Pervieb  {Nat.  Stockman  and 
Farmer,  37  {1913),  No.  IS,  p.  5,  fig.  1). — A  brief  report  is  given  on  this  Belgian 
school,  which  is  solely  for  teaching  practical  and  theoretical  agriculture  and 
dairying  to  farm  girls  and  is  under  the  supervision  of  nuns  who  also  teach 
the  girls  household  work  of  every  kind.  The  girls  do  all  the  work  of  planting 
and  harvesting  on  the  30-acre  farm  and  of  caring  for  the  dairy  herd.  A  4-year 
course  is  offered,  of  which  the  fourth  is  devoted  to  agriculture.  The  govern- 
ment appropriates  ^2.600  per  annum  for  the  school. 

Methods  in  agricultural  schools,  D.  Snedden  {Jour.  Ed.  [Boston],  78  {1913), 
No.  1,  p.  18). — ^Among  the  questions  recommended  to  be  discussed  fully  at  the 
earliest  moment  are  (1)  to  what  extent  should  the  agricultural  school  be  pre- 
paratory to  colleges  in  general  or  to  the  agricultural  college;  (2)  what  should 
be  the  character  of  the  land  used  by  the  central  school  of  agriculture;  and  (3) 
in  what  ways  should  the  course  of  study  admit  of  specialization?  Each  of 
these  questions  is  here  briefly  considered. 

The  author  maintains  that  2  types  of  schools  are  practicable  in  Massachu- 
setts, namely,  the  agricultural  department  of  an  existing  high  school  and  the 
central  or  county  agricultural  school.  In  the  former  case  the  agricultural 
training  should  be  in  the  hands  of  one  person  giving  his  entire  time  to  this 
work,  and  combining  in  his  preparation  scientific  training  with  some  experience 
as  a  practical  farmer;  (2)  all  the  practical  work  of  the  boys  should  be  done 
on  home  farms,  the  school  attempting  no  farming;  (3)  the  instructor  should 
supervise  the  boys'  practical  work  during  the  summer  months  with  his  vaca- 
tion in  the  winter;  and  (4)  each  agricultural  pupil  may  also  take  1  or  2  studies 
of  a  general  nature.  In  the  case  of  the  central  or  county  agricultural  school, 
there  should  be  (1)  a  faculty  of  such  a  size  as  to  justify  its  giving  exclusive 
attention  to  agricultural  (and,  possibly,  household  arts)  education;  (2)  two 
classes  of  pupils — those  from  farmers'  homes  and  those  from  villages  or  the 
city;  (3)  sufl5cient  land  to  give  object  lessons  on  a  small  scale  of  good  farming 
and  also  to  provide  city  boys  with  opportunity  for  practical  work;  and  (4)  a 
central  location. 

8ee  also  a  previous  note  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  191). 

Problems  in  the  administration  and  teaching  of  agriculture,  G.  A.  Brickeb 
{Texas  School  Jour.,  30  {1913),  No.  10,  pp.  iO-i2).— This  paper  points  out  that 
instruction  in  agriculture  should  result  in  some  immediate  economic  benefit 
and  give  the  pupil  an  intelligent  desire  for  farm  life;  should  prepare  the 
boy  for  continuing  the  agricultural  work  in  the  high  school ;  and  should  be 
adapted  to  his  nature  and  capacity.  Attention  is  called  to  the  importance  of 
differentiating  between  agricultural  nature  study  and  elementary  agriculture. 

The  redirection  of  the  rural  school,  W.  R.  Habt  {Rural  Educator,  2  {1913), 
Nos.  1,  pp.  Jf,  5,  10,  fig.  1;  2,  pp.  18-20;  3,  pp.  3^-36).— This  article  discusses 
in  a  comprehensive  way  a  number  of  psychological  considerations  entering  into 
agricultural  instruction,  which  the  author  believes  increases  the  productive 
efficiency  of  education,  aids  in  disciplining  the  mind,  and  satisfies  to  a  large 
extent  the  demands  of  intellectual  culture. 

Agricultural  training  courses  for  employed  teachers,  E.  R.  Jackson  {JJ.  8. 
Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  7,  pp.  17). — In  addition  to  a  discussion  of  the  means  by  which 


94  EXPERIMENT   STATION    RECORD. 

employed  teachers  may  acquire  agricultural  training,  this  bulletin  contains 
lists  of  institutions  maintaining  courses  in  agriculture  in  summer  sessions, 
institutions  offering  special  short  courses  or  extension  courses  in  agriculture 
for  teachers,  correspondence  and  reading  courses  in  agriculture,  and  a  suggested 
reading  course  in  agriculture  based  on  Farmers'  Bulletins  and  other  free 
publications  of  this  Department. 

Subject  matter  in  nature  study  and  elementary  agriculture  {Cornell  Rural 
School  Leaflet,  7  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  212,  figs.  165). — This  publication  presents 
lists  of  subjects  for  1913-14  in  nature  study  and  elementary  agriculture  as  out- 
lined in  the  New  York  State  Syllabus.  In  addition  to  illustrative  material  for 
a  special  study  of  birds,  animals,  insects,  plants,  and  trees,  charts  are  given 
showing  how  a  farm  may  be  laid  out  and  school  grounds  planted  to  trees,  small 
shrubbery,  etc. 

Nature  study  and  agriculture  (In  Course  of  Study  of  the  Elementary 
Schools  of  Oregon.  Salem,  Greg.:  State  Dept.  of  Ed.,  1911,  pp.  56-65). — This 
is  an  outline  of  the  optional  work  in  nature  study  in  the  first  to  the  fourth 
grades,  inclusive,  and  in  agriculture  in  the  seventh  and  eighth  grades  in  one 
class. 

Woodworking  exercises  for  the  ag-ricultural  school  shop,  H.  B.  White 
{Minne.'jota  Sta.  Bui.  135,  pp.  39,  figs.  35). — The  greater  part  of  this  bulletin 
consists  of  drawings  and  photographs  showing  the  exact  measurements  of  30 
exercises  in  carpentry  work  suitable  for  class  work  and  not  requiring  the  use 
of  machinery.  The  descriptive  matter  is  practically  limited  to  lists  and  tabu- 
lated information. 

Demonstration-lectures  in  domestic  science  (foods  and  cooking),  sewing, 
and  home  nursing  {Ontario  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  215,  1913,  pp.  19,  figs.  5). — Out- 
lines of  the  courses  are  given,  with  a  statement  of  some  of  the  benefits  derived 
from  such  work. 

Sending  the  coUeg-e  to  the  State  {Mass.  Agr.  Col.  Bui.,  5  {1913),  No.  5, 
pp.  16). — This  pamphlet  describes  briefly  the  extension  methods  adopted  by  the 
^Massachusetts  Agricultural  College,  giving  outlines  of  the  various  lines  of  work, 
with  suggestions  as  to  how  individual  farmers  may  secure  special  information. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Annual  Report  of  Guam  Station,  1912  {Guam  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pp.  29,  pis.  6, 
figs.  7). — This  contains  a  summary  of  investigations  by  the  special  agent  in 
charge,  for  the  most  part  abstracted  elsewhere  in  this  issue. 

Annual  Heport  of  West  Virginia  Station,  1912  {West  Virginia  Sta.  Rpt. 
1912,  pp.  SOS,  figs.  100). — This  contains  the  organization  list;  a  report  of  the 
director  on  the  organization,  work,  and  publications  of  the  station,  including  a 
financial  statement  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1912;  departmental  re- 
ports, the  experimental  work  in  which  is  for  the  most  part  abstracted  elsewhere 
in  this  issue;  reports  to  December  30,  1911,  of  work  under  state  appropriations 
for  the  destruction  of  plant  and  insect  pests  and  the  promotion  of  the  horticul- 
tural and  trucking  industries,  portions  of  which  are  abstracted  elsewhere  in 
this  issue ;  and  reprints  of  Bulletins  135-137  and  139-141  and  Circular  5  previ- 
ously noted,  and  of  Circulars  4  and  6  noted  elsewhere  in  this  issue. 

A  list  of  bulletins  available  for  general  distribution  {West  Virginia  Sta. 
Circ.  4i  PP-  2). 

From  the  letter  files  of  S.  W.  Johnson,  edited  by  Elizabeth  A.  Osborne 
(New  Haven,  Conn.,  1918,  pp.  292,  pis.  3). — Extracts  from  the  letters  and 
earlier  writings  of  the  former  director  of  the  Connecticut  State  Experiment 
Station,  with  a  bibliography.    Noticed  editorially  on  page  1  of  this  issue. 


NOTES 


Arkansas  TTnlversity  and  Station. — A  3  months'  short  course  in  agriculture  has 
been  established  and  opened  with  a  good  attendance.  Domestic  science  courses 
have  also  been  offered  for  the  first  time,  more  applicants  being  received  than 
could  be  accommodated. 

W.  C.  Thompson,  assistant  in  animal  husbandry,  has  resigned  to  become 
experimentalist  in  poultry  husbandry  at  the  New  Jersey  State  Station  and  has 
been  succeeded  by  D.  H.  Branson,  animal  husbandman  at  the  Kansas  College 
and  Station.  W.  H.  Yv'icks  of  the  Idaho  University  and  Station  has  accepted 
the  position  of  horticulturist  made  vacant  by  the  resignation  of  Ernest  Walker, 
previously  noted.  L.  H.  Seymour,  assistant  in  horticulture,  has  resigned  to 
accept  a  commercial  position. 

Maryland  College. — J.  E.  Metzger,  a  graduate  of  the  Pennsylvania  College  and 
director  of  agriculture  in  the  agricultural  high  school  at  Fergus  Falls,  Minn., 
has  been  appointed  professor  of  agricultural  education  beginning  January  1. 
He  will  begin  his  duties  with  a  survey  of  the  work  now  being  done  in  the  rural 
schools  of  the  State  in  teaching  agriculture  and  other  vocational  subjects. 
B.  H.  Darrow,  a  graduate  of  the  Ohio  State  University  and  principal  of  the 
agricultural  high  school  at  Marion,  Ohio,  has  been  appointed  Y.  M.  C.  A.  sec- 
retary, and  in  addition  to  his  work  at  the  college  will  make  a  survey  of  rural 
churches  and  do  extension  community  work  through  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  and 
churches  of  the  State. 

Massachusetts  College. — Associate  professors  Lockwood  and  Graham  have 
been  advanced  to  full  professorships  in  dairy  and  poultry  husbandry,  respec- 
tively. E.  M.  McDonald  has  been  promoted  to  the  assistant  professorship  of 
agronomy. 

Michigan  College. — George  R.  Johnstone  and  Ford  S.  Prince,  1913  graduates  of 
the  University  of  Illinois,  have  been  appointed  instructors  in  botany  and  soils, 
respectively.  F.  A.  Wilken,  who  has  had  charge  of  the  substation  at  South 
Haven,  resigned  November  1,  1913. 

Nebraska  University  and  Station. — Frank  C.  Dean  has  been  appointed  agricul- 
tural editor  beginning  January  15. 

Nevada  University  and  Station. — Dr.  P.  B.  Kennedy,  who  has  had  charge  of 
the  department  of  botany,  horticulture,  and  forestry  since  1900,  resigned 
January  1  to  become  assistant  professor  in  agronomy  in  the  University  of 
California.  Dr.  Maxwell  Adams,  professor  of  chemistry,  has  been  granted  a 
year's  leave  of  absence  for  study  In  Europe. 

North  Dakota  College  and  Station. — H.  O.  Werner  has  been  appointed  instructor 
In  horticulture  and  assistant  horticulturist. 

Ohio  State  University  and  Station. — A  census  of  the  freshman  boys  shows  that 
56  per  cent  come  from  the  farm,  39  occupations  other  than  farming  being 
represented,  some  of  them  in  considerable  numbers.  Work  on  the  new  gi-een- 
houses  for  which  $5,000  has  been  appropriated  will  be  begun  in  the  near 
future.    Special  attention  is  to  be  given  to  floriculture. 

95 


96  EXPEKIMEIs^T   STATION   EECOBD. 

In  the  station,  J.  H.  Muncie,  assistant  botanist,  has  accepted  the  positloii  of 
assistant  pathologist  in  the  Michigan  Station  and  has  been  succeeded  by 
Richard  C.  Walton.  W.  M.  Cook  and  M.  O.  Bugby  of  the  department  of  co- 
operation have  bean  detailed  as  acting  county  agents  for  Greene  and  Trum- 
bull counties,  respectively,  with  headquarters  at  Xenia  and  Warren. 

Oregon  College. — Schools  of  forestry  and  mines  have  been  organized  with 
George  W.  Peavy,  formerly  head  of  the  department  of  forestry,  and  Henry 
Martin  Parks,  professor  of  mining,  as  the  respective  deans.  G.  D.  Horton 
(M.  S.,  Yale,  1913)  has  been  appointed  instructor  in  bacteriology. 

The  course  in  agriculture  offered  during  Farmers'  Week  in  December,  1913, 
attracted  more  than  600  farmers.  Special  attention  was  given  to  cooperative 
marketing  and  rural  organization,  addresses  being  given  by  experts  in  asso- 
ciated industries  and  by  Dr.  Hector  Macpherson,  the  Oregon  member  of  the 
American  commission  on  European  cooperative  systems.  More  than  200 
farmers  and  housewives  registered  for  the  short  course  beginning  January  5. 

Arrangements  have  been  made  by  the  extension  director  and  the  superin- 
tendent of  the  State  Department  of  Education  for  cooperative  management  of 
the  various  district,  county,  and  state  school  fairs.  According  to  the  revised 
plans  for  holding  the  fairs  more  emphasis  will  be  placed  on  method  and  less  on 
result.  The  exhibit  system  will  be  progressive,  winners  in  the  local  fairs 
been  eligible  to  make  entries  in  the  next  higher  fair.  Exhibitors  in  the  state 
fair  will  be  given  instruction  in  agricultural  subjects  and  possibly  provided  with 
a  summer  camp  while  the  fair  is  in  progress. 

Porto  Rico  College. — F.  L.  Stevens,  dean  of  the  college  of  agriculture  and  pro- 
fessor of  vegetable  pathology,  has  been  appointed  professor  of  plant  pathology 
in  the  department  of  botany  of  the  University  of  Illinois. 

Washington  College. — W.  O.  Ellis  has  been  appointed  instructor  in  entomology. 

XJ.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. — The  investigations  conducted  for  several 
years  by  the  Dairy  Division  in  soft  cheese  making  at  the  Connecticut  Storrs 
Station,  on  the  ripening  of  Cheddar  cheese  at  the  Wisconsin  Station,  and  on 
milk  secretion  at  the  Missouri  Station,  have  been  discontinued.  Dr.  Charles 
Thom,  J.  M.  Currie,  and  K.  J.  Matheson  are  to  continue  the  soft  cheese  work  at 
Washington. 

Miss  A,  C.  Evans,  assistant  bacteriologist  at  the  W^isconsin  Station,  and  P.  A. 
Wright,  assistant  chemist  at  the  Missouri  Station,  have  also  been  transferred  to 
Washington,  where  they  will  undertake  work  in  the  bacteriology  and  chemistry 
of  milk  and  its  products  along  lines  similar  to  those  in  which  they  were  pre- 
viously engaged. 

Commission  on  Meat  Supply. — A  commission  to  investigate  the  economic  causes 
of  the  present  condition  of  the  meat  industry,  with  a  view  to  suggesting  pos- 
sible methods  of  improvement,  has  been  appointed  by  the  Secretary  of  Agri- 
culture. The  personnel  of  the  commission  is  as  follows:  Assistant  Secretary 
B.  T.  Galloway,  chairman;  President  H.  J.  Waters  of  Kansas;  Dean  C.  F. 
Curtiss  of  Iowa ;  H.  W.  Mumford  of  Illinois ;  Dr.  A.  D.  Melvin  of  the  Bureau 
of  Animal  Industry ;  and  Dr.  T.  N.  Carver  of  the  Rural  Organization  Service. 

Sixth  Graduate  School  of  Agriculture, — Arrangements  are  being  completed  for 
the  sixth  session  of  the  graduate  school,  which  will  be  held  at  the  University 
of  Missouri  June  29  to  July  24.  Dr.  A.  C.  True,  director  of  this  Office,  will 
again  serve  as  dean,  and  the  faculty  will  include  leading  scientists  and  experts 
from  this  Department,  the  agricultural  colleges  and  experiment  stations,  and 
other  universities,  colleges,  and  scientific  institutions  in  America  and  Europe. 

Instruction  will  be  offered  under  the  following  general  heads:  Genetics, 
agronomy,  horticulture,  animal  husbandry,  immunity  and  disease  resistance  In 


NOTES.  97 

plants  and  animals,  and  rural  economics  and  sociology,  including  farm  man- 
agement. 

The  course  in  genetics,  comprising  40  lectures  and  12  seminars,  will  include 
a  systematic  presentation  of  the  present  status  and  outlook  of  the  subject  with 
special  reference  to  its  agricultural  relations.  The  hours  of  this  course  will 
be  so  arranged  that  it  will  be  open  to  all  students. 

The  courses  in  agronomy  and  horticulture  will  deal  mainly  with  special  prob- 
lems in  the  breeding  and  nutrition  of  field  crops  and  orchard  fruits  respectively, 
and  that  in  animal  husbandry  with  breeding  and  nutrition  with  particular  ref- 
erence to  beef  and  dairy  cattle. 

The  course  in  immunity  and  disease  resistance  in  plants  and  animals  will 
include  a  resume  showing  the  present  status  of  knowledge  in  these  lines  and  the 
outlook  for  future  investigations.  In  connection  with  this  course,  conferences 
of  phytopathologists  and  veterinarians  in  separate  groups  are  to  be  arranged  on 
special  problems  in  plant  and  animal  diseases. 

The  course  in  rural  economics  and  sociology,  including  farm  management, 
will  present  a  survey  of  the  present  status  of  these  subjects  and  discussions  of 
plans  for  their  future  development. 

Special  arrangements  are  to  be  made  by  which  groups  of  students  may  study 
in  some  detail  the  methods,  records,  and  equipment  of  the  research  work  in 
progress  at  the  Missouri  University  and  Station.  General  principles  regarding 
the  organization  and  work  of  institutions  for  agricultural  research  and  educa- 
tion will  also  be  discussed  in  a  series  of  conferences. 

Correspondence  relating  to  the  membership  in  the  school  should  be  addressed 
to  A.  J.  Meyer,  Registrar,  College  of  Agriculture,  Columbia,  Mo. 

Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Agricultural  Science. — The  thirty-fourth  annual 
meeting  of  the  society  was  held  at  Washington,  November  11,  1913.  Two  joint 
sessions  were  held  with  the  American  Society  of  Agronomy,  which  met  at  the 
same  time. 

The  address  of  the  president.  Dean  E.  Davenport,  was  on  the  subject.  How 
Will  Extension  Work  React  Upon  Research?  The  effect  of  the  present  popu- 
larity of  demonstration  and  extension  work  on  the  popular  mind,  on  appro- 
priating bodies,  m  students,  and  on  the  standards  of  work  was  traced.  This 
effect  was  felt  to  be  such  that  "  we  may  well  feel  solicitous  for  both  the  college 
and  the  station,  especially  for  the  latter,  which  can  not  hope  to  compete  either 
in  spectacular  show  or  in  immediate  promise  with  its  younger  but  robustious 
brother,  the  extension  service."  The  responsibility  was  placed  upon  those  in 
authority  to  "  insist  upon  and  to  maintain  at  all  cost  a  proper  balance  between 
real  research  and  all  other  agencies  for  agricultural  progress,  however  attrac- 
tive, however  expedient,  however  necessary." 

In  a  paper  on  Feeding  Experiments  to  Determine  the  Availability  of  Protein, 
B.  L.  Hartwell  and  R.  A.  Lichteuthaeler  reported  work  conducted  with  chickens 
in  which  beef  scrap  and  cotton-seed  meal  were  compared  on  the  basis  of  the 
nitrogen  recovered  in  analysis  of  the  meat.  The  method  brought  out  no  im- 
portant difference  in  availability  of  the  two  concentrates. 

The  Nutritive  Values  of  Organic  and  Inorganic  Phosphorus  were  considered 
in  a  paper  by  E.  B.  Forbes,  based  on  an  analysis  of  a  large  body  of  literature 
relating  to  work  with  various  kinds  of  animals,  and  including  some  by  the 
author  with  swine.  A  lack  of  harmony  was  found  in  the  results  with  different 
kinds  of  animals,  which  could  not  be  explained.  The  results  were  not  thought 
to  warrant  final  conclusions,  but  "  the  problem  now  seems  to  take  the  form 
of  a  question  as  to  whether  we  shall  regard  organic  phosphorus  compounds  as 
of  superior  nutritive  value  becauW  of  the  chemical  relationship  of  their  phos- 


98  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

phoric  acid,  or  because  of  the  presence  of  other  unknown  substances  of  value 
associated  with  them  in  natural  foods." 

The  Tlieory  of  Antagonism  of  Salts  and  Its  Significance  in  Soil  Studies  was 
presented  by  C.  B.  Lipman,  who  reported  studies  of  the  effect  of  certain  combi- 
nations of  alkali  salts  in  barley  cultures  and  upon  soil  organisms.  Antago- 
nisms were  quite  pronounced,  which  suggested  the  possibility  of  chemical  means 
for  alkali  reclamation. 

In  a  paper  on  The  Relation  of  Ecology  to  Agriculture,  L.  H.  Pammel  pre- 
sented an  argument  for  the  importance  of  such  studies  in  connection  with  other 
lines  of  agricultural  work. 

Variation  in  the  Tongue  Color  of  Jersey  Cattle  was  traced  by  Raymond 
Pearl,  in  a  herdbook  study  of  registrations  made  in  1893  and  in  1913,  twenty 
years  apart.  The  results  indicated  "  a  simple  case  of  Mendelian  inheritance,  in 
which  pigmented  tongue  is  the  dominant  character  and  nonpigmented  the 
recessive." 

F.  W.  Rane  described  What  Massachusetts  Has  Accomplished  for  Science 
in  Her  Fight  Against  the  Gipsy  and  Brown-tail  Moths.  This  related  to  the 
importing  and  breeding  of  parasites  and  other  natural  enemies,  the  development 
of  improved  spniying  machinery  and  insecticides,  and  forest  management  as  a 
factor  in  moth  control. 

A  paper  on  Factors  of  Efficiency  in  Farming,  by  W.  J.  Spillman,  is  to  appear 
later  as  a  Yearbook  article. 

The  International  Institute  of  Agriculture  was  described  by  A.  C.  True, 
who  gave  an  account  of  the  organization  and  operations  of  the  institute,  its 
general  progress,  and  the  fourth  session  of  the  General  Assembly,  held  at  Rome 
in  May,  1913  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  1). 

Agricultural  Education  in  Latin  America  was  described  by  Clinton  D.  Smith, 
who  recently  served  as  director  of  the  agricultural  school  at  Piracicaba,  Brazil. 
He  gave  accounts  of  the  various  agricultural  schools  in  Brazil,  and  also  in 
Uruguay,  Argentina,  Peru,  and  Chile. 

The  officers  elected  for  the  year  were  as  follows :  President,  President  H.  J. 
Waters  of  Kansas;  secretary-treasurer,  Dr.  E.  W.  Allen,  Washington,  D.  C. ;  ex- 
ecutive committee.  Dr.  H.  P.  Armsby,  Dr.  W.  H.  Jordan,  and  Dr.  H.  L.  Russell ; 
custodian  and  assistant  custodian,  Dr.  W.  J.  Beal  and  Prof.  W.  D.  Hurd,  of 
Massachusetts. 

American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Agricultural  Teaching. — This 
association  held  its  fourth  annual  meeting  in  Washington,  November  11,  1913. 

The  opening  topic  was  Home  Project  Work  v.  Laboratory  and  School  Garden 
Plat  Work  for  High  School  Students.  C.  G.  Selvig  of  Crookston,  Minn.,  held 
that  the  purpose  of  agricultural  high  schools  is  to  train  future  farmers  and  to 
help  farmers  to  become  more  efficient.  The  use  of  school  land  should,  there- 
fore, be  to  supply  plats  to  landless  pupils  and  to  perform  demonstrations  for 
the  benefit  of  the  school  and  the  community.  An  inquiry  conducted  by  him  in- 
dicated that  the  possibilities  regarding  the  use  of  land  at  school  and  at  home 
are  barely  beginning  to  be  realized.  W.  R.  Hart  of  the  Massachusetts  Agri- 
cultural College  assigned  a  different  function  to  the  agricultural  high  school, 
maintaining  that  the  work  of  the  high  school  along  agricultural  lines  should 
be  cultural  as  well  as  vocational  and  that  the  home  projects  should  be  for  cul- 
tural training  as  well  as  for  economic  purposes. 

A.  V.  Storm  of  the  University  of  Minnesota  discussed  the  preparing  of  teach- 
ers of  agriculture  at  the  agricultural  college  through  a  special  four-year  course 
by  special  instructors,  as  compared  with  adding  an  elective  of  one  year  of 
pedagogics  and  practice  teaching  to  the  regular  agricultural  course.  In  his 
opinion,  "  in  institutions  where  thorough  preparation  of  teachers  of  agriculture 


NOTES.  99 

Is  the  aim,  most  of  the  agricultural  work  should  be  taken  in  the  regular  courses, 
though  by  cooperation  between  the  agricultural  and  pedagogical  teacher  a  few 
special  courses  might  be  arranged,  but  even  these  should  be  taught  by  the 
agricultural  specialist.  The  professional  work  should  not  be  confined  to  one 
year  but  should  be  extended  through  the  last  two  years  with  the  privilege  of 
taking  some  of  it  in  the  second  year  if  the  student  desired.  This  professional 
work  must  include,  among  other  things,  the  proper  organization  of  the  agricul- 
tural material  into  teachable  form  and  practice  in  teaching  it  in  that  form. 
In  institutions  where  only  limited  preparation  can  be  made,  either  in  summer 
sessions  or  regular  term,  a  few  of  the  most  essential  regular  courses  should 
be  taken,  but  a  larger  number  of  specially  arranged  courses  would  be  permis- 
sible here  than  under  more  favorable  circumstances.  These  should  be  com- 
posite courses  arranged  cooperatively  by  the  department  of  agricultural  edu- 
cation and  the  particular  agricultural  department  or  departments  concerned, 
but  should  be  taught  by  the  agricultural  specialist." 

In  discussing  this  paper,  G.  A.  Bricker  of  the  Ohio  State  University  sug- 
gested the  offering  of  different  amounts  of  technical  agriculture,  depending 
upon  the  character  of  the  work  to  be  undertaken  by  the  teacher,  this  to  be  sup- 
plemented by  i^edagogical  training  by  the  department  of  agricultural  education. 

In  discussing  the  preparation  of  extension  and  field  men  in  the  agricultural 
college,  C.  H.  Tuck  of  Cornell  University  contended  that  in  addition  to  strong 
courses  in  the  various  branches  of  agriculture,  a  department  of  expression 
should  be  maintained,  the  function  of  which  should  be  to  discover  and  to  de- 
velop the  men  peculiarly  fitted  by  nature  for  the  extension  service.  G.  I. 
Christie  of  Purdue  University  advocated  providing  some  practical  experience  in 
extension  work  for  the  men  while  still  pursuing  their  college  courses. 

The  scope  and  purpose  of  agriculture  in  secondary  schools  was  discussed  by 
Director  H.  M.  Loomis  of  the  Smith  Agricultural  School  at  Northampton,  Mass., 
who  pointed  out  reasons  for  introducing  agriculture  into  the  public  schools  and 
offered  suggestions  relative  to  methods  in  secondary  agriculture.  He  held  that 
in  teaching  this  subject  no  set  scheme  should  be  followed  as  yet,  inasmuch  as 
secondary  agricultural  instruction  is  in  a  state  of  progress  and  facts  learned 
with  regard  to  it  should  be  verified.  This  paper  was  discussed  by  T.  I.  Mairs 
of  the  Pennsylvania  State  College,  who  maintained  that  agriculture  in  the 
course  of  study  is  justified  by  its  relation  to  conserva.tion,  high  cost  of  living, 
economics,  and  general  culture,  and  that  the  teaching  of  agriculture  in  the 
high  schools  creates  a  sentiment  in  favor  of  the  subject  both  in  the  school  and 
the  community. 

The  committee  on  the  use  of  land  in  connection  with  agricultural  teaching 
presented  through  C.  G.  Selvig  a  progress  report  dealing  with  the  special  agri- 
cultural school.  R.  W.  Stimson  reported  upon  the  teaching  of  agriculture  in 
the  public  high  schools,  and  L.  S.  Ivins  on  the  same  topic  in  the  elementary 
schools.  F.  W.  Howe,  of  Syracuse  University,  presented  a  brief  progress  report 
on  the  cooperative  use  of  equipment  and  illustrative  material.  The  various 
committees  were  continued. 

The  officers  elected  for  the  ensuing  year  were  R.  W.  Stimson,  president; 
A.  V.  Storm,  vice-president;  and  W.  H.  French,  secretary-treasurer. 

American  Society  of  Animal  Production. — This  society,  hitherto  known  as  the 
American  Society  of  Animal  Nutrition,  held  its  fifth  annual  meeting  at  Chi- 
cago, 111.,  December  3,  1913. 

E.  B.  Forbes  presented  a  paper  entitled  Mineral  Metabolism  Experiments 
with  Swine,  in  which  he  described  the  equipment  and  methods  employed  in 
metabolism  experiments  at  the  Ohio  Station,  and  gave  the  results  of  investiga- 
tions on  the  effect  of  water  and  mineral  salts  and  on  creatinin.     F.  G.  King 


100  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECORD. 

reported  experiments  conducted  at  the  Indiana  Station  on  the  value  of  grind- 
ing and  shelling  corn  for  hogs  and  compared  results  with  those  obtained  at 
other  stations.  Feeding  trials  at  the  Kansas  Station  were  reported  by  W.  A. 
Cochel  in  which  he  outlined  the  methods  of  finishing  cattle  on  roughage  without 
grain  supplements.  J.  M,  Evvard  gave  the  results  of  experiments  which  have 
been  conducted  at  the  Iowa  Station  on  the  value  of  different  pasture  crops  for 
growing  pigs  and  brood  sows. 

At  the  evening  session  the  topic  under  discussion  was  the  meat  supply.  After 
a  brief  statement  of  the  importance  of  thi«  subject  by  the  president  of  the 
society,  C.  F.  Curtiss,  the  discussion  was  opened  by  H.  J.  Waters,  in  which  he 
spoke  of  the  needs  of  readjusting  the  live  stock  industry,  with  particular  em- 
phasis upon  the  necessity  for  its  redistribution.  W.  A.  Cochel  stated  that  more 
economical  use  of  roughage  and  cattle  feeding  and  an  improvement  of  our 
waste  lands  were  important  factors  toward  increasing  our  meat  supply.  The 
changes  taking  place  in  the  live  stock  industry  were  described  by  E.  W.  Morse 
of  this  Department  and  were  shown  to  be  similar  to  the  changes  going  on 
in  many  other  industries.  He  stated  that  much  idle  land  in  the  East  and 
South  could  soon  be  put  to  profitable  use  for  meat  production. 

H.  P.  Armsby  outlined  the  need  of  more  scientific  investigation  in  connection 
with  fundamental  problems  in  animal  nutrition  and  showed  wherein  present- 
day  experiments  are  more  or  less  superficial.  A  study  of  the  market  conditions 
was  reported  by  H.  P.  Smith  in  which  he  showed  the  constantly  increasing 
number  of  calves  slaughtered,  particularly  in  the  dairy  States.  J.  H.  Skinner 
pointed  out  the  necessity  of  farmers  in  the  Corn  Belt  putting  live  stock  on  a 
breeding  basis,  rather  than  remaining  as  "  finishers "  of  range  bred  cattle. 
The  possibilities  of  meat  production  in  Central  America  were  outlined  by  N.  S. 
Mayo. 

Several  speakers  referred  to  the  proposed  legislation  prohibiting  the  slaugh- 
tering of  calves  under  1  year  of  age,  their  feeling  being  that  such  legislation 
was  unnecessary,  unjust,  and  diflScult  of  enforcement  if  enacted.  It  was  argued 
that  the  practice  is  actually  an  economical  one,  since  the  larger  number  of 
calves  are  slaughtered  near  the  large  centers  of  population  where  feed  is  too 
high  to  make  into  beef.  Many  of  the  calves  are  not  of  beef  type,  though  they 
make  good  veal  at  6  or  8  weeks  of  age. 

There  was  a  general  agreement  among  all  the  speakers  that  the  supply  of 
meat  in  the  United  States  had  not  been  reached,  as  is  supposed  by  many  people. 
The  present  situation  was  criticised  on  the  basis  that  the  meat  producer  is  not 
getting  the  profits  he  should,  while  the  consumer  is  paying  unusually  high 
prices.  It  was  believed  that  the  present  shortage  in  meat  animals  will  be  sup- 
plied as  soon  as  production  becomes  more  profitable.  It  was  voted  that  the 
president  appoint  a  committee  to  confer  with  the  Secretary  of  Agriculture  rela- 
tive to  plans  for  the  study  of  the  meat  supply  problem. 

Officers  of  the  society  for  the  ensuing  year  were  elected  as  follows :  President, 
E.  B.  Forbes,  Ohio ;  vice  president.  J.  H.  Skinner,  Indiana ;  secretary  and  treas- 
urer, D.  H.  Otis,  Wisconsin;  and  the  committee  on  experiments,  H.  W.  Mum- 
ford,  Illinois,  and  J.  H.  Skinner,  Indiana. 


ADDITIONAL  COPIES  of  this  publication 
J^  may  be  procured  from  the  Superiittexd- 
ENT  OF  DoctJiiENTS,  Government  Printing 
Oflflce, "Washington,  D.  C,  at  15  cents  per  copy. 

Subscription  price,  per  volume  of  9  numbers, $1 


EXPERIMENT  STATION  RECORD, 

Editor:  E.  W.  ALLEX,  Pii.  D.,  Assistant  Director 
Assistant  Editor:  H.  L.  Knight. 


EDITORIAL   DEPARTMENTS. 


Agricultural  Chemistry  and  Agrotechny — L.  W.  Fetzer,  Ph.  D.,  M.  D. 
Meteorology,  Soils,  and  Fertilizers{^y;^|-  ?|^J;,,^^,p^. 


Agricultural  Botany,  Bacteriology,  Vegetable  Pathologyj^y'  f'^oy^^'  ^^^'  ^' 
Field  Crops<Q  -^ 


SCHULTE. 

M.  Tucker,  Ph.  J). 
Horticulture  and  Forestry — E.  J.  Glasson. 

Foods  and  Human  ^^utrition{^-^L'.  L^^r''^''''^''  ^^''  ^"  ^''  ^'* 
Zootechny,  Dairying,  and  Dairy  Farming — H.  Webster. 
Economic  Zoology  and  Entomology — V\\  A.  Hooker,  D.  V.  M. 

Veterinary  Medicine{J^^-,^;H™. 

Rural  Engineering — II.  W.  Trullingek. 
Rural  Economics — B.  B.  Hare. 
Agricultural  Education — C.  H.  Lane. 
Indexes — M.  D.  Moore. 


UBftARy 
WEW  YORK 

•otanical 


CONTENTS  OF  VOL.  XXX,  NO.  2. 


Editorial  notes :  Page. 

Progress  of  studies  in  animal  nutrition 101 

Requirements  of  feeding  experiments 103 

Need  of  redirection  of  experimental  work  in  animal  husbandry lOG 

Recent  work  in  agricultural  science ■    110 

Notes 198 

SUBJECT  LIST  OF  ABSTRACTS. 


agricultural   chemistry — AGROTECHNY. 

In  regard  to  the  constitution  of  albumin,  Chodat 110 

Preliminary  note  on  coagulation  of  proteins  by  ultraviolet  light,  Bovie 110 

New  investigations  in  regard  to  our  knowledge  of  fats,  Eimprich 110 

Reducing  power  of  sugars  and  the  definition  of  these  substances,  Schoorl ill 

Plant  colloids. — I,  Starch  solution  in  presence  of  crystalloids,  Samec Ill 

On  the  starch  of  glutinous  rice  and  its  hydrolysis  of  diastase,  Tanaka Ill 

Development  of  certain  yeasts  in  various  nutrient  solutions,  Euler  and  Palm .  .  Ill 

Formation  of  alkali  by  enzyms,  Neuberg Ill 

The  biological  analysis  of  casein  antiserum,  Klein 112 

Some  applications  of  lacto  and  ovosera,  Galli-Valerio  and  Bornand 112 

Methods  of  determining  nitrogen  in  humus,  Lipman  and  Pressey 112 

A  comparison  of  methods  for  carbonates  in  soils,  Gaither 113 

Polarization  before  inversion  in  molasses,  Hazewinkel  and  Lourens 113 

The  freezing  point  of  milk,  Henderson  and  ;Meston 113 

A  new  scale  for  determining  moisture  in  butter,  Worner 1 13 

A  simple  test  for  the  determination  of  butter  fat  in  butter,  Doran 113 

Simplification  of  the  method  for  Reichert-Meissl  and  Polenske  numbers,  Goske.  114 

Estimation  of  essential  oil  in  mustard,  Ra<iuet 114 

I 


n  CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Methods  of  analysis  adopted  by  the  Texas  Cotton  Seed  Crushers'  Association. .  115 

Method  for  determining  cotton-seed  hulls  in  cotton-seed  meal,  Kole 115 

The  determination  of  formaldehyde,  Rimini  and  Jona 115 

Extraction  of  oil  bv  aspiration,  Chapelle  and  Ruby 115 

Effect  of  kiln  drying  at  145°  F.  on  the  hop,  Tartar  and  Pilkington 115 

Expressed  and  distilled  West  Indian  lime  oils,  Tempany  and  Greenhalgh 116 

Investigations  on  extraction  of  lime  juice  by  milling,  Tempany  and  Weil 117 

Experiments  in  lime  juice  concentration,  Macint>Te 117 

Index  to  Zeitschriftfur  Analytische  Chemie,  Fresenius  and  Czapski 117 

METEOROLOGY — WATER. 

Temperature  coefficients  in  plant  geography  and  climatology,  Livingston 117 

British  rainfall,  1912,  Mill  and  Salter 118 

Evaporation  from  a  plain  water  surface,  Leather 118 

Dew  ponds  and  mist  ponds,  Martin 118 

Artesian  water  supply  of  eastern  and  southern  Florida,  Sellards  and  Gunter 119 

Report  of  the  interstate  conference  on  artesian  water,  Sydney,  1912 119 

SOILS — FERTILIZERS. 

Soil,  soil  investigation,  and  soil  valuation,  Pilz 119 

Chemistry,  physics,  biology,  and  cultivation  of  the  soil,  Hoffmann 119 

Contribution  to  the  study  of  the  soils  of  the  Republic  of  Argentina,  Lavenir. . .  119 

Soil  culture  in  Iceland,  Gruner _ -.----, : 119 

The  results  of  mixed  cultivation  with  loam  in  Finland,  Rindell 119 

Moor  culture,  Kostlan -  •  -  • : 120 

The  shrinking  of  swamp  soils  resulting  from  drainage  and  cultivation,  Tacke. .  120 

The  influence  of  plant  roots  on  the  structure  of  the  soil,  Berkmann 120 

The  influence  of  subsoil  loosening  on  soil  yield,  Augustin 121 

The  minimum  water  capacity  of  soils  and  its  cause,  Moskovic 121 

The  reaction  of  aqueous  extracts  of  soils,  Saidel 121 

Alkaline  reactions  caused  by  acids  and  their  acid  salts  in  soils,  Masoni 122 

The  chemistry  of  humus,  with  special  reference  to  soil  and  plant,  Jodidi 122 

The  nature  of  humus  and  its  relation  to  plant  life,  Jodidi 122 

The  influence  of  plant  covering  on  soil  temperatures,  Frodin 122 

The  use  of  dialysis  and  oxidizing  power  in  judging  soils,  Konig  et  al 123 

Dialysis  and  power  of  oxidation  in  the  judgment  of  soils,  Konig 124 

The  soil  solution  and  the  mineral  constituents  of  the  soil,  Hall  et  al 124 

Ten  years'  experiments  on  the  action  of  fallow,  manure,  and  clover,  Koch 124 

Soil  hygiene  and  green  manuring,  Arndt 125 

Report  of  the  agriculturLst,  Gaskill 125 

The  management  of  solid  and  liquid  manures,  Ringehnann 125 

Enrichment  of  farmyard  manure  by  cake  feeding.  Hall 125 

Tests  of  nitrogen  on  sandy  and  upland  moor  soils,  Tacke  and  Briine 125 

The  lime-nitrogen  industry,  Siebner 125 

Nitrogenous  fertilizers  obtainable  in  the  United  States,  Turrentine 126 

Replacement  of  potash  in  feldspathic  rocks  by  fertilizers,  Andre 126 

Investigations  on  the  composition  of  Thomas  slag,  Popp 126 

Steamed  and  unsteamed  bone  superphosphate  and  Thomas  slag,  Schulze 126 

The  use  of  raw  phosphate  and  siliceous  lime  as  fertilizers,  Pfeiffer 127 

Agricultural  value  of  carbonate  of  lime  fi'om  causticizing  plant,  Hendrick 127 

The  action  of  quicklime  on  thesoil,  Hutchinson 127 

Mineral  and  nitrogen  contents  of  pine  needles  and  straw,  Bauer 127 

Tobacco  stalks  as  a  fertilizer,  Haskins 127 

Chemical  industries  of  Belgium,  Netherlands,  Norway,  and  Sweden,  Norton.  .  127 

Report  of  the  fertilizer  section,  Haskins 128 

AGRICULTURAL   BOTANY. 

The  action  of  certain  nutrient  and  nonnutrient  bases  on  plant  growth,  McCool. .  128 

Application  of  fertilizers  to  plants  through  their  leaves,  Larue 128 

Saponins  as  a  source  of  carbohydrates  for  vegetation,  Solacolu 129 

Distribution  of  asparagin,  glutamin,  arginin,  and  allantoin  in  plants,  Stieger.  .  129 

Formation  of  anthocyan  pigments  of  plants,  VI,  Keeble,  Annstrong,  and  Jones.  129 

Synthesis  by  sunlight  in  relationship  to  the  origin  of  life,  Moore  and  Webster. .  129 

Hemicelluloses  in  roots,  rhizomes,  and  tubers,  Stieger 130 


CONTENTS.  m 

Page. 

Contractions  resembling  plasnaolysis  caused  by  pure  distilled  water,  Osterhout. .  130 

Toxic  inorganic  salts  and  acids  as  affecting  plant  growth,  Lipman  and  Wilson. .  130 

Arsenic  compounds  in  agriculture  and  possible  danger,  Ampola  and  Tommasi . .  130 

Anatomical  and  physiological  influence  of  tobacco  smoke  on  seedlings,  Purkyt. .  131 

Injuries  to  vegetation  by  furnace  gases  and  ashes,  Miiller  et  al \...  131 

Effects  of  illuminating  gas  on  vegetation,  Stone 131 

Influence  of  radio-active  body  on  germination,  Crochetelle 131 

Semipermeability  of  seed  coats,  ShuU 132 

Influence  of  partial  suppression  of  the  reserve  material  in  seeds,  Delassus 132 

The  function  of  grape  leaves  in  relation  to  the  clusters,  Marescalchi J  32 

Some  points  on  the  floral  development  of  red  clover,  Martin 132 

Demonstrations  of  ectotrophic  and  endotrophic  mycon-hiza,  McDougall 132 

Contributions  on  the  colorless  sulphur  bacteria,  Hmze 133 

Culture  of  micro-organisms,  Kiister 133 

FIELD  CROPS. 

Causes  of  the  increased  yields  during  the  last  three  decades,  Lehn 133 

Making  money  on  farm  crops,  Nichols 133 

[Experiments  with  field  crops] 133 

Field  experiments 133 

[Field  crop  experiments],  Foulkes 134 

Manurial  experiments,  Balfour  and  Rush  ton 134 

Report  of  the  Hedemarken  Experiment  Station,  1912,  Christie 134 

Report  of  Ribe  County  Western  Agricultural  Society,  1912,  Esbjerg 134 

Report  of  the  plant  culture  stations,  1912-13,  Larsen  et  al 134 

Plant  breeding  at  Tystofte,  Lindhard 134 

A  method  for  variety  tests,  Bilger 134 

The  influence  of  vegetative  factors  on  yield,  Mitscherlich  and  Floess 135 

Cereal  investigations  at  the  Nephi  [Utah]  substation,  Cardon 135 

Prevention  of  lodging  of  cereals,  Ziehe 136 

Influence  of  moisture,  fertilizer,  and  soil  on  barley  and  wheat,  Polle 136 

Composition  of  timothy  and  wheat  plants  during  growth  and  ripening,  Haigh. .  137 

[Fibers  from  Papua  (British  New  Guinea)  and  India] 138 

The  use  of  sulphur  in  the  cultivation  of  turnips  and  beets,  Magnien 138 

Bean  growing  in  eastern  Washington  and  Oregon,  and  northern  Idaho,  Fluharty  138 

Field  trials  on  the  manming  of  carrots,  Stokes '.  1 38 

Clovers,  Calvino 138 

Crimson  clover,  Grantham 138 

Effect  of  fi'ost  on  corn,  Lindsey 138 

Seed  selection  of  Eg\Tptian  cotton,  Kearney 138 

Propagating  cotton  plants  by  slips,  Gastet ._ 139 

Cowpeas  for  soil  improvement,  Grantham 139 

Value  of  meadow  foxtail  gro"«Ti  on  peat  soils,  von  Feilitzen  et  al 139 

A  variety  test  of  jDotatoes,  Gaskill 139 

[Field  crop  experiments],  Malthouse 130 

Sulphur  for  prevention  of  scab  and  as  indirect  fertilizer,  von  Feilitzen 139 

Lessons  for  American  potato  growers  from  German  experiences,  Orton 139 

Beet  sugar  in  New  England,  Lindsey 140 

Sugar-cane  experiments,  Harrison  and  Ward 1 40 

Classification  of  the  forms  of  Ilelianthus  annuus,  Sazyperow 140 

Research  work  at  Harrow  Experimental  Station,  1911,  Bamet 140 

Tobacco  culture,  Blackshaw 140 

Cultivation  of  tobacco  for  the  preparation  of  fruit  and  hop  washes i  40 

A  cross  between  Triticum  vulgare  and  T.  monococcum,  Wawiloff 1 40 

\\Tieat  growing  in  Wisconsin,  Delwiche  and  Leith 141 

Some  variable  results  of  seed  testing.  Stone 141 

Seed  work  for  the  year  1912,  Stone 14 1 

"Yellow  rattle,"  as  a  weed  on  arable  land,  Brenchley 141 

HORTICULTURE. 

Intensive  fanning,  Corbett 141 

Recent  progress  in  Belgian  horticulture,  Vemieuwe 141 

Malnutrition  or  ovei-fertilization  of  greenhouse  crops,  Haskins 141 

Influence  of  light,  soil  moisture,  and  hydrocyanic-acid  gas  on  cucumbers,  Stone.  142 

Effects  of  fertilizers  on  growth  and  composition  of  asparagus  roots,  Morse 142 


IV  CONTENTS. 

Page. 

The  inheritaDce  of  blossom  color  in  beans,  Shaw 142 

Report  of  cranberry  substation  for  1912,  Franklin 142 

New  varieties  of  fruits,  Nomblot 143 

Crew  work,  costs,  and  returns  in  orcharding  in  West  Virginia,  Arnold 144 

Cultivation  and  exploitation  of  the  avocado,  Valencia 144 

Mulberry  and  fig  culture,  Calvino 144 

On  some  hybrids  of  Vitis  vinifera  and  V.  berlandieri,  Gard 144 

On  the  use  of  seedling  vines  as  scions,  Trabut. 144 

The  reconstruction  of  vineyards  without  grafting,  Oberlin 145 

Some  new  or  little-known  Philippine  economics,  Barrett 145 

The  Kafir  orange,  Fairchild 145 

American  medicinal  flowers,  fruits,  and  seeds,  Henkel 145 

Experiments  in  bulb  growing  at  Bellingham,  Dorsett 145 

Weed  extermination,  Stone _. 146 

Legislation  against  diseases  and  pests  of  cultivated  plants  in  Ceylon,  Fetch .  . .  146 

FORESTRY. 

Forest  valuation,  Riebel 146 

An  economic  study  of  acacias,  Shinn 146 

Manihot  caoutchouc,  Zimmermann 146 

De\'ice  for  planting  white  pine  seed,  Stone 146 

Experimental  telegraph  poles  after  eight  years'  service,  Teesdale 146 

DISEASES    OF  PLANTS. 

Topics  covered  by  department  of  vegetable  physiology  and  pathology,  Stone. . .  147 

Diseases  more  or  less  common  during  the  year,  Stone 147 

Work  of  the  botanical  research  laboratory  at  Klosterneuburg,  Linsbauer  et  al . .  147 

Studies  of  plant  diseases,  Muller,  Molz,  and  Morgenthaler 148 

Notes  on  Cronartium  coleosporioides  and  C.  Jilamentosum,  Meinecke 148 

Mosaic  and  allied  diseases  in  tobacco  and  tomatoes,  Chapman 148 

Cucumber  and  tomato  canker 148 

White-heads  or  take-all  of  wheat  and  oats • 148 

The  barberry  and  its  relation  to  black  rust  of  grain,  Giissow 149 

Action  of  luminous  radiations  on  conidia  on  Botrytis  cinerea,  Moreau 149 

A  bacterial  rot  of  cucumbers,  Burger 149 

Cor^-nespora  leaf  spot  of  cucumbers,  Grosser 149 

Fusarium  or  Verticillium  on  okra  in  North  Carolina?  Wilson 149 

Black  heart  of  potatoes,  Bartholomew 149 

Experiments  relating  to  the  control  of  potato  scab,  Stone  and  Chapman 150 

Relation  of  cane  cultivation  to  the  control  of  fungus  diseases,  Johnston 150 

The  black  rots  of  the  sweet  potato,  Taubenhaus 150 

Recent  diseases  of  grapevines,  their  importance  and  treatment,  De  Zuniga 150 

Downy  mildew  in  Vaucluse  in  1913,  Zacharewicz 150 

Mildew  in  1913,  Cadoret 151 

A  Botrytis  disease  of  dahlias.  Cook  and  Schwarze 151 

Some  fungus  diseases  of  trees,  Pammel 151 

Shade  tree  troubles,  Stone 151 

Chestnut  blight,  Stone 151 

The  blights  of  coniferous  nursery  stock,  Hartley 151 

Herpotrichia  and  Neopeckia  on  conifers,  Sturgis 152 

A  new  rust,  Stone 152 

Spotting  of  rubber  on  the  plantation,  Cayla 152 

An  investigation  of  lime-sulphur  injury,  its  causes  and  prevention,  Safi'o 152 

Spreading  capacity  and  adherence  of  sprays,  Vermorel  and  Dantony 153 

Preparation  of  alkaline  sprays,  A^eimorel  and  Dantony 153 

ECONOMIC    ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY. 

Game  protection  and  propagation  in  America,  Chase 153 

Game  law  blue  book,  Reynolds 153 

Rats  and  their  extermination,  Daley 153 

Rat  proofing  a  municipal  sewer  system,  Simpson 153 

A  history  of  the  game  birds  of  Massachusetts^ and  adjacent  States,  Forbush ....  153 

Insect  porters  of  bacterial  infections,  Martin 153 


CONTENTS.  V 

Page. 

iDsect  record  for  1912  iu  Mavssachusetts,  Feniald 153 

Insect  fauna  of  the  soil  near  Manchester,  Cameron 154 

Phytopathological  report  for  the  year  1912,  Marchal 154 

Rei)ort  of  the  entomologist,  Ballard 154 

List  of  insect  pests,  Moi-statt 154 

iCranbeiTy  insects  in  1912],  Franklin 154 

►lethods  of  controlling  mill  and  stored  grain  insects,  Dean 155 

The  destruction  of  injurious  insects  by  vegetable  parasites,  Le  Moult 155 

Tests  of  insecticides,  Fernald 156 

The  common  house  roach  as  a  carrier  of  disease,  Longfellow 156 

Occurrence  of  the  woolly  aphis  in  the  core  of  apples,  Hewitt 156 

Peach  aphis  investigations  during  winter  and   spring,    1912,  Hardenberg. .  156 

The  San  Jose  scale  in  Tennessee  with  methods  for  its  control,  Bentley 157 

Preliminary  notes  on  a  scale  insect  infesting  the  banana  in  Fiji,  Jepson 157 

The  Abutilon  moth  ( Cosmoph ila  erosa),  Chittenden 157 

The  red-humped  caterpillar  (Sdiizum  concinna),  Vosler 157 

The  fruit-tree  leaf  roller  (Archips  argyrospila),  Weldon 157 

A  new  sugar-cane  pest,  Fuller 157 

The  Hessian  fly,  Headlee  and  Parker 157 

The  red  clover  gall  gnat  (Ambhjspatha  ormerodi  n.  ep.),  MacDougall 159 

A  jumping  maggot  in  cactus  blooms  {Acucula  saltans  n.  g.  and  n.  sp.),  Townsend.  159 

Mosquito  extermination  and  its  problems,  Winship 159 

The  natural  host  of  Phlebotomus  minutus,  Howlett 159 

Recent  literature  on  sand  flies,  Friederichs 159 

Control  measures  for  use  against  flies,  Yaillard 159. 

The  distance  flies  may  travel  over  water,  Hodge 159 

An  unusual  outbreak  of  Stomoxys  calciimns  following  floods,  Fuller 160 

The  maggot  fly  pest  in  sheep.  Major IGO 

The  bean  stem  maggot,  Jack ^  160 

Experiments  for  the  control  of  the  onion  maggot,  Femald  and  Bourne 160 

The  manzanite  Serica  (Serica  anthracina),  Essig 160 

The  Ilalticini  attacking  Cruciferae  in  central  Europe,  Heikertinger 160 

The  destructive  Eleodes  (Eleodes  omissa  borealis),  Essig 161 

The  fruit  tree  bark  beetle  (Scolytusrugulosus),  Essig 161 

Xyleborus  (Anisandrus)  dispar  and  its  food  fungus,  Schneider-Orelli 161 

A  billbug  injurious  to  small  grain  (S phcnophorus  discolor),  Smith 161 

Black  brood  in  bees,  Serbinow 161 

A  chalcidid  which  parasitizes  Ceratitis  and  Dacus  in  "West  Africa,  Silvestri 161 

A  new  braconid  of  the  genus  Microdus  from  Canada,  Richardson,  jr 161 

The  enemies  of  plant  pests:  The  Aphelininse,  Mercet 161 

Collembola  damaging  pine  trees,  Collinge 161 

The  use  of  sheep  m  eradication  of  Rocky  Mountain  spotted  fever  tick,  \\  ood. .  1G2 

FOODS — HUMAN   NUTRITION. 

Bouillon  cubes  compared  with  meat  extracts  and  homemade  preparations.  Cook .  162 

Bouillon  cubes,  Cook 163 

Notes  on  rare  fishes  sold  for  food  in  east  London,  Stubbs 163 

Determination  of  the  sanitary  quality  of  shell  oysters,  Smith 163 

Studies  of  phosphatids,  particularly  those  in  egg  yolk,  Eppler 163 

The  gluten  content  of  flour,  Budai  (Bauer) 164 

The  activity  of  the  amylolytic  enzyms  in  wheat  flour,  Swanson  and  Calvin 164 

Some  points  in  the  making  and  judging  of  bread,  Bevier 164 

A  new  method  for  keeping  bread  fresh,  and  its  significance  to  bakers,  Katz 164 

The  grinding  of  com  meal  for  bread,  Dunnington 165 

[Banana  recipes],  Barrett 165 

Hickory  nuts  and  hickory  nut  oil,  Peterson  and  Bailey 165 

[Analyses  of  food,  beverages,  and  drugs],  Hanson 165 

Food  and  drug  and  weight  and  measures  laws  of  Nevada,  with  regulations 165 

Wisconsin  dairy  and  food  laws  and  decisions  of  courts,  Emery. 165 

A  study  of  use  of  ice  and  other  means  of  preserving  food  in  homes,  Williams- . .  165 

Cooking  and  heating  with  electricity,  Phillips 166 

The  food  factor  in  some  sociologic  problems 166 

[Increased  cost  of  maintenance  of  children] 166 

Cost  of  livino;  in  Nova  Scotia,  Ragsdale 166 

Food  prices  m  London  as  affecting  the  poorer  classes,  Pringle 166 


yi  CONTENTS. 

Page. 

[Luncheon  for  women  clerka  employed  in  the  Bank  of  England],  Harvey 166 

[Dietaries  and  accounts  for  Poor  Law  Unions,  England  and  Wales] 167 

Diet  social  service  in  dispensary  work,  Klaer 167 

A  food  clinic 167 

Report  on  bacterial  food  poisoning  and  food  infections,  Savage 167 

Relation  of  diets  and  castration  to  transmissible  tumors,  Sweet  et  al 167 

Mixed  diet  and  metabolism 168 

The  mineral  content  of  the  daily  diet,  Homemann 168 

The  normal  presence  of  boron  in  animals,  Bertrand  and  Agulhon 168 

The  presence  of  boron  in  animals,  Bertrand  and  Agulhon 168 

The  presence  of  boron  in  milk  and  eggs,  Bertrand  and  Agulhon 168 

Metabolism  after  meat  feeding  of  dogs,  Benedict  and  Pratt 168 

Metabolism  in  connection  with  an  experimental  march,  Melville  et  al 169 

Experimental  marches  for  deciding  a  scale  of  field  service  rations 169 

ANIMAL   PRODUCTION. 

Commercial  feeding  stuffs,  Jones,  jr.,  et  al 169 

Use  of  the  bitter  acorn  in  the  feeding  of  domestic  animals,  Courbet 169 

Rations  for  farm  stock 169 

On  the  question  of  the  nitrogen  retention  from  the  feeding  of  urea,  Grafe 169 

Nutrition  of  the  embryonic  chick,  I,  II,  III,  Bywaters  and  Roue 170 

A  respiration  apparatus  for  sheep  and  swine,  Tangl 170 

Twenty-five  years  of  German  animal  production,  Hansen 170 

Methods  of  cattle  raising  and  management  under  modem  intensive  farming. . .  170 

i'reatise  on  zootechny. — III,  The  bovine,  Dechambre 170 

Breeding  cattle  in  French  Guinea,  Aldige 171 

Breeds,  breeding,  and  utility  value  of  cattle  of  DutckEast  Africa,  Lichtenheld.  -  171 

The  Creole  cattle  of  Salta,  Garcia 171 

On  beef  production  [in  Argentina],  Lahitte 171 

The  frozen  meat  industry  of  Argentina,  Berges ^ 171 

Foreign  meat  in  London,  Loop 171 

The  shrinkage  in  weight  of  beef  cattle  in  transit.  Ward  and  Downing 171 

Sheep  farming  in  North  America,  Craig 173 

Boulonnaise  breed  of  sheep,  Tribondeau :  •  -  • : ^^^ 

Fitting  yearling  wethers  and  lambs  for  exhibition,  Humphrey  and  Kleinheinz . .  173 

Cassava  for  pigs,  Frateur  and  Molhant 174 

Trials  with  weights  of  fattening  swine  and  the  "plucks "  from  these.  Holm 174 

Treatise  on  zootechny. — II,  The  horse,  Dechambre 174 

Did  the  horse  exist  in  America  at  the  time  of  discovery,  Trouessart 174 

The  feeding  of  farm  horses 174 

Horse  feeding  experiments  with  dried  beer  yeast,  von  Czadek 175 

Cotton-seed  meal  as  a  feed  for  laying  hens,  Morrison 175 

Poultry  notes,  1911-1913,  Pearl 175 

Mardi  Gras  poultry  in  France,  Brown 175 

Breeders'  and  cockers'  guide.  Glover 175 

The  national  standard  squab  book,  Rice 175 

DAIRY  FARMING DAIRYING. 

Some  practical  results  of  feeding  experiments,  Lindsey 175 

The  food  value  of  plain  and  molasses  beet  pulp,  Lindsey 176 

The  value  of  oats  for  milk  production,  Lindsey 176 

Feeding  experiments  with  milch  cows,  Carlier 176 

Niger  cake  for  milch  cows,  Warsage 176 

Feeding  experiments  with  hay  and  varying  amounts  of  protein  feeds,  De  Vries. .  177 

North  Carolina  dairy  herd  records,  Eaton 177 

Report  of  the  Richmond-Lewiston  Cow  Testing  Association,  Carroll 177 

Dairy  industry  in  northern  Europe,  Guittonneau 177 

Report  of  the  sanitary  inspector  of  the  State  of  Idaho,  1911-12,  Wallis 177 

Report  of  the  feed  and  dairy  section,  Smith 178 

The  ductal  system  of  the  milk  glands  of  the  bovine,  Wirz 178 

[Factors  affecting  the  composition  of  milk],  Aurousseau  and  Ponscarme 178 

The  viscosity  of  cream,  Dumaresq 179 

Influence  of  factorjr  methods  on  water  content  of  Edam  cheese,  Van  Dam 179 

On  the  faulty  *'  Knijpers  "  in  Edam  cheese,  Boekhout 179 


CONTENTS.  Vn 

Page. 

Wensleydale  cheese,  Davies 179 

Some  investigations  of  parchment  paper,  Hals  and  Heggenhaiigcn 179 

VETERINARY   MEDICINE. 

Report  of  civil  veterinary  department,  Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam,  Harris 180 

Report  of  civil  veterinary  department,  Assam,  1912-13,  Hickey 180 

The  diagiiosis  of  newly  lactatin^  animals  according  to  Schern's  method,  Weber.  180 

Use  of  pitiiitary_  extract  in  bovine  and  equine  obstetrics,  Schmidt  and  Kopp.  180 

Serum-therapy  in  practice,  Menary. 180 

Natural  variation  of  Bacillus  acidi  lactici,  Arkwright 180 

The  action  of  the  protein  poison  on  dogs:  A  study  in  anaphylaxis,  Edmunds. .  180 

Specificity  and  diagnostic  value  of  Ascoli  thermoprecipitin  reaction,  Finzi. . . .  180 

Tnermoprecipitation  in  anthrax,  Szymanowski  and  Zagaja 181 

Anthrax  vaccination,  its  use  and  abuse,  Goodwin 181 

Feeding  experiments  with  the  virus  of  infectious  bulbar  paralysis,  von  RAtz. .  181 

Relationship  between  paratyphoid  infections  in  man  ancT  in  animals,  De  Jong.  181 

Some  peculiar  bodies  in  erythrocytes  in  rinderpest,  Braddon  et  al 181 

A  supposed  neutralization  of  tetanus  toxin  by  neurin  or  betain,  Adsersen 182 

"Tick  paralysis"  following  bites  of  Dci^macentor  venustus,  Hadwen 182 

Experimental  ''tick  paralysis "  in  the  dog,  Hadwen  and  Nuttall 182 

The  chemistry  of  tuberculin,  Lockemann 182 

The  chemistry  of  the  tubercle  bacillus. — A  preliminary  report,  Lowenstein 182 

The  inhalation  of  tuberculous  material  from  man  by  the  cat,  Chausse 183 

Cases  of  spontaneous  tuberculosis  caused  by  avian  tubercle  bacillus,  Cobbett..  183 

Subcutaneous  tuberculosis  in  bovines,  Perard  and  Ramon. 183 

Specific  action  of  serum  by  mixing  tuberculin  and  tuberculosis  semm,  Sata. . .  183 

Passive  transference  of  tuberculin  sensitiveness  by  tuberculosis  serum,  Sata. . .  183 

Specific  action  of  tuberculosis  serum  with  anaphyla toxin  tests,  Sata 183 

The  urochi-omogen  reaction  as  an  indicator  for  tuberculin  treatment,  Weisz 184 

The  precipitation  method  for  diagnosing  contagious  abortion,  Szymanowski. . .  184 

Infectious  abortion  in  cattle,  and  its  control  by  vaccination,  Schreiber 184 

Methylene  blue,  a  remedy  for  infectious  abortion,  Rich 184 

Generalized  mycosis  in  the  bovine,  Langrand 185 

The  keeping  quality  of  antiHog  cholera  serum,  Barok 185 

A  disease  (salmonellosis  porcina)  in  pigs,  Lignieres 185 

An  enzootic  among  young  pigs  caused  by  iStreptococcus  pyogenes,  Rievel 185 

Injury  to  fetlock  with  purulent  infection — autotherapy,  MacDonald 185 

Fistulous  withers,  and  synovitis  of  coronary  joint — autotherapy,  Mackeller 185 

Virus  carriers  of  influenza  of  the  horse,  Bergman 185 

Etiolog>^  and  therapy  of  typhoid  fever  or  influenza  in  the  horse,  Bemelmans.  .  186 

Influenza  among  remounts  and  its  treatment  with  salvarsan,  Jager. 186 

A  note  upon  strangles  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  Boynton 186 

Protective  substance  of  fowl  cholera  immune  serum,  Weil 186 

The  rapid  cure  of  polyneuritis  gallinarum,  Wellman  et  al 187 

RURAL  ENGINEERING. 

Irrigation  branch 187 

Irrigation  of  Santa  Cruz  Valley,  Hinderlider 187 

Pressure  pipes  for  conveyance  of  water  and  for  inverted  siphons,  Etcheverry. .  187 

The  economics  of  pipe  line  diameters 188 

Light-iron  in-igation  flume 188 

Heavy  oil  as  fuel  for  internal  combustion  engines,  Allen 188 

Naphthalin  for  gas  engines 189 

The  naphthalin  motor,  Haenssgen 190 

Connecting  electric  motors  for  direct  drive,  Mills 190 

Installation  and  care  of  storage  batteries,  Nichols 190 

The  Winnipeg  tractor  trials,  Ellis 190 

Mechanical  cultivation  in  Germany,  Bornemann  and  Dondth 19 1 

Various  devices  for  drying  the  autumn  forage  harvest,  Rahm 191 

RURAL   ECONOMICS. 

Cooperation  and  nationality,  Russell 191 

The  legal  status  of  farmers'  cooperative  associations 191 

Agrarian  reforms  and  the  evolution  of  the  rural  classes  in  Russia,  Chasles 192 


VIII  COXTENTS. 

Page. 

United  effort  for  farm  betterment  and  rural  progress 192 

Agricultural  credit  banks  of  the  world 192 

Cooperative  credit  associations  in  Canada,  Doberty 192 

The  work  of  the  special  agi'icultural  credit  institutes  in  1912 192 

Government  valuation  of  land 193 

Studies  of  primary  cotton  market  conditions  in  Oklahoma,  Sherman  et  al 193 

Example  of  successful  farm  management  in  New  York,  Burritt  and  Barron 193 

WTiat  I  know  about  farming,  Grinneii 193 

AGRICULTURAL   EDUCATION. 

Agiicultm'al  and  forestiy  instruction  in  Italy,  Kastner 194 

[Agi'icultural  and  forestry  instruction  in  Austria  and  Italy] 191 

Anniversary  of  the  Imperial  Eoyal  High  School  of  Agi-iculture  of  Vienna 194 

Report  of  the  department  of  agriculture  of  Norway,  1912 194 

World's  dairy  schools,  trans,  by  Monrad 194 

Practical  School  of  Aviculture 194 

Vocational  education.  Small 195 

Importance,  extent,  and  execution  of  student  practice  at  agricultural  schools.  195 

Efforts  to  reform  the  system  of  gardening  instruction,  Schechner 195 

Uniformity  in  instruction  in  the  lower  agricultural  schools,  Jachimowicz 195 

Farmers'  institutes  in  Kansas,  Johnson 195 

A  catechism  of  agiiculture,  Atkeson 195 

A  course  in  agiiculture  for  the  high  schools  of  Michigan,  French 196 

Principles  of  agiiculture  tlii'ough  the  school  and  home  garden,  Stebbins 196 

Practicums  for  pupils  in  chemical  laboratory  of  agricultural  schools,  Kwisda.. .  196 

A  child's  plaything  as  an  expedient  in  forestry  instruction 196 

The  story  of  our  trees,  Gregson 196 

Common  trees:  How  to  know  them  by  their  leaves,  Hilly er 196 

The  planting  of  home  gi-ounds,  Davis 196 

Wisconsin  Arbor  and  Bird  Day  annual,  1913 196 

Illinois  Arbor  and  Bird  days,  Blair 196 

Ai-bor  Day  progiam,  April  25,  1913 197 

Farm  arithmetic,  Burkett  and  Swartzel 197 

List  of  references  on  rural  life  and  culture ; 197 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Twenty-fifth  Annual  Report  of  Colorado  Station,  1912 197 

Twenty-fifth  Annual  Report  of  Massachusetts  Station,  1912 197 

Monthly  bulletin  of  the  WesteiTi  Washington  Substation,  September,  1913 197 

Organization  of  the  Department  of  Agiiculture,  1913 197 

Organization  and  conduct  of  a  market  service  in  the  Department  of  Agriculture.  197 

List  of  publications  of  the  Department  of  interest  to  farm  women 197 


LIST  OF  EXPERIMENT   STATION  AND  DEPART- 
MENT PUBLICATIONS  REVIEWED. 


Stations  in  the  United  States. 

Colorado  Station:  Page. 

Twenty-fifth  An.  Rpt.  1912 ...       197 
Indiana  Station: 

Bui.  169,  Aug.,  1913 1G9 

Kansas  Station : 

Bui.  1S8,  July,  1913 157 

Bui.  189,  July,  1913 155 

Maine  Station: 

Bui.  216,  Sept.,  1913 175 

Massachusetts  Station: 

Twenty-fifth  An.    Rpt.   1912, 

pt.  1 125, 

128, 131, 142, 147, 150, 151, 
152,  154, 160, 176,  178, 197 
Twenty-fifth   An.    Rpt.    1912, 

pt.  2 127, 

138, 139, 140, 141, 146, 148, 
151, 153, 156, 175, 197 
Mississippi  Station: 

Bui.  162,  Sept.,  1913 175 

Nevada  Station: 

Bui.  80,  Nov.,  1913 165 

New  Jersev  Stations: 

Circ.27 139 

Circ.  28 138 

New  York  Cornell  Station: 

Mem.  2,  Aug.,  1913 128 

Oregon  Station: 

Research  Bui.  2,  July,  1913. . .       152 
Porto  Rico  Sugar  Producers'  Sta- 
tion: 

Circ.   3  (English  Ed.),   Oct., 

1913 150 

Utah  Station: 

Bui.  127,  Aug.,  1913 177 

Vermont  Station: 

Bui.  174,  June,  1913 184 

Washington  Station: 

West.  Wash.  Sta.  Mo.  Bui.,  vol. 

1,  No.  1,  Sept.,  1913 197 

Wisconsin  Station: 

Bui.  232,  Aug.,  1913 173 

Bui.  233,  Sept.,  1913 141 

U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Bui.  9.  An  Economic  Study  of 
Acacias,  C.  H.  Shinn 146 

Bui.  25.  The  Shrinkage  in  Weight 
of  Beef  Cattle  in  Transit,  W.  F. 
Ward  and  J.  E.  Downing 171 

Bui.  26.  American  Medicinal 
Flowers,  Fruita,  and  Seeds, 
Alice  Henkel 145 


U.  S.  Deparlnunt  of  Agriculture — Contd. 

Page. 

Bui.  27.  Bouillon  Cubes:  Their 
Contents  and  Food  Value  Com- 
pared with  Meat  Extracts  and 
Homemade  Preparations  of 
Meat,  F.  C.  Cook 102 

Bui.  28.  Experiments  in  Bulb 
Growing  at  the  United  States 
Bulb  Garden  at  Bellingham,  P. 
H.  Dorsett 145 

Bui.  29.  Crew  Work,  Costs,  and 
Returns  in  Commercial  Orchard- 
ing in  West  Virginia,  J.  H.  Ar- 
nold        144 

Bui.  30.  Cereal  Investigations  at  the 

Nephi  Substation,  P.  V.  Cardon.       135 

Bui.  32.  An  Example  of  Success- 
ful Farm  Management  in  South- 
em  New  York,  M.  C.  Burritt  and 
J.H.Barron 193 

Bui.  36.  Studies  of  Primary  Cot- 
ton Market  Conditions  in  Okla- 
homa, W.  A.  Sherman  et  al.  . .  .       193 

Bui.  37.  Nitrogenous  Fertilizers 
Obtainable  in  the  United  States, 
J.  W.  Turrentine 126 

Bui.  38.  Seed  Selection  of  Egj-p- 
tian  Cotton,  T.  H.  Kearney. 138 

Bui.  44.  The  Blights  of  Coniferous 

Nursery  Stock,  C.  Hartley 151 

Bui.  45.  Experiments  in  the  Use 
of  Sheep  in  the  Eradication  of 
the  Rocky  Mountain  Spotted 
Fever  Tick,  H.  P.  Wood 162 

Bui.  47.  Lessons  for  American  Po- 
tato Growers  from  German  Expe- 
riences, W.  A.  Orton 139 

Farmers'  Bui.  561.  Bean  Growing 
in  Eastern  Washington  and  Ore- 
gon, and  Northern  Idaho,  L.  W. 
Fluharty 138 

Organization  and  Conduct  of  a 
Market  Ser^dce  in  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture,  discussed  at 
a  conference  held  at  the  Depart- 
ment on  April  29,  1913 197 

Organization  of  the  Department  of 
Agi-iculture,  1913 197 

List  of  Free  and  Available  Publi- 
cations of  the  U.  S.  Department 
of  Agriculture  of  Interest  to 
Farm  Women 197 

Bureau  of  Entomology: 
Bui.  126.  The    Abutilon    Moth, 
F.  H.  Chittenden 157 

IX 


ILLUSTRATION. 

Page. 
Fio.  1.  Diagram  to  represent  the  number  of  broods  of  Ilessian  fly  in  Kansas  in 
1908,  the  period  of  their  appearance,  and  the  sources  fi'om  which 
they  came 158 


EXPERIMENT  STATION  RECORD. 

Vol.  XXX.  February,  1914.  No.  2. 


There  is  an  impression  that  the  progress  in  experimental  work 
on  the  feeding  of  farm  animals  is  not  all  that  might  be  expected  or 
is  desirable,  considering  the  importance  of  the  subject  and  the  promi- 
nence it  has  held  in  the  past.  This  feeling  was  voiced  in  the  address 
of  a  former  president  of  the  American  Society  of  Animal  Nutrition, 
who  expressed  the  belief  that  "nutrition  investigations  are  falling 
behind  other  branches  of  agricultural  science  '' — that  there  had  not 
been  a  comparable  scientific  activity  in  comparison  with  other  de- 
partments in  the  field  of  agriculture.  Other  speakers  before  that 
society  have  recently  expressed  a  similar  view ;  and  sucli  a  conclusion 
would  seem  to  be  a  fair  deduction  from  the  output  in  the  form  of 
publications. 

This  impression  applies  not  only  to  the  amount  of  fundamental 
investigation  in  animal  nutrition,  but  to  the  character  and  progiTSS 
of  the  ordinary  experimental  work.  Not  that  there  has  not  been  an 
increase  in  the  amount  of  advanced  work,  and  an  improvement  in 
many  of  the  common  feeding  experiments,  but  that  relatively  the 
improvement  has  been  small.  With  the  progress  of  experiment  sta- 
t  ion  work  and  the  larger  emphasis  on  investigation,  it  seemed  reason- 
able to  expect  that  more  institutions  should  feel  the  need  of  depart- 
ing from  the  conventional  range  of  feeding  experiments  and  more 
men  representing  animal  husbandry  at  the  stations  should  feel 
impelled  to  prepare  for  advanced  and  productive  inquiry. 

With  some  notable  exceptions,  the  work  in  animal  husbandry  is 
to  a  considerable  extent  at  a  standstill.  The  easier  things  have  been 
done.  The  more  difficult  and  constructive  stage  has  been  reached, 
but  there  has  not  been  a  very  large  rising  to  the  emergency.  It  is 
only  rarely  that  a  feeding  project  of  xVdams  fund  grade  is  sub- 
mitted nowadays,  but  the  experiments  of  conventional  type  go  on 
apparently  without  end  and,  it  is  feared,  without  marking  much 
permanent*  advance. 

Quite  a  proportion  of  the  feeding  experiments  still  deal  only  with 
the  economic  and  commercial  phases  of  the  subject,  or  with  com- 
parative values  and  effects;  and  as  economic  conditions  are  con- 
stantly changing  and  vary  in  different  localities,  the  results  lack 

101 


102  EXPERIMENT  STATION   RECOKD. 

permanent  or  widely  applicable  value.  Hence  it  is  that  the  neces- 
sity is  felt  for  going  over  much  the  same  ground  at  frequent  intervals 
and  in  different  localities.  And  while  this  is  not  without  value  to 
the  farmer  it  often  represents  an  unnecessary  waste  of  effort,  and 
stands  in  the  way  of  what  might  mark  more  real  progress.  Essen- 
tially the  same  kind  of  experiments  are  often  repeated  by  stations  in 
the  same  general  locality,  and  with  full  knowledge  of  such  repeti- 
tion, as  was  the  case  a  few  years  ago  when  silage  was  being  tested 
for  beef  production.  The  result  in  such  cases  becomes  largely  a  local 
demonstration  rather  than  the  acquisition  of  new  information.  In 
fact,  the  statement  has  often  been  made  that  the  work'  was  done  to 
convince  the  farmers  of  the  locality  of  the  truthfulness  or  applica- 
tion of  work  in  other  States,  the  thought  being  that  they  had  a 
different  feeling  if  the  experiments  were  made  under  their  conditions. 

There  is  undoubtedly  much  merit  in  the  conventional  feeding  ex- 
periments and  in  experiments  which  interpret  the  best  experience  of 
the  locality.  But  such  experiments  should  profit  by  what  has  gone 
before,  and  should  show  improvement  in  method  and  in  the  extent 
to  which  the  results  contribute  to  a  more  complete  understanding 
of  the  general  subject.  Manifestly  the  experimental  results  must 
be  secured  under  such  conditions  as  to  insure  accuracy  and  reliability 
within  reasonable  limits,  and  to  make  possible  the  comparison  of 
the  results  with  other  experiments.  At  present  there  is  the  widest 
variation  in  experiments  of  this  class.  Between  the  feeding  trial 
that  deals  only  with  the  gross  effect  as  measured  by  lots,  and  the 
more  refined  experiment  which  carefully  guards  and  controls  the 
conditions  and  results  as  applied  to  individual  animals,  and  seeks 
the  reason  in  the  changes  which  actually  take  place,  there  is  a  wide 
gap.  One  is  the  rough  comparison  such  as  a  feeder  might  make,  if 
he  had  the  time,  and  the  other  represents  an  attempt  to  trace  the  true 
relation  between  cause  and  effect. 

It  would  seem  that  we  should  have  largely  passed  the  stage  of  the 
first  type  mentioned,  but  the  publications  and  records  of  work  in 
progress  do  not  show  this  to  be  the  case.  Such  trials,  with  all  their 
crudeness,  meet  a  popular  demand  and  this  demand  is  being  acceded 
to  despite  the  development  of  demonstration  and  extension  work. 
Unfortunately  there  are  some  indications  that  the  latter  is  already 
constituting  a  new  demand  for  superficial  vv^ork.  This  more  direct 
teaching  of  the  farmers  brings  out  local  problems  in  increasing  num- 
bers, and  makes  an  urgent  call  for  very  practical  and  didactic  direc- 
tions which  have  behind  them  the  force  of  local  experimental  trials. 

But  the  experiment  station  can  not  afford  to  look  at  the  subject 
of  feeding  from  the  superficial  and  local  standpoint,  and  it  is  hardly 
its  function  to  make  experiments  to  demonstrate  locally  what  is  al- 
ready known.     Extension  work  will  be  an  actual  disadvantage  to 


EDITOBIAL.  103 

experimentation  if  this  requirement  is  pressed  beyond  reasonable 
bounds,  and  tlie  extension  worker  must  realize  the  need  of  thorough- 
going work. 

A  thorough  understanding  and  s^^mpathctic  relation  between  the 
station  men  and  the  extension  men  is  highly  desirable.  The  latter 
coming  in  more  direct  contact  with  the  farmers  are  in  position  to 
explain  the  station's  work  and  to  justify  its  position.  They  are  also 
in  position  to  call  to  the  station's  attention,  in  a  discriminating  way, 
larger  questions  in  animal  feeding  which  need  study.  But  the  ex- 
tension men  must  be  reasonable  in  their  expectations  of  the  stations, 
and  they  must  also  realize  that  after  all  the  chief  object  of  extension 
teaching  is  to  enlighten  the  farmer  and  to  help  him  in  making  himself 
more  resourcefid.  Rules  for  farming  to  be  followed  blindly  and  im- 
plicitly can  rarely  be  developed,  and  would  be  a  serious  detriment 
to  the  men  engaged  in  the  industry  if  they  could  be  supplied ;  while 
carefully  made  and  interpreted  experiments  can  develop  facts  that 
will  be  of  wide  application,  which  may  be  tested  out  and  adapted  to 
the  region.  But  the  demonstration  of  such  facts  for  the  information 
or  convincing  of  the  farmers  is  a  matter  for  the  extension  department. 
Such  demonstrations  will  frequently  embody  some  experimental  fea- 
tures, since  it  is  rarely  possible  to  adapt  locally  the  teachings  of  the 
stations  w^ithout  some  special  modifications  which  arise  from  local 
conditions.  This  is  invariably  the  case  in  everyday  life.  Matters  of 
convenience,  expediency,  personal  preference,  etc.,  modify  human 
conduct.  Similar  considerations  will  inevitably  modify  the  local 
practice  in  agriculture  which  the  extension  department  will  succeed 
in  implanting. 

The  case  of  the  usual  feeding  experiment  is  clearl}'^  and  fairly  set 
forth  in  the  recent  bulletin  of  Mitchell  and  Grindley  of  tiie  Illinois 
Station.  In  reference  to  experiments  comparing  the  fattening  effect 
of  systems  of  treatment,  etc.,  the  authors  say :  "  Our  knowledge  of 
the  principles  of  animal  nutrition  is  too  fragmentary  to  enable  us  to 
foretell  with  certaint}^,  except  wdien  greatly  dissimilar,  which  of 
two  rations  for  instance  will  produce  the  more  rapid  or  the  more 
economical  gains  in  weight  for  a  particular  kind  of  farm  animal,  no 
matter  how  clearly  defined  or  completely  analyzed  the  results  may  Ije. 
Actual  experiment  with  those  particular  rations  is  generally  essen- 
tial to  a  satisfactory  solution  of  the  problem.  However,  the  informa- 
tion thus  obtained  has  at  best  a  very  limited  application  to  other 
rations  or  other  conditions,  so  that  such  feeding  experiments  ordi- 
narily contribute  little  of  fundamental  importance  to  the  science  of 
animal  nutrition." 

Although  the  plan  of  such  feeding  experiments  is  simple,  the  re- 
sults are  often  ambiguous  and  require  much  care  in  their  interpreta- 


104  EXPERIMENT   STATIOISr   RECORD. 

tion.  This  is  common  to  all  experiments  concerned  with  the  func- 
tional activity  of  living  organisms,  and  is  due  to  the  uncertainty  of 
their  following  exact  rules  of  uniformity,  i.  e.,  to  what  we  designate 
as  individuality. 

Mitchell  and  Grindley  have  presented  a  most  interesting  and  sug- 
gestive study  on  this  element  of  uncertainty  in  the  interpretation  of 
feeding  experiments.  It  is  one  of  the  most  effective  critical  studies 
of  any  branch  of  our  station  work,  and  should  be  very  helpful  in 
directing  attention  to  the  improvement  of  experiments  of  this  class 
and  their  interpretation.  The  bulletin  illustrates  not  only  the  dan- 
ger to  be  guarded  against  from  a  scientific  standpoint,  but  to  an 
even  greater  extent  when  deductions  are  to  be  made  for  the  guidance 
of  the  farmer,  because  the  latter  often  can  not  impose  the  precise 
experimental  conditions  required. 

Manifestly  experiments  of  this  class  are  crude  and  hence  lacking 
in  absolute  accuracy.  This  should  be  recognized  to  guard  against 
overconfidence  and  too  broad  generalizations;  and  at  the  same  time 
the  effort  should  be  put  forth  to  improve  the  methods  both  in  plan- 
ning and  execution.  As  a  first  step  we  need  to  know  for  our  own 
information  the  extent  of  the  experimental  error  and  its  source. 
Until  we  do  know  this  the  necessity  of  improvement  is  not  apparent 
and  its  means  is  uncertain.  Kefinement  of  certain  stages  of  the 
feeding  may  be  more  than  counterbalanced  b}^  the  inherent  errors 
due  to  poor  selection  of  animals  or  some  other  defect.  The  extent 
of  the  experimental  error  is  an  index  to  the  degree  to  which  deduc- 
tions can  be  safely  drawn,  and  will  indicate  caution  in  making  broad 
generalizations  for  the  benefit  of  the  practical  feeder. 

The  extensive  review  of  experiment  station  literature  in  the  United 
States  made  by  Mitchell  and  Grindley  develops  the  nature  and  the 
source  of  the  experimental  error  and  points  to  methods  of  reducing 
it.  They  find  an  average  coefficient  of  variation  in  gain  of  about 
twenty-one  per  cent  for  similarly  treated  lots  of  sheep  and  of  about 
seventeen  per  cent  for  steers  and  swine.  This  points  to  the  danger 
of  small  lots  of  animals  and  of  imeven  selection  of  individuals.  As 
the  authors  say,  "  increasing  the  size  of  lots  is  no  remedy  for  a  poor 
selection  of  experimental  animals,"  and  "can  not  eliminate  indi- 
viduality by  merely  reducing  its  effect  on  the  average."'  Further- 
more, "  the  necessity  of  selecting  homogeneous  lots  of  animals  is  not 
appreciably  diminished  by  the  balancing  of  heterogeneous  lots.-' 

The  critical  analysis  represented  by  this  bulletin  points  out  the 
inherent  weakness  of  such  experiments,  as  commonly  made,  and  the 
need  of  more  scientific  and  dependable  methods  in  our  present  feed- 
ing trials.  They  are  not  all  that  they  should  be  or  might  be  made, 
and  thev  are  not  all  that  we  have  assumed  them  to  be.     Whether 


EDITORIAL.  105 

or  not  the  more  abstract  research  in  nutrition  is  entered  upon,  experi- 
ments for  the  benefit  of  practical  feeding  should  carry  all  the  con- 
viction which  accuracy  of  plan  and  method  and  judgment  in  inter- 
pretation can  make  possible. 

Some  improvement  is  to  be  noted  in  the  feeding  experiments 
of  recent  years,  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  an  increasing  pro- 
portion of  such  experiments  are  made  under  more  exact  and  better- 
known  conditions  than  formerly — ^whether  the  individual  records  are 
taken,  the  feed  subjected' to  analysis,  the  limits  of  experimental  error 
considered,  and  other  refinements  observed.  Indeed,  there  seems  in  a 
considerable  number  of  cases  to  be  less  regard  for  these  factors  than 
formerly. 

Furthermore,  there  does  not  appear  to  be  a  very  critical  attitude 
toward  these  feeding  experiments  by  many  of  the  men  who  make 
and  apply  them — the  animal  husbandmen  and  animal  feeders.  The 
experiments  are  rarel}^  weighed  in  the  critical,  discriminating  man- 
ner that  characterizes  scientific  work  in  general  in  the  attempt  to 
measure  their  true  value  and  the  advance  which  they  mark.  The 
expectations  are  less  exacting,  and  the  standard  of  requirements 
seems  to  change  but  little  as  time  goes  on.  Apparently  the  need  of 
a  broader  special  preparation  along  scientific  lines  for  experimental 
work  in  animal  husbandry  is  not  very  generally  felt,  while  the  same 
importance  as  formerly  is  attached  to  the  practical  aspects  of  the 
subject,  sometimes  to  the  overshadowing  of  others.  In  other  words, 
it  would  appear  that  the  standards  and  ideals,  and  to  some  extent  the 
preparation,  for  work  in  animal  husbandry  have  not  developed  to 
the  extent  that  they  have  in  some  other  branches  of  agriculture,  and 
that  the  setting  off  of  the  subject  as  a  separate  division  and  assign- 
ment of  the  feeding  studies  to  it  has  not  been  followed  b}^  the  gen- 
eral strengthening  of  the  experimental  work  that  is  clearly  desirable. 

This  is  not  said  in  any  spirit  of  harsh  criticism  of  the  animal 
husbandman,  or  lack  of  appreciation  of  the  requirements  placed  upon 
him.  It  is  made  rather  as  a  comment  on  the  condition  and  attitude 
which  is  believed  to  impede  the  progress  in  animal  feeding,  and  is 
directed  at  the  animal  husbandman  because  he  now  has  such  an  impor- 
tant relation  to  this  progress.  Not  that  he  will  necessarily  be  the  one 
himself  to  conduct  the  research  in  a  larger  degree,  but  that  as  rep- 
resenting the  head  of  animal  husbandry  work  he  must  furnish  much 
of  the  spirit  and  the  encouragement  and  the  defense  for  advanced 
study,  and  that  his  ideals  will  inevitably  influence  the  character  of 
the  activities.  If  his  attitude  is  not  progressive  and  appreciative 
of  work  and  methods  which  aim  beyond  economic  considerations,  such 
work  will  rarely  flourish  in  his  institution. 

As  a  leader  of  sentiment  in  his  field  his  influence  as  well  as  his 
actual  direction  of  work  is  very  broad.     To  him  falls  the  application 


106  EXPEKIMEXT  STATIOX    RECORD. 

and  adaptation  of  the  findings  of  experimental  study  and  the  pres- 
entation of  them  to  the  student  and  to  the  farmer.  And  on  him 
rests  in  large  degree  the  furnishing  of  the  initiative. 

'\Miether  research  flourishes  or  decays  depends  ultimately  on  the 
ideals  and  conceptions  of  the  class  it  seeks  to  serve.  If  there  is  not 
a  desire  for  it  and  an  appreciation  and  belief  in  it  which  constitute 
a  sustaining  influence,  it  can  not  rise  above  the  mediocre. 

It  is  unreasonable  to  expect  that  the  animal  husbandman,  more 
than  the  agronomist,  will  be  alike  investigator,  teacher,  and  exten- 
sion Avorker  at  the  same  time,  but  if  he  is  to  be  assigned  to  the  experi- 
ment station  force  he  should  be  capable  of  taking  an  active  and 
intelligent  part  in  investigation.  If  he  is  to  take  a  vital  part,  and 
not  merely  attend  to  the  mechanical  operations  of  feeding  and  han- 
dling the  animals,  it  is  not  sufficient  that  his  training  should  make 
him  a  good  j^^dge  of  stock  and  a  successful  feeder  and  breeder,  but  he 
must  have  an  insight  into  the  method  and  the  spirit  of  inquiry,  and 
familiarity  with  the  progress  of  investigation  in  his  field  along  the 
theoretical  as  well  as  the  applied  side.  These  things  will  require 
training  in  science  beyond  that  given  in  the  agricultural  course. 
They  mean  special  preparation  for  investigation  and  for  its  direc- 
tion. Lack  of  training  in  animal  physiology  and  other  sciences 
which  will  open  the  way  for  broader  inquiries  will  constitute  a  seri- 
ous handicap  to  the  animal  husbandman  as  a  station  worker  and 
necessarily  impose  limitations. 

In  the  system  of  organization  which  is  becoming  common  in  our 
institutions,  the  animal  husbandman  may  be  called  upon  to  outline 
and  direct  investigations  within  his  department  that  involve  the  vari- 
ous branches  of  science  concerned.  Unless  he  is  able  to  see  the  needs 
of  such  investigation,  to  suggest  problems  and  points  of  attack  and 
to  make  himself  a  part  of  the  investigation,  he  will  have  only  a 
passive  relation  to  it  and  can  hardly  be  expected  to  take  a  vital  in- 
terest in  it. 

A  well  known  investigator  has  said :  '^  That  researches  directed  to 
immediately  practical  results  frequently  fail  to  yield  all  that  may 
be  expected  of  them  is  largely  due  to  the  imperfections  of  the  sci- 
entific work  of  the  past,  and  so  makes  evident  the  importance  of 
undertaking  in  the  present  purely  scientific  studies  which  will  lead 
to  more  definite  and  valuable  results  when  future  experiments  are 
directed  to  the  solution  of  practical  problems." 

This  is  equivalent  to  saying  that  the  practical  efficiency  of  feeding 
trials  depends  on  knowledge  of  the  principles  and  scientific  facts 
underlying  nutrition.  If  our  understanding  of  the  principles  of 
physiology  and  chemistry  is  deficient,  it  is  impossible  to  account  for 
or  explain  results  secured  in  practical  experiments,  or  to  interpret 


EDITORIAL.  107 

them  intelligently — an  experience  which  has  not  been  unusual  in  the 
past.  If,  for  example,  in  a  practical  feeding  trial  including  equal 
amounts  of  protein  materials  from  different  sources  different  results 
are  secured  from  those  expected,  we  are  thrown  into  confusion  be- 
cause having  assumed  all  proteins  to  be  alike  we  have  no  explanation 
to  offer.  The  investigation  of  these  bodies  has  made  the  experi- 
mental feeder  more  resourceful  in  planning  and  interpreting  his 
work. 

Dr.  Armsby  has  well  said :  "  If  we  believe  at  all  in  the  utility  of 
applied  science,  surely  we  must  believe  that  a  study  of  the  intricate 
workings  of  the  animal  machine  will  yield  results  of  practical  value, 
even  though  we  can  not  foresee  in  just  what  direction." 

Animal  feeding  is  by  no  means  a  matter  of  applied  mathematics, 
as  was  long  ago  said,  but  there  are  certain  physiological  principles 
and  laws  which  the  animal  body  follows  in  the  handling  and  utiliza- 
tion of  food,  and  the  Imowledge  of  these  must  constitute  the  basis 
not  only  for  the  theory  but  for  the  right  practice  of  feeding.  It  is 
reasonable  to  suppose  that  the  necessity  for  investigation  in  this  line 
should  have  impressed  itself,  and  that  there  should  have  been  a 
steady  development  in  that  direction,  along  with  the  experiments  of 
more  direct  application. 

It  is  clear,  of  course,  that  such  questions  as  the  maintenance  re- 
quirements of  animals,  the  interesting  question  of  the  influence  of 
feed  supply  on  growth,  the  protein  requirements  of  farm  animals, 
the  functions  of  protein  in  the  mechanism  of  the  liberation  of  energy 
for  work,  can  never  be  solved  by  the  methods  of  the  common  feeding 
experiment.  They  call  for  all  the  resources  of  physiological  investi- 
gation. They  tax  man's  ability  and  ingenuity  and  perception  to  the 
utmost.  The  field  offers  all  the  inspiration  of  opportunity  for  the 
very  best  research  ability.  Some  of  these  subjects  and  such  questions 
as  the  constitution  and  nutritive  value  of  proteins,  the  function  and 
transformation  of  nucleo-proteins,  and  the  metabolism  of  these  and 
other  bodies  are  being  studied  by  physiologists  and  physiological 
chemists  and  not  by  the  animal  husbandmen.  This  is  natural,  and  is 
immaterial  as  long  as  the  latter  take  heed  of  the  results  of  such  work 
and  apply  them  in  their  experiments  and  their  teachings.  It  is  not 
alone  benevolent  tolerance  that  is  desired  for  such  research,  but  in- 
telligent and  active  support  for  it  and  a  measure  of  participation  in 
it  b}^  those  who  stand  for  animal  husbandry. 

The  nature  of  the  subjects  which  need  to  be  studied  and  taken 
account  of  in  their  bearing  on  animal  nutrition,  and  the  trend  of 
investigation  under  way,  have  been  effectively  set  forth  at  several 
sessions  of  the  Graduate  School  in  a  way  to  open  up  the  broader 
relations  of  the  subject,  and  also  in  the  proceedings  of  the  American 
Society  of  Animal  Nutrition.  Such  study  does  not  always  require  a 
28054°— 14 2 


108  EXPEKIMENT   STATION   EECOED. 

respiration  calorimeter,  although  it  calls  for  adequate  laboratory 
equipment,  and  it  is  not  necessarily  beyond  the  means  of  an  institu- 
tion, although  ordinarily  expensive.  Studies  that  would  doubtless 
cost  less  than  the  customary  feeding  trials  might  well  yield  far 
more  to  enrich  the  body  of  established  fact  and  make  the  next  step 
possible.  After  all  it  is  largely  a  matter  of  attitude  and  spirit,  for 
with  these  the  means  will  follow. 

A  by-product  of  nearly  every  serious  investigation  in  feeding  is  a 
series  of  problems  which  are  suggested  as  needing  investigation. 
This  is  the  experience  of  every  keen  investigator.  He  encounters 
questions  which  he  needs  light  upon,  and  when  he  undertakes  to 
search  them  out  in  the  literature  he  finds  they  have  not  been  solved — 
perhaps  worked  on  fragmentarily  by  several  men  and  then  left  in 
the  doubtful  stage,  with  an  indeterminate  degree  of  finality. 

Many  of  the  large  questions  in  animal  nutrition  call  for  coopera- 
tion which  will  bring  different  branches  of  science  to  bear  upon  them. 
As  President  Waters  has  well  said :  "  The  animal  husbandman  must 
be  content  to  share  the  plan,  the  work,  and  the  credit  with  other  de- 
partments of  the  station.  The  besetting  sin  of  our  present  organiza 
tion  of  the  experiment  station  and  the  cause  of  much  of  our  super- 
ficial work  is  the  unwillingness  or  incapacity  of  our  men  to  combine 
themselves  into  a  team  and  attack  a  problem  as  an  institution  rather 
than  as  an  individual  or  as  one  small  department  of  the  institution. 
.  .  .  We  constantly  are  seeking  the  lines  of  cleavage  between  de- 
partments of  the  station  when  we  should  be  seeking  the  means  of 
knitting  them  together  into  one  whole.  The  latter  is  the  modern  prac- 
tice of  well-organized  team  work,  the  former  ancient  and  inefiicient 
individualism."  The  animal  husbandry  department  furnishes  the 
nucleus,  and  many  will  furnish  the  problems,  around  which  such 
effective  cooperation  may  be  organized. 

Cooperation  among  institutions  working  along  a  common  line 
offers  many  opportunities  for  helpfulness.  A  plan  for  such  coop- 
eration was  outlined  by  the  Committee  on  Experiments  of  the 
American  Society  of  Animal  Nutrition  several  years  ago,  to  include 
an  investigation  upon  the  optimum  protein  supply  of  fattening  cattle 
and  the  digestibility  of  feeding  stuffs  with  pigs.  Thus  far,  aside 
from  a  passing  interest  of  the  members  of  the  society,  the  results 
have  been  largely  negative  and  the  proposal  has  not  met  with  the 
response  that  was  hoped  for.  However,  the  committee  reported  at 
the  last  meeting  of  the  society  that  it  still  believed  the  plan  "  will  be 
of  considerable  service  to  experiment  station  workers  in  their 
attempts  to  solve  some  of  the  problems  of  animal  nutrition."  It 
deserves  to  be  tried.  The  accumulation  of  a  body  of  comparable 
data  secured  in  accordance  with  a  common  plan  and  purpose  would 
be  an  important  step  and  would  mean  far  niore  than  separate,  inde- 


EDITORIAL.  109 

pendent  experiments  which  embody  nothing  in  common  and  are 
incapable  of  comparison  or  combination. 

The  importance  of  the*  subject  of  animal  feeding  merits  the  verj^ 
best  eifort  which  the  experiment  stations  are  capable  of  commanding. 
The  conventional  experiments  have  served  a  very  useful  purpose  and 
will  continue  to  be  needed,  but  they  should  be  refined  to  give  ti 
greater  degree  of  accuracy  and  should  be  subjected  to  more  critical 
examination  in  their  planning  and  their  conduct.  But  beyond  this, 
one  of  the  ultimate  objects  of  work  in  this  field,  as  in  every  other, 
must  be  to  make  practice  more  intelligent  and  better  understood. 
This  calls  for  the  determination  of  the  reason  for  what  is  found 
in  experiment  and  observed  in  good  practice.  Without  this  the  the- 
ory of  feeding  can  not  be  developed  and  the  more  practical  experi- 
ments can  not  reach  their  highest  degree  of  reliability  or  usefulness. 

One  of  the  greatest  needs  is  more  men  of  training  who  can  see  the 
field  in  its  broader  aspects  and  develop  a  j)oint  of  attack.  Especially, 
there  should  be  na  question  of  the  encouragement  and  defense  of  the 
higher  types  of  work  by  the  men  in  'charge  of  animal  husbandly  in 
the  agricultural  colleges  and  experiment  stations. 


RECENT  WORK  IN  AGRICULTURAL  SCIENCE. 


AGRICULTURAL  CHEMISTRY— AGROTECHNY. 

In  reg-ard  to  the  constitution  of  albumin,  K.  Chodat  {Ahs.  in  Chcm.  Ztg., 
36  (1912),  No.  52,  p.  JiSl). — ^.1  special  reaction  is  described  which  is  supposed 
to  be  characteristic  of  the  a-aminocarboxylic  acids  of  the  fatty  series,  peptids, 
simple  or  complex  peptid  chains,  polj^peptids,  peptones,  albumoses,  and  soluble 
proteins.  The  method  is  as  follows :  A  purified  tyrosinase  is  allowed  to  act  upon 
a  phenol;  i.  e.,  p-creosol,  pyrocatechol,  etc.,  in  the  presence  of  equimolecular  or 
multiple  quantities  of  an  amino  acid,  a  peptid,  or  a  polypeptid.  The  reaction  is 
indicated  by  a  red  coloration  which  changes  to  a  violet  green  and  finally  to  a 
blue  having  marked  red  dichroisms,  and  is  very  sensitive. 

The  following  among  other  substances  were  studied:  Glycocoll,  d-  and 
1-alanin,  d-valin,  d-  and  1-leucin,  phenylglycin,  d-  and  1-tyrosin,  d-  and  1-phenyl- 
alanin,  arginin,  and  cystin.  Anthranilis  acid  does  not  react,  but  with  trypto- 
phan and  pyrrolidincarboxylic  acid  a  stronger  coloration  is  obtained.  Peptones 
and  albumoses  give  a  marl^ed  coloration  which  becomes  stronger  as  peptoniza- 
tion proceeds.  The  color  is  also  marked  in  the  case  of  albumins,  pure  globulins, 
nucleo-globulins,  and  other  proteins.  The  reaction  will  also  show  a  change 
in  the  condensation  or  alteration  in  the  composition  of  the  original  protein. 
As  the  reaction  is  specific  for  amino  acids,  it  determines  without  going  any 
further  the  presence  of  NH2-  and  COOII-groups. 

A  preliminary  note  on  the  coagulation  of  proteins  by  ultraviolet  light, 
W.  T.  BoviE  (Science,  n.  ser.,  37  (1913),  No.  9JfO,  pp.  2//,  25).— In  order  to  gain 
insight  into  the  action  of  ultraviolet  light  on  living  cells,  tests  were  conducted 
with  ordinary  egg  albumin,  crystallized  egg  albumin  prepared  according  to  the 
Hopkins  and  Pinkus  method,  egg  albumin  (Hopkins  and  Pinkus)  dialyzed 
against  tap  water,  and  ox  serum. 

In  all  instances  the  albumin  was  more  or  less  coagulated,  and  in  the  case  of 
the  egg  albumins  the  coagulum  produced  was  insoluble  in  alcohol,  hot  or  cold 
water,  and  dilute  acids,  but  soluble  in  dilute  alkalis.  In  these  respects  it  cor- 
responded to  the  coagulum  produced  by  heat  alone. 

New  Investigations  in  regard  to  our  knowledge  of  fats,  R.  Limprich  (Neue 
Vntcrsuchimgcn  zur  Kenntnis  der  Fette.  Inaug.  Diss.,  Univ.  Miinster,  1912, 
pp.  89,  figs.  9). — The  first  part  of  this  work  embraces  a  study  of  methods  for 
determining  the  presence  of  beef  or  mutton  tallow  in  lard.  It  describes  a  new 
method  for  this  purpose,  and  gives  the  results  of  a  study  of  the  Polenske  method 
and  its  theoretical  foundations. 

The  second  part  deals  with  heptadecylic  acid  and  triheptadecylene,  the  former 
having  been  previously  found  by  other  investigators  to  be  present  in  lard  in  the 
form  of  a  glycerid.  An  attempt  was  made  to  prepare  the  heptadecylic  acid  syn- 
thetically and  to  compare  it  with  the  compound  occurring  in  lard. 

The  third  part  of  the  dissertation  gives  the  results  of  some  feeding  experi- 
ments with  carp,  with  special  reference  to  the  influence  of  the  fat  given  in  the 
food  on  the  body  fat  of  the  animals. 
110 


AGRICULTURAL  CHEMISTRY — AGROTECHNY.  Ill 

Reducing'  power  of  sugars  (monosaccharids),  and  its  bearing  on  the  defi- 
nition of  these  substances,  N.  Schoorl  {Chcm.  Wcckhh,  9  {1912),  No.  35, 
pp.  706-711;  ahs.  in  Jour.  Chem.  Soc.  [London],  102  {1912),  No.  600,  I,  p.  750).— 
The  introduction  of  a  nonoxidized  carbon  atom  between  the  CO-  and  CH(OH)- 
pronps  in  a  compound  contninhig  the  group  .CO.CII(On).  diminishes  the  re- 
ducing power  materially  toward  weak  alkaline  copper  solutions.  Ttie  author 
maintains  that  the  term  "  sugar  "  should  include  all  substances  containing  the 
group  .CO.cn (OH).,  whether  tliey  are  polyhydric  alcohols  or  not. 

Studies  in  regard  to  plant  colloids. — I,  Swelling  of  the  starch  solution 
in  the  presence  of  crystalloids,  M.  Samec  {KoUoklchcm.  BriUcftc,  3  {1911), 
No.  3-4,  pp.  123-160,  figs.  7). — The  presence  of  a  crystalloid  seems  to  change 
the  swelling  of  starch  granules  in  lower  concentration  th:in  was  usually  sup- 
posed. This  is  apparently  due  to  the  anions,  and  the  cations  have  only  a  quan- 
titative influence  upon  the  action  exerted  by  the  anions.  The  influence  of  the 
inorganic  and  organic  ciystalloids,  glucose,  urea,  chloral  hydrate,  glycerin, 
etc.,  upon  the  swelling  process  of  starch  and  gelatin  with  few  exceptions  is 
identical. 

The  stimulation  of  swelling  for  the  ions  investigated  is  a  periodic  function 
of  the  atomic  weight  of  the  respective  element.  Classification  according  to  the 
nature  and  intensity  of  the  swelling  process  leads  to  the  figures  obtained  by 
Pnuli  and  Hofmeister.  The  swelling  induced  by  certain  salts  was  found  to  be 
reversed  with  an  increase  in  temperature.  Salts  yielding  Oil  on  cleavage  in 
medium  concentrations  seem  to  induce  swelling. 

Acids  do  not  show  as  great  a  sensitiveness  toward  starch  as  salts.  The 
same  conditions  for  swelling  hold  for  acids  as  for  salts,  and,  in  addition,  the 
condition  of  the  solution  (sohate)  is  modified  by  the  respective  acid.  Bases 
stimulate  the  swelling  in  highly  dilute  solutions,  and  in  the  lowest  concentra- 
tions alkali  hydroxids  show  the  greatest  influence  in  this  direction.  The  curve 
(swelling)  of  most  salts  points  to  the  formation  of  ion-adsorption  compounds 
with  starch,  while  the  swelling  produced  by  alkali  hydroxids  can  be  explained 
in  the  light  of  Pauli's  theory  of  ion  hydration.  The  influence  which  other 
crystalloids  exert  upon  starch  appears  also  to  be  due  to  lyotrop  activities. 

On  the  starch  of  glutinous  rice  and  its  hydrolysis  by  diastase,  Y.  Tanaka 
{Jour.  Indus,  and  Engln.  Chcm.,  If.  {1912),  No.  12,  p.  918). — This  presents 
corrections  of  an  article  previously  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  407). 

Investigations  in  regard  to  the  formation  of  enzyms. — VII,  About  the 
development  of  certain  yeasts  in  various  nutrient  solutions,  II.  Euler  and 
B.  Palm  {Hoppe-Scyler's  Ztschr.  Physiol  Chcm.,  SI  {1912),  No.  1-2,  pp.  59-70, 
figs.  6). — The  results  show  that  the  quantitative  multiplication  of  cells  of 
Saccharoinyccs  cCrcvisicc  (beer  yeast),  /Sf.  apieiilatus.  and  iS.  marxianus  in  a 
solution  of  an  unfermentable  disaccharid  and  fermentable  hexose  proceeds  in 
the  snme  manner.  Apparently  yeasts  contain  hydrolyziug  enzyms  for  certain 
disaccharids,  the  fermentation  of  which  can  not  be  determined  by  existing 
methods. 

The  nutrient  solution  in  addition  to  the  sugar  was  composed  of  0.25  gm.  of 
magnesium  sulphate,  5  gm.  of  orthomonopotassium  sulphate,  and  4.5  gm.  of 
asparagin  and  water  to  make  1  liter.  The  sugars  studied  were  saccharose, 
glucose,  galactose,  and  lactose. 

»Sf.  thcrmantitonum  was  also  tested  in  this  regard  but  with  negative  results. 

Formation  of  alkali  by  enzyms,  C.  Neuberg  {Ahs.  in  ZentN.  Physiol.,  26 
{1912),  No.  16,  pp.  715-717). —The  fermentation  of  the  potassium  salt  of  pyro- 
racemic  acid  with  yeast  or  yeast  juice,  prepared  by  von  Lebedew's  methods, 
resulted  in  the  formation  of  carbon  dioxid  acetaldehyde  and  potassium  car- 


112  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECORD. 

bonate.     The  same  fermentation  can  be  produeetl  with  the  potassium  salt  of 
oxalacetic  acid. 

The  biological  analysis  of  casein  antiserum,  A.  Klein  (Folia  Microbiol. 
[DelfO,  1  {1912),  No.  1-2,  pp.  101-162,  table  1;  abs.  in  Milchw.  Zentbh,  41 
{1912),  No.  23,  pp.  720,  721). — The  antiserum  used  in  these  investigations  was 
prepared  by  injecting  casein  solutions  into  rabbits.  It  was  invariably  found 
that  2  kinds  of  precipitins  were  produced,  which  had  the  following  distinguish- 
ing features: 

Calcium  casein  precipitin  acts  exclusively  in  the  presence  of  calcium  chlorld 
with  an  optimum  activity  at  a  concentration  of  5  parts  per  thousand.  Casein 
precipitation  is  the  most  complete  when  calcium  chlorid  is  absent,  and  the  pre- 
cipitation decreases  as  the  calcium  chlorid  increases.  Calcium  casein  precipitin 
shows  an  optimum  activity  with  2  mg.  of  casein,  and  casein  precipitin  with  0.1 
mg.  of  casein.  Both  of  the  precipitins  are  weakened  by  diluting  the  serum  with 
physiological  salt  solution,  or  by  adding  an  alkali,  but  casein  precipitin  is  the 
more  affected.  The  addition  of  water  to  fresh  antisera  produces  a  precipitate 
in  casein  sera,  but  not  in  calcium  casein  sera.  As  the  antisera  grow  older,  or 
are  heated  to  55°  C,  casein  precipitin  loses  some  of  its  precipitating  capacity ; 
no  such  effect  is  noted  with  calcium  casein  precipitin.  In  the  process  of  im- 
munizing, calcium  casein  precipitin  first  makes  its  appearance  in  the  sera.  The 
calcium  casein  precipitation  reaction  obtained  w'ith  the  casein  antisera  and 
lactosera  does  not  detect  more  than  ±1/30  mg.  of  casein.  Casein  precipitins  do 
not  detect  more  than  1/100  mg.  casein,  and  in  this  respect  resemble  glycerin- 
acetic  acid.  Casein  precipitin  also  inhibits  the  action  of  calcium  casein  anti- 
serum. 

Some  applications  of  lacto-  and  ovosera,  B.  Galli-Valekio  and  M.  Born  and 
{Ztschr.  Immumtdtsf.  u.  Expt.  Ther.,  I,  Orig.,  IJf  {1912),  No.  1,  pp.  32-1,1,  fig.  1; 
abs.  in  Gentbl.  Bakt.  [etc.^,  1.  Abt.,  Ref.,  55  {1912),  No.  8,  p.  233).— With  a 
lactoantiserum  it  was  possible  to  detect  casein,  particularly  in  feces  and  in 
fats.  Likewise  it  was  possible  with  a  fowl  antiserum  to  detect  eggs  in  various 
foodstuffs. 

A  contribution  to  our  methods  of  determining"  nitrogen  in  humus,  C.  B. 
I.iPMAN  and  H.  F.  Pressey  {Jour.  Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.,  5  {1913),  No.  2, 
pp.  143,  144)- — While  much  work  has  been  done  in  regard  to  methods  for 
determining  humus  in  soils,  very  little  appears  to  have  been  reported  with 
reference  to  the  determination  of  nitrogen  in  the  humus.  To  obtain  a  more 
uniform  and  reliable  method  for  determining  nitrogen,  the  Wilfarth.  Gunning- 
Atterberg,  Hibbard,  and  salicylic  acid  methods  were  compared.  The  soils  from 
which  the  humus  solutions  were  obtained  included  light  sandy  soil  from  a 
walnut  orchard,  Anaheim,  Cal.,  with  a  humus  content  of  0.55  per  cent;  silty 
clay  loam  derived  from  the  State  of  Washington,  humus  content  8.89  per  cent ; 
and  tule  soil  from  an  island  in  the  Sacramento  River,  nearly  all  organic  matter. 
humus  content  28.7  per  cent. 

The  Hibbard  method  gave  the  highest  amounts  of  nitrogen  in  all  cases  except 
one,  thus  showing  a  more  thorough  digestion,  and  its  duplicate  and  triplicate 
determinations  showed  the  best  agreement.  The  digestion  was  carried  out 
more  rapidly  than  in  any  other  method,  and  particularly  than  by  the  salicylic 
acid  method  which,  in  other  respects,  came  the  nearest  to  the  Hibbard  method 
in  yielding  satisfactory  results.  Considerable  trouble  with  bumping  was  ex- 
perienced with  all  methods  except  the  Hibbard,  in  which  the  digestion  proceeded 
rapidly  and  quietly  in  all  cases.  Its  manipulation  also  surpassed  in  simplicity 
and  speed  all  the  other  methods  tested.  "  In  view  of  the  fact,  therefore,  that  the 
Hibbard  method  is  far  superior  to  the  others  so  far  as  both  accuracy  and 
speed  are  concerned,  its  use  is  urged  in  all  humus  nitrogen  determinations." 


AGRICULTURAL   CHEMISTRY AGROTECHNY.  113 

A  comparison  of  some  qualitative  and  quantitative  methods  for  carbonates 
in  soils,  E.  W.  Gaitheb  {Jour.  InduK.  and  Engin.  Chcin.,  5  (JOld),  No.  2,  pp. 
138-143,  figs.  ^).— The  author  fmas  that  moth<xls  which  boil  soils  with  mineral 
acids  at  100"  C.  for  determining  the  carbon  dioxid  content  of  the  soils  are  in- 
accurate as  a  measure  for  carbonates  in  soils,  because  often  the  organic  matter 
present  in  the  soil  is  decomposed  by  the  acid  treatment,  and  results  in  the 
evolution  of  carbon  dioxid.  This  confirms  the  findings  of  Marr  (PI  S.  R.,  22, 
p.  511).  If,  however,  the  soils  are  boiled  In  a  partial  vacuum  at  50"  with 
dilute  mineral  acids,  no  decomposition  of  organic  matter  talces  place,  and  the 
evolved  carbon  dioxid  is  representative  of  the  carbonates  present. 

The  litmus  paper  test,  when  properly  conducted,  was  found  to  be  the  best 
qualitative  test  known  for  determining  the  presence  of  native  carbonates  in  soils 
from  humid  regions.  On  the  other  hand,  some  soils  may  give  an  alkaline 
reaction  not  due  to  carbonate  but  to  the  products  resulting  from  the  hydrolysis 
of  certain  minerals  which  exist  in  soils,  as  pointed  out  by  Cameron  and  Bell 
(E.  S.  E.,  17,  p.  742).  Although  the  reddening  of  blue  litmus  paper  may  be  due 
to  the  absorption  of  the  base  from  hydrolyzed  litmus  salt,  the  presence  of  native 
carbonates  in  soils  can  either  prevent  this  selective  absorption,  or  it  may  cause 
an  interchange  of  bases  to  take  place.  If  a  native  carbonate,  which  is  capable 
of  being  decomposed  by  weak  hydrochloric  acid  at  a  low  temperature,  is  present 
in  the  soil,  it  is  indicated  by  the  bluing  of  red  litmus  paper.  If  no  alkalis  or 
basic  materials  are  present  which  yield  alkaline  solutions,  a  reaction  is  obtained 
with  blue  litmus  paper. 

Soils  containing  substances  which  redden  blue  litmus  paper  have  a  tendency 
to  the  formation  of  acids  or  acid  salts,  which  unite  with  the  base  absorbed 
from  hydrolyzed  litmus  and  fail  to  return  another  base  in  its  stead.  This 
results  in  the  reddening  of  the  indicator  even  though  no  hydrogen  ions  are 
yielded  to  a  water  solution.  It  is  possible  that  the  soil  is  capable  of  producing 
a  physiological  action  which  is  similar  to  that  produced  by  stronger  acids 
yielding  hydrogen  ions  to  aqueous  solutions. 

Polarization  before  inversion  in  the  examination  of  molasses  by  Clerget's 
method,  J.  J.  Hazewinkel  and  C.  Loukens  (Meded.  Proefstat.  Java-^uikcr- 
indus.,  1912,  No.  21,  pp.  635-637;  Arch.  t^uikerhuJus.  Ncderland.  Jndii',  20 
(J912),  No.  27,  pp.  1073-1075).— The  method  recommended  is  as  follows:  One- 
half  of  the  normal  weight  of  the  molasses  is  taken  in  a  100  cc.  flask ;  then  10 
cc.  of  a  solution  of  neutral  lead  acetate  is  added,  filled  up  to  the  mark  with 
water,  from  3  to  5  gm.  of  bone  black  added,  shaken,  and  filtered.  The  polariza- 
tion is  done  in  a  200  or  400  mm.  tube. 

The  freezing  point  of  milk,  J.  B.  Henderson  and  L.  A.  Meston  (Proc.  Roy. 
8oc.  QucensJand,  21^  {1913),  pp.  165-180,  ph  1). — With  a  view  to  determining  a 
reliable  method  by  which  the  addition  of  water  to  milk  could  be  detected,  tests 
were  made  of  the  freezing  point  of  milk  under  a  variety  of  conditions.  Results 
indicated  "(1)  that  the  freezing  point  of  pure  fresh  milk  samples  from  herds 
of  cows  in  southern  Queensland  never  shows  a  greater  variation  than  from 
0.55°  to  0.5G°  C,  the  mean  being  0.555°  (this  is  exactly  in  accord  with  Conti- 
nental experience)  ;  and  (2)  that  the  freezing  point  determines  with  accuracy 
the  proportion  of  water  added  to  any  milk  from  a  herd,  and  distinguishes  v^ith 
absolute  certainty  the  watered  rich  milk  from  the  naturally  poor  milk." 

A  new  scale  for  determining*  moisture  in  butter,  E.  Worker  (Ztschr. 
Untersuch.  Nalir.  u.  GenussmtL,  24  (1912),  No.  12,  pp.  741,  742,  fig.  1).—A 
description  and  illustration  of  the  apparatus  are  given. 

A  simple  test  for  the  determination  of  butter  fat  in  butter,  J.  M.  Doran 
{Jour.  Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.,  4  {1912),  No.  11,  pp.  841,  842,  fig.  i).— The 
method,  which  simply  serves  as  a  control  test  for  the  chemical  method,  is  con- 


114  EXPERIMENT  STATION   RECORD. 

ducted  as  follows:  "The  sample  of  butter,  taken  with  a  trier  or  otherwise,  is 
first  warmed  to  about  100°  F.  and  thoroughly  stirred  to  insure  the  mass  being 
uniform.  About  10  cc.  of  the  sample  is  placed  in  a  sedimentation  tube  and 
whirled  in  a  [hand]  centrifuge  for  a  few  seconds.  The  sample  should  be  suffi- 
ciently liquid  in  order  to  insure  a  good  reading  after  being  whirled  in  the 
centrifuge.  After  reading  the  amount  of  the  sample  on  the  tube  scale,  about 
5  cc.  of  gasoline  is  added  and  the  tube  carefully  inverted  2  or  3  times,  holding 
the  thumb  or  finger  over  the  top  of  the  tube.  Let  the  solution  of  fat  and 
gasoline  drain  a  few^  seconds  before  removing  the  finger.  Place  the  tube  in  the 
centrifuge  and  whirl  again  for  15  or  20  seconds. 

"  The  gasoline  dissolves  the  fat,  forming  a  clear  layer  on  the  top.  The  non- 
fats,  that  is  the  water,  salt,  and  curd,  being  immiscible  with  the  gasoline  and 
also  heavier,  form  the  lower  layer.  The  second  whirling  drives  the  nonfats  to 
the  lower  end  of  the  tube  almost  completely,  at  the  same  time  forming  a  sharp 
line  of  division  between  the  2  layers.  The  amount  of  nonfats  is  then  carefully 
read  on  the  tube  scale.  .  .  . 

"  Care  should  be  taken  that  this  test  is  made  at  a  fairly  uniform  temperature 
in  order  to  eliminate  as  far  as  possible  the  changes  in  relative  volumes  due  to 
variations  in  temperature.  In  case  the  sample  when  first  placed  in  the  sedi- 
mentation tube  is  not  sufficiently  liquid  to  insure  a  good  reading  on  being 
whirled,  it  may  be  warmed  by  placing  it  in  water  or  in  an  oven  for  a  few 
minutes  at  a  temperature  not  over  110°." 

The  method  yields  slightly  higher  results  than  the  official  method. 

A  simplification  of  the  method  for  determining  the  Beichert-Meissl  and 
Polenske  numbers,  A.  Goske  {Ztschr.  Untersuch.  Nahr,  u.  Genussmtl.,  24 
{1912),  No.  4,  pp.  274-276,  fig.  1). — ^The  apparatus  consists  of  a  boiling  flask,  a 
distilling  tube  (1  bulb),  a  Liebig  condenser  with  a  flared  upper  end,  a  funnel, 
holding  a  piece  of  filter  paper,  attached  with  a  cork  to  the  lower  end  of  the 
Liebig  condenser,  and  a  110  cc.  receiving  flask  divided  into  10  cc.  divisions. 
The  advantages  claimed  for  this  apparatus  are  that  (1)  filtration  after  dis- 
tillation is  unnecessary;  (2)  titration  is  done  directly  in  the  110  cc.  obtained; 
(3)  rinsing  of  the  apparatus  is  eliminated,  and  in  this  way  the  losses  observed 
in  the  usual  procedure  are  avoided;  and  (4)  no  special  preparation  of  the 
filter  is  necessary  for  the  second  determination. 

Estimation  of  essential  oil  in  mustard,  D.  Raquet  {Ann.  Chim.  Analyt., 
17  {1912),  yo.  5,  pp.  174-178;  ahs.  in  Analyst,  37  {1912),  No.  436,  p.  309).— It 
is  pointed  out  that  mixing  mustard  with  water  previous  to  distillation  and 
allowing  it  to  stand  for  some  time  is  often  followed  by  inconcordant  results. 
Micro-organisms  develop  and  exert  their  activity  under  these  conditions,  which 
results  in  the  loss  of  oil.  "  If,  however,  dilute  alcohol  be  used  in  place  of 
water,  the  digestion  may  be  allowed  to  proceed  for  even  24  hours  without  loss 
of  essential  oil.  Having  regard  to  these  conditions,  the  following  method  is 
recommended  for  the  estimation  of  the  oil : 

"  Five  gm.  of  the  mustard  flour  is  mixed  in  a  250  cc.  flask  with  100  cc.  of 
water  and  20  cc.  of  90  per  cent  alcohol ;  the  flask  is  now  closed  and  set  aside 
for  6  hours,  or  heated  to  a  temperature  of  35°  C.  for  1  hour.  The  contents  are 
then  distilled,  and  50  cc.  of  the  distillate  is  collected  in  a  100  cc.  flask  in  which 
10  cc.  of  ammonia  have  been  placed  previously;  20  cc.  of  tenth-normal  silver 
nitrate  solution  is  now  added,  the  distillation  is  continued  until  the  100  cc. 
flask  is  filled  nearly  to  the  mark,  and  after  the  flask  has  been  closed  with  a 
stopper  carrying  a  long  glass  tube,  the  contents  are  heated  to  85°  for  1  hour. 
When  cold,  the  mixture  is  diluted  to  100  cc,  filtered,  and  the  excess  of  silver 
is  titrated  in  50  cc.  of  the  filtrate  by  means  of  tenth-normal  thiocyanate  solu- 
tion after  the  addition  of  nitric  acid.     The  number  of  cubic  centimeters  of 


AGRICULTURAL   CHEMISTRY AGROTECHNY.  115 

tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  used  is  multiplied  by  0-198  to  obtain  tlie  weight  of 
allyl  thiocarbimid  in  100  gm.  of  the  mustard.  The  following  percentage  quan- 
tities of  mustard  oil  (as  allyl  thiocarbimid)  were  found  in  samples  of  black 
mustard  of  different  origin :  English,  1.39,  Greek  1.20,  French  1.08,  Sicilian  0.99, 
Italian  0.99,  and  Bombay  0.81  per  cent." 

Oflacial  methods  of  analysis  adopted  by  the  Texas  Cotton  Seed  Crushers' 
Association  (0/7,  Paint  and  Drug  Reporter,  82  {1912),  A^J.  6,  p.  J^c).— The 
methods  are  for  moisture,  oil,  ammonia  and  protein  nitrogen,  total  fatty  acids, 
and  refinery  losses. 

Method  for  determining  the  amount  of  cotton-seed  hulls  in  cotton-seed 
meal,  C.  J.  Kole  {Yerslag.  Landhomck.  Onderzoelz.  RijJcslandbouicproefstat. 
[XetherJands],  1912,  No.  12,  pp.  3^-47). — It  is  not  deemed  possible  to  obtain 
a  good  separation  of  hulls  and  meal  body  by  sifting.  Determining  the  crude 
fiber  may  give  a  clew  as  to  whether  a  large  or  a  small  amount  of  hulls  is 
present  in  the  meal,  but  the  results  obtained  are  not  accurate. 

The  National  Experiment  and  Seed  Control  Station  of  Holland,  located  at 
Wageningen,  uses  the  following  method:  Five  gm.  of  the  sample  is  treated  in 
a  cylinder  with  300  cc.  of  boiling  water  and  allowed  to  stand  for  at  least  4 
hours.  The  supernatant  fluid  is  then  poured  off,  and  the  residue  is  brouglit 
upon  a  piece  of  gauze  (15  by  15  cm.,  mesh  10  microns)  with  the  aid  of  a  stream 
of  water.  The  4  ends  of  the  gauze  are  brought  together  and  the  mass  kneaded 
with  the  fingers  for  the  purpose  of  reducing  its  size.  The  mass  is  then  washed 
back  into  the  cylinder,  and  when  the  hulls  have  sunk  the  fluid  containing  the 
floating  particles  of  meal  body  is  poured  off.  The  cylinder  is  filled  again  with 
water,  and  when  the  coarse  particles  of  hull  have  subsided,  the  supernatant 
fluid  containing  the  fine  particles  of  shell  and  coarse  particles  of  meal  is  trans- 
ferred to  the  gauze.  The  mass  is  then  rubbed  up  in  a  mortar  and  transferred 
again  to  the  cylinder.  These  processes  are  repeated  until  all  meal  body  has 
been  removed,  when  the  residue,  representing  the  hulls,  is  dried.  The  weight 
of  these  hulls  is  multiplied  by  an  empirical  factor  100  -^  72,  which  gives  the 
amount  of  hulls  present  in  the  sample. 

It  is  stated  that  cotton-seed  meal  commonly  contains  about  15  per  cent  of 
hulls. 

The  determination  of  formaldehyde,  E.  Rimini  and  T.  Jona  {Gior.  Farm, 
e  Chim.,  61  {1912),  Xo.  2,  pp.  49-56;  ahs.  in  Clicm.  Ztg.,  36  {1912),  Xo.  87, 
Rcpert.,  p.  401;  Chcm.  ZcnihJ.,  1912,  I,  Xo.  14,  p.  ii//7).— Rieglers  method, 
based  on  the  conversion  of  formaldehyde  into  formalazin  by  the  addition  of  a 
known  amount  of  hydrazin,  decomposing  the  excess  of  the  latter  with  iodic 
acid  and  measuring  the  resulting  nitrogen,  is  deemed  inaccurate  because 
formalazin  is  also  decomposed  in  an  acid  solution.  Consequently  the  author  de- 
composes the  hydrazin  in  an  alkaline  solution  in  which  formalazin  is  perfectly 
stable.    Potassium  iodate  can  not  be  used  instead  of  iodic  acid. 

Extraction  of  oil  by  aspiration,  J.  Chapelle  and  J.  Ruby  {Jour.  Apr.  Prat., 
n.  ser.,  24  {1912),  Xos.  48,  pp.  686-688,  figs.  2;  49,  pp.  119-121,  fig.  1).—A, 
detailed  description  of  a  method  for  depriving  olives  of  their  oil  by  aspiration. 
The  machinery  required  is  illustrated. 

The  effect  of  kiln  drying  at  145°  F.  on  the  composition  of  the  hop,  H.  Y. 
Tartar  and  B.  Pilkingtox  {Jour.  Indu,s.  and  Engin.  Chem.,  4  {1912),  Xo.  11, 
pp.  839,  840).— The  proper  temperature  to  be  used  in  the  kiln  dryi"S  of  hops 
still  being  a  question  in  dispute,  the  authors  were  prompted  to  repeat  in  a  lim- 
ited way  some  of  the  work  which  has  been  reported  by  other  investigators. 
For  this  test  7  samples  of  Pacific  coast  hops  were  used.  The  temperature  used 
in  kiln  drying  in  each  instance  varied  between  120°  and  145"  F.,  the  latter  being 
the  one  which  is  preferred  at  the  present  time  by  Oregon  hop  growers.     "  The 


116  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

drying  was  begun  at  the  lower  temperature  and  then  gradually  raised  to  145°, 
at  which  temperature  it  was  held  as  nearly  as  possible  until  the  hops  were 
dried.  The  temperature  was  taken  with  thermometers  which  were  kept  just 
under  the  floor  of  the  kiln  and  at  that  portion  of  the  kiln  where  the  tempera- 
ture was  highest."  The  kilns  employed  were,  with  one  exception,  ordinary 
stove  kilns,  and  were  representative  of  those  in  common  use.  Comparisons 
were  made  with  samples  of  hops  which  were  air  dried  at  room  temperature. 
The  determinations  made  were  water,  total  resins,  hard  (gamma)  resin,  beta 
resin,  alpha  resin,  tannin,  and  wax. 

"  The  results  indicate  that  there  was  little  if  any  change  in  the  composition 
of  the  hops  during  the  kiln-drying  process.  It  will  be  noted  that  [with  the 
exception  of  2]  samples,  the  amount  of  hard  resin  is  slightly  greater  in  the  air- 
dried  samples,  a  result  which  may  be  due  to  the  variation  In  different  samples. 
There  was  evidently  little  If  any  change  in  the  amounts  of  tannin  and  wax, 
considering  the  possible  -variation  in  separate  samples.  A  physical  examination 
showed  that  the  difference  in  the  aroma  of  the  air-dried  and  the  kiln-dried 
samples  was  hardly  perceptible,  different  judges  varying  somewhat  in  their 
opinions.'' 

See  also  previous  work  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  p.  814). 

Notes  on  expressed  and  distilled  West  Indian  lime  oils,  H.  A.  Tempany 
and  N.  Greenhalgh  {West  Indian  Bui.,  12  {1912),  No.  4,  pp.  498-503) .—This 
gives  the  results  of  examining  7  samples  of  hand-expressed  oils  and  3  of  dis- 
tilled oils,  in  which  were  determined  the  specific  gravity  at  30°  C.  the  optical 
rotation  In  a  100-mm.  tube  at  31°,  the  refractive  index  at  32°,  the  citral  content 
by  Burgess  and  Child's  method,  and  the  acid  value  by  titration  of  5  cc.  of  the  oil 
dissolved  in  alcohol  with  seminormal  alcoholic  potash  in  the  cold. 

In  regard  to  the  expressed  oils,  the  results  show  a  somewhat  wider  divergence 
between  the  character  of  the  different  oils  than  is  indicated  by  various  author- 
ities. The  values  for  the  optical  rotation  are  lower  than  would  be  expected, 
probably  because  of  the  expansion  of  the  oil  owing  to  the  high  temperature  at 
which  measurements  were  made.  The  citral  content  and  the  acid  number 
showed  a  fairly  close  correlation  but  varied  markedly  in  different  samples. 
The  citral  determination  seemed  to  give  satisfactory  results.  The  amount  of 
citral  found  varied  markedly  in  the  different  samples,  but  was  lower  than  is 
found  in  lemon  oils,  which,  according  to  Gildemeister  and  Hoffman,  contain 
from  7  to  30  per  cent  of  that  constituent. 

With  regard  to  distilled  oils,  the  samples  appeared  to  be  characterized,  on 
the  whole,  by  a  lower  refractive  index,  citral  content,  and  acid  number,  and 
in  some  cases  a  lower  specific  gravity.  The  rotiition,  on  the  other  hand,  was  in 
all  cases  somewhat  higher. 

"  From  the  above  results,  it  would  appear  that  during  the  process  of  dis- 
tillation with  steam  (the  conditions  under  which  ordinary  distilled  oil  is  ob- 
tained being  practically  those  of  a  steam  distillation)  a  certain  proportion  of 
the  lower  and  higher  boiling  constituents  are  removed.  The  blue  fluorescence 
due  to  the  presence  of  a  crystalline  substance  in  the  higher  fractions  of  the 
expressed  oil  is  entirely  absent  in  those  of  the  distilled  oils.  This  substance 
possibly  may  be  the  anthranilate  which  is  known  to  exist  in  lime  oil  (Allen),  to 
the  methyl  ester  of  which,  C6H4(NH.CH3).COOCH3,  E.  J.  Parry «  ascribes 
the  blue  fluorescence  of  mandarin  orange  oil.  This  is  probably  removed  during 
the  steam  distillation. 

"  Expressed  oil  on  standing  generally  deposits  a  pale  yellow  crystalline  sub- 
stance known  as  limettin.    Distilled  oils  do  not  deposit  this  body.    Limettin  is 

•Allen's  Organic  Analysis,  2  (1907),  pt.  3,  p.  40. 


METEOROLOGY WATER.  117 

stated  to  be  dimethoxycoumarin ;  it  is  readily  soluble  iu  hot  water,  and  it  is 
possible  that  distillation  with  steam  effects  the  removal  of  the  limettin  itself, 
or  of  that  constituent  of  expressed  oils  which  by  the  action  of  light  may  be 
converted  into  limettin.  (A  sample  of  limettin  recry stall ized  from  boiling 
water  was  found  to  have  a  melting  point  of  115°)." 

Investig-ations  on  the  extraction  of  lime  juice  by  milling,  II.  A.  Tempany 
and  V.  M.  Weil  (West  Indian  BiiL,  12  {1912),  Xo.  4,  pp.  473-478).— The  prob- 
lems connected  with  the  extraction  of  lime  juice  as  practised  in  the  West  Indies 
at  the  present  time  are  iu  many  ways  not  dlssimiliar  from  those  encountered 
in  obtaining  the  juice  from  the  sugar  cane.  In  fact,  in  many  cases  old  cane 
mills  have  been  adapted  to  the  pun^ose  of  exx)ressing  lime  juice,  and  so  far 
as  the  actual  extraction  is  concerned,  the  processes  in  the  case  of  the  2  indus- 
tries are  identical.  The  eflBciency  of  the  mill  is  computed,  as  a  rule,  from  the 
number  of  gallons  of  juice  obtained  from  1  bbl.  of  limes,  but  as  the  size  of  the 
barrels  and  limes,  and  the  juice  content  of  the  limes  was  believed  to  vary,  a 
test  was  made  with  a  number  of  samples  of  limes  from  various  localities. 

"An  examination  of  these  results  shows  that  the  average  weight  and  volume 
of  a  single  fruit,  as  also  the  acidity  of  the  juice,  vary  largely  according  to  the 
locality  in  which  the  fruit  is  grown,  the  former  characteristics  varying  directly 
and  the  latter  inversely  with  the  rainfall  at  the  place  of  origin.  The  per- 
centage of  juice  contained  in  the  fruit,  however,  varies  relatively  little,  amount- 
ing approximately  to  62  per  cent  of  the  total  weight  of  the  fruit.  This  result 
is  of  a  distinctly  unexpected  character,  since  comparison  with  the  sugar  cane 
would  tend  to  the  belief  that  the  juice  content  would  be  materially  less  in  dry 
locaaities.  It  follows  from  this  that  measurement  of  the  extraction  of  juice, 
if  accurately  performed,  will  afford  a  reliable  criterion  of  the  efficacy  of  the 
milling  in  lime  juice  works." 

Some  tests  in  regard  to  the  residue  of  juice  left  in  the  pressed  skins  were 
made,  and  showed  that  this  was  almost  a  complete  check  upon  the  efficiency 
of  milling  at  the  time  the  sample  was  taken. 

Experiments  in  lime  juice  concentration,  J.  C.  Macintyre  {West  Indian 
Bill.,  12  {1912),  Xo.  4,  pp.  405-472). — "The  experiments  in  lime  juice  concen- 
tration which  are  described  were  carried  out  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining 
the  loss  of  acid  occurring  at  various  degrees  of  concentration  so  as  to  be  in  a 
position  to  judge  whether  the  cost  of  steam-jacketed  pans  or  other  plant  would 
be  justified,  and  incidentally,  to  determine  the  point  to  which  it  is  most 
economical  to  concentrate."  A  note  by  F.  Watts  is  appended  to  this  paper 
I)ointing  out  the  practical  value  of  the  results  obtained. 

Index  to  Zeitschrift  fiir  Analytische  Chemie,  H.  Fresenius  and  A.  Czapski 
(Zcitschrift  fiir  Analytische  Chemie^  Autwcji-  und  Sack-Register  zn  den  Bdnden 
41-50.  Wieshaden,  1912,  pp.  287). — An  author  and  subject  index  of  volumes 
41  to  50,  issued  from  1902  to  1911,  is  given. 

METEOROLOGY— WATER. 

Temperature  coefficients  in  plant  geography  and  climatology,  B.  E,  and 
Grace  J.  Livingston  {Bot.  Gaz.,  56  {1913),  No.  5,  pp.  349-375,  figs.  5).— This 
paper  deals  fully  with  a  subject  which  has  been  briefly  discussed  elsewhere 
(E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  212;  20,  p.  719).  The  direct  temperature  summations  and  sum- 
mations of  temperature  efficiencies  are  charted  and  compared. 

"  For  each  of  the  direct  summations,  the  normal  daily  mean  minus  39,  for  the 
date  next  following  the  average  date  of  the  last  frost  in  spring,  is  taken  as  the 
first  term.  To  this  are  added  the  normal  daily  means,  each  decreased  by  39,  for 
all  dates  up  to  and  including  the  average  date  of  the  last  frost  in  autumn.  .  .  . 


118  EXPERIMENT  STATION  EECOED. 

For  the  summations  of  temi^erature  efficiencies,  the  normal  daily  efficiencies  cor- 
responding, respectively,  to  the  normal  daily  means  of  Bigelow's  tables  have 
simply  been  added  for  the  same  days  as  in  the  direct  summations,  thus  giving 
what  may  be  termed  a  tentative  index  of  temperature  efficiency  for  growth  dur- 
ing the  normal  frostless  season." 

The  general  conclusions  reached  are  that  "  the  method  of  direct  temperature 
summations  has  proved  itself  to  give,  in  a  b.roadly  general  way  and  for  most  of 
the  area  of  the  United  States,  nearly  the  same  climatic  zones  as  does  [the] 
method  of  efficiency  summations.  .  .  .  The  similarity  between  the  results  de- 
rived by  these  two  methods  of  temperature  integration,  however,  is  only 
superficial  and  roughly  approximate.  The  ratios  of  direct  summation  to 
efficiency  summation  range  in  magnitude,  for  the  mean  frostless  season  in  the 
United  States,  from  a  minimum  of  7.49  to  a  maximum  of  10.44.  A  rational  and 
consistent  climatic  chart  represents  the  geographical  distribution  of  these  ratio 
values;  on  such  a  chart  the  marginal  regions  of  the  country  are  frequently 
characterized  by  low  ratios  and  the  two  main  mountain  systems  appear  to  con- 
trol areas  of  high  values.  There  seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  the  ratio  here 
brought  forward  quantitatively  represents  a  climatic  dimension  or  characteris- 
tic, which  appears  to  be  some  sort  of  function  of  the  daily  normal  temperatures 
upon  which  this  whole  study  has  been  based  and  of  the  time  distribution  of 
these  temperature  data  within  the  period  of  the  mean  frostless  season." 

British  rainfall,  1912,  H.  R.  IVIill  and  C.  Salter  {London,  1912,  pp.  372, 
pis.  Jf,  figs,  87). — This  report  summarizes  observations  at  5,272  stations  in  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland  grouped  by  counties  and  river  basins. 

The  mean  rainfall  during  the  year  was  39.31  in.,  23  per  cent  above  the  av- 
erage for  35  years  (1875-1909),  for  England;  56.19  in.,  19  per  cent  above  the 
average,  for  Wales;  49.01  in.,  11  per  cent  above  the  average,  for  Scotland;  and 
44.06  in.,  8  per  cent  above  the  average,  for  Ireland.  "Within  the  last  32  years 
for  which  comparisons  are  available,  two  only  (1882  and  1903)  have  been  wetter 
than  1912  in  the  British  Isles. 

The  report  contains  special  articles  on  the  great  rain  storm  of  August  25-26, 
1912;  the  wettest  summer  in  England  and  Wales;  and  the  "Seathwaite"  pat- 
tern rain  gage. 

Evaporation  from  a  plain  water  surface,  J.  W.  Leather  (Mem-.  Depf.  Agr. 
India,  Cliem.  Ser.,  3  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  15,  pi.  1,  figs.  2;  al)S.  in  Internat.  Inst. 
Agr.  [Rome'],  Mo.  Bui.  Agr,  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  4  {1912),  No,  8,  pp. 
1186,  1187). — ^A  description  is  given  of  the  evaporimeter  in  use  at  Pusa,  which 
consists  essentially  of  a  circular  cement  tank  6*  ft.  in  diameter  and  5  ft.  deep, 
with  an  adjustable  pointer  for  measuring  the  water  level.  Records  for  1911 
and  1912  are  tabulated  and  compared  with  other  data  obtained  from  the  obser- 
vatories at  Madras  and  Lyallpur. 

The  rate  of  evaporation  during  the  cold  weather  months  was  much  the  same 
at  Pusa  and  at  Lyallpur  but  was  much  higher  at  Lyallpur  throughout  the  six 
hot  months  from  May  to  October.  At  Pusa  during  the  hottest  months  the  rate 
of  evaporation  was  three  times  that  of  the  coldest  months,  at  Lyallpur  five 
times,  and  at  Madras  not  quite  twice  that  of  the  coldest  months. 

Dew  ponds  and  mist  ponds,  E.  A.  Martin  {Rpt.  Brit.  Assoc.  Adv.  Set.,  1912, 
pp.  530,  531). — ^An  attempt  is  made  in  this  article  to  explain  the  accumulation 
of  water  in  these  ponds.  "  The  precipitation  of  mist  into  ponds,  aided  perhaps 
by  silent  discharges  of  electricity,  and  the  entanglement  of  mist-laden  salt  dust 
in  the  hollows  in  which  the  ponds  lie.  are  believed  to  be  the  means  by  which 
some  ponds  maintain  a  supply  of  water  all  through  the  year,  in  spite  of  the 
great  draft  which  is  made  uix>n  them  by  numerous  cattle." 


SOILS FERTILIZERS.  119 

The  artesian  water  supply  of  eastern  and  southern  Florida,  E.  XL  Sel- 
LARDs  and  H.  Guntee  (Fla.  Geol.  Survey  Ann.  Rpt.,  5  {1912),  pp.  97-290,  pis.  5, 
figs.  17). — This  paper,  which  is  the  fourth  of  a  series  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  315), 
includes  a  reprint  of  a  paper  on  the  water  supply  of  eastern  Florida  (E.  S.  R., 
25,  p.  18),  revised  to  include  a  report  on  the  water  supply  of  southern  Florida. 
In  the  combined  reports  the  artesian  water  supply  is  discussed  in  detail  for 
each  county  lying  in  a  section  bordering  the  Atlantic  and  Gulf  coasts,  and  com- 
prising the  priucijtal  artesian  areas  of  Peninsular  Florida. 

Report  of  the  interstate  conference  on  artesian  water,  Sydney,  1912  (Rpt. 
Interstate  Conf.  ArtesUni  Water  [Aust.^,  1012,  pp.  Xy-\-207+68,  pis.  42).—ThG 
proceedings  of  this  conference  are  reported.  They  dealt  chiefly  with  the  extent, 
methods  of  obtaining,  and  utilization  of  artesian  waters  for  agricultural  and 
other  purposes  in  Xew  South  Wales.  A  number  of  maps,  plates,  and  other  data 
accompany  the  report. 

SOILS— FERTILIZERS. 

Soil,  soil  investigation,  and  soil  valuation,  F.  Pilz  (Jlonatsh.  Landw.,  6 
(1913),  No.  10,  pp.  298-300). — The  author  reviews  the  physics  and  chemistry  of 
soils  and  soil  structure  with  special  reference  to  the  question  of  fertilization 
and  the  use  of  soil  analysis  in  estimating  the  value  of  the  soil  for  cropping 
purposes.  He  demonstrates  that  the  kind,  amount,  and  success  of  fertilization 
depend  on  the  crop,  the  fertilizer  content  of  the  soil,  the  physical  condition  of 
the  soil  and  subsoil,  and  other  factors,  such  as  climate,  cultivation,  etc.,  and 
points  out  that  to  the  average  farmer  a  chemical  analysis  of  his  soil  means 
practically  nothing.  He  suggests  the  need  of  keeping  accurate  records  in  each 
rural  district  of  the  physical  and  chemical  conditions  of  the  soils  of  each  farm 
and  of  the  other  local  factors  affecting  crops  in  order  that  each  farmer  may 
obtain  definite  and  accurate  information  regarding  the  necessary  mechanical  and 
chemical  treatment  of  his  particular  soil. 

Chemistry,  physics,  biolog-y,  and  cultivation  of  the  soil,  ]M.  Hoffmann 
iJahresber.  Landw.,  27  {1912),  pp.  2Jf-60). — Recent  reports  of  investigations  on 
this  subject  are  classified  and  reviewed  as  usual. 

Contribution  to  the  study  of  the  soils  of  the  Republic  of  Argentina,  P. 
Lavenir  (An.  Min.  Agr.  Argentina,  Seec.  Quini.,  2  {1912},  Xo,  2,  pp.  577,  figs. 
6). — This  article  describes  methods  of  soil  sampling,  mechanical,  physical,  and 
chemical  analysis,  and  the  methods  of  soil  classification  employed  by  Iho 
chemical  laboratory  of  the  department  of  agriculture  of  Argentina,  and  draws 
conclusions  regarding  the  practical  interpretation  and  application  of  the  results 
of  analysis.  Analyses  are  reported  of  a  large  number  of  samples  of  representa- 
tive agricultural  soils  from  the  different  Provinces  of  Argentina,  most  of  which 
show  conditions  very  favorable  to  agriculture. 

Soil  culture  in  Iceland,  P.  M.  Grunee  {Arch.  Biontol,  S  {1912),  No.  2,  pp. 
VI -{-213,  pis.  2,  figs.  28). — This  work  reviews  the  natural  history  of  Iceland  in 
its  relation  to  the  formation  of  swamps  and  describes  the  swamps  from  the 
standpoint  of  their  value  as  sources  of  i)eat  fuel  and  as  meadow  lands.  In 
addition  there  is  a  somewhat  lengthy  discussion  of  garden  cultivation  as 
practiced  in  Iceland,  including  descriptions  of  soils,  fertilizers,  crops,  climate, 
and  other  factors  closely  related  to  this  work. 

The  results  of  mixed  cultivation  with  loam  in  Finland,  A.  Rindell  {Jahrb. 
Moork.,  1  {1912),  pp.  19-34). — A  number  of  experiments  were  made  in  drained 
and  burnt  over  peat  swamps  to  determine  the  beneficial  effect  of  adding  differ- 
ent amounts  of  loam  supplemented  by  phosphoric  acid,  potash,  and  lime  as 
fertilizers. 


120  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

The  yield  of  grain  was  found  to  increase  with  increased  loam  addition.  Fer- 
tilization with  a  mixture  of  phosphoric  acid  and  potash  further  increased  the 
yield,  and  somewhat  more  than  fertilization  with  phosphoric  acid  alone,  but 
with  increasing  loam  treatment  the  difference  in  yields  brought  about  by  the 
two  fertilizers  steadily  decreased.  When  practically  the  same  experiments  were 
made  using  sand  instead  of  loam,  the  same  general  results  were  obtained  ex- 
cept that  the  yields  of  grain  were  not  nearly  so  large.  The  addition  of  lime 
showed  little  or  no  beneficial  effect  except  where  iron  sulphid  was  present  in  the 
loam. 

Comparative  tests  of  lime  and  loam  treatment  of  peat  soils  favored  the  loam, 
although  the  crop  yield  increased  as  the  application  of  lime  increased  up  to 
2,670  lbs.  per  acre.  It  was  found  that  repeated  burning  in  case  of  certain  peat 
swamps  so  reduced  the  nitrogen  content  that  the  crop  yield  was  considerably 
lowered,  making  the  addition  of  nitrogenous  matter  necessary. 

The  heat  conductivity  of  damp  sand  and  loam  was  found  to  be  three  or  four 
times  that  of  the  peat.  It  was  also  found  that  loam  treatment  of  peat  soils  suffi- 
ciently arrested  frost  action  to  allow  plant  life  to  exist  in  much  colder  weather. 
This  is  attributed  to  the  better  physical  condition  of  the  soil. 

Moor  culture,  A.  Kostlan  (Jahresher.  Landiv.,  27  {1912),  pp.  200-215,  fig, 
1). — Reports  of  recent  investigations  on  this  subject  are  classified  and  reviewed. 

The  shrinking  of  swamp  soils  resulting"  from  drainage  and  cultivation, 
B.  Tacke  {Jalir'b.  Moork.,  1  {1912),  pp.  35^5,  pi.  1). — Attention  is  called  to  the 
marked  shrinking  and  sinking  of  swamp  soils  resulting  from  drainage  and 
other  improvements.  A  sinking  of  from  15  to  25  per  cent  of  the  soil  depth  has 
been  found  to  take  place  within  15  years  after  drainage  in  many  swamps, 
especially  in  those  from  which  the  peat  has  been  stripped.  The  shrinking  and 
sinking  occur  in  layers  and  not  as  a  solid  mass. 

The  degree  to  which  drainage  so  affects  the  soil  is  said  to  depend  chiefly  on 
the  physical  and  chemical  composition  and  depth  of  the  soil,  on  the  amount 
and  depth  of  drainage,  and  on  the  character  and  condition  of  the  subsoil.  In 
some  upland  swamps  which  are  drained  and  stripped  of  peat  the  bed  soil  sinks 
below  the  water  level  in  the  drainage  ditches.  To  obviate  this  it  is  suggested 
that  in  stripping  the  peat  a  bed  be  left  somewhat  more  than  50  cm.  above  mean 
water  level  in  the  ditches  and  this  be  mixed  with  sand  to  reduce  the  shrinkage. 
Cultivation  of  peat  stripped  soil  reduces  the  shrinkage  more  than  the  sand 
treatment,  but  the  productivity  is  said  to  be  not  nearly  so  great.  The  effect 
of  drainage  on  such  soils  can  best  be  determined  by  observing  the  relative 
movements  of  the  layers  and  comparing  their  densities  as  determined  before 
and  at  intervals  after  drainage. 

Investigations  on  the  influence  of  plant  roots  on  the  structure  of  the  soil, 
M.  Berkmann  {Internat.  Mitt.  Bodenlc,  3  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  1-Jf9,  figs.  6). — ^A 
series  of  pot  experiments  with  two  representatives  soils,  one  a  sandy  soil  con- 
taining considerable  humus  and  little  clay  and  the  other  a  clay  loam  soil,  were 
conducted  over  a  period  of  two  years  to  determine  the  influence  of  plant  roots 
on  the  soil  structure  and  also  the  effect  of  physical  changes  within  the  soil 
itself.  The  soils  were  prepared  by  tamping  some  and  puddling  others  into 
place,  and  still  others  were  experimented  with  in  a  loose  mellow  condition. 
Plants  representative  of  the  two  general  types  of  rooting  were  grown  on  some 
of  the  soils  while  others  were  left  bare. 

It  was  found  that  different  kinds  of  soils,  especially  those  rich  in  clay,  are 
loosened  not  only  by  absorbing  water  but  also  as  a  result  of  the  eff'ect  of  frost, 
variations  in  moisture  content,  etc.  In  loose  soils  a  very  small  percentage  of 
the  spaces  is  filled  by  the  stronger  tap  roots  so  that  there  is  no  essential  de- 
crease in  the  original  mellowness  from  this  source.     In  compact  soils  roots  may 


SOILS FERTILIZERS.  121 

to  a  certain  degree  improve  the  structure  and  thus  increase  production.  In 
compact  stiff  soils,  without  granular  structure,  the  loosening  process  is  aided, 
to  the  benefit  of  plant  growth,  by  the  mechanical  action  of  roots  and  by  a  strong 
modification  of  the  moisture  conditions.  Roots  apparently  seldom  make  prac- 
tical use  of  the  so-called  "root  holes"  as  a  means  of  spreading  in  heavy  soils. 
The  growth  of  roots  as  regards  their  mechanical  action  varies  in  loose  and 
compact  soils.  The  beneficial  combination  of  self -loosening  and  root  action  ex- 
plains the  frequent  permanent  improvement  of  the  soil  structure  under  the 
continued  influence  of  roots,  as  In  grass  lands,  and  also  the  prevention  of  per- 
manent puddling  of  the  soil  by  rain. 

Further  studies  of  the  influence  of  vegetation  on  the  penetration  and  move- 
ment of  water  in  the  soils  showed  a  beneficial  infiuence,  especially  in  meadow 
and  pasture  lands  where  there  Is  a  marked  surface  spreading  of  the  roots. 
Although  in  these  cases  the  lateral  percolation  of  the  water  was  somewhat  re- 
tarded by  the  roots,  loss  of  water  through  evaporation  was  also  retarded  and  a 
comparison  of  soils  with  and  without  vegetation  showed  that  the  water  movement 
w«s  much  more  rapid  in  the  former.  However,  in  grain  lands  covered  with 
crops  only  part  of  the  year,  an  injury  resulted  and  the  soil  became  hard  and 
compact,  making  frequent  cultivation  necessary. 

The  influence  of  subsoil  loosening'  on  soil  yield,  Augstin  (III us.  Landw. 
Ztg.,  33  {1913),  Xo.  32,  pp.  303,  30.'f,  figs.  iJ).— The  opinion  is  expressed  that  the 
entire  breaking  up  of  a  subsoil  destroys  capillarity,  induces  too  much  ventilation 
and  drainage,  and  causes  soluble  plant  foods  to  leach  away.  Cropping  experi- 
ments on  soil  which  had  been  completely  subsoiled  and  on  soil  in  which  the 
subsoil  had  been  broken  only  in  a  small  furrow  3  cm.  wide  under  each  furrow 
were  in  favor  of  the  latter  method.  Less  power  was  expended  in  plowing  by 
this  method  and  it  is  stated  that  the  looseness  of  subsoil  lasts  longer. 

The  minimum  water  capacity  of  soils  and  its  cause,  A.  Moskovic  (JfUf. 
Landic.  Lclirkanz.  K.  K.  Hochsch.  Bodonkia.  Wicn,  2  (1013),  No.  1,  pp.  209-2J,3, 
figs.  3). — The  author  reviews  the  results  obtained  by  several  other  experi- 
menters and  gives  the  results  of  a  number  of  his  own  experiments  made  to 
determine  the  cause  and  limitations  of  the  minimum  water  capacity  of  soils. 

On  tlie  basis  of  these  results  the  author  concludes  that  the  minimum  water 
capacity  of  soils  is  the  maximum  amount  of  water  which  is  independent  of 
gravity,  or  that  amount  which  is  adsorbed  by  a  permeable  soil  under  certain 
fixed  conditions  of  vapor  and  air  pressure  and  temperature  when  a  surplus  of 
water  is  added.  He  further  concludes  that  under  similar  conditions  of  vapor 
and  air  pressure,  temperature,  stratification,  and  size  of  grain  every  soil  except 
alluvial  soil  has  a  constant  minimum  water  capacity.  The  difference  between 
minimum  and  absolute  water  capacity  of  the  soil  increases  as  the  soil  becomes 
coarser  grained.  The  minimum  water  capacity  of  the  soil  is  determined 
by  the  adsorbed  or  condensed  water,  so  that  the  greater  the  condensing  surface 
presented  within  a  soil  the  higher  is  the  minimum  water  capacity.  However, 
since  the  adsorptive  power  of  different  soil  constituents  varies,  the  minimum 
water  capacity  is  not  proportional  to  the  surface  presented  but  only  to  the  free 
surface  tension.  In  porous  soils  the  larger  part  of  the  water  not  adsorbed 
drains  away  below,  but  nonporous  soils,  such  as  fine  grained  sands  if  the  grains 
are  of  suitable  shape,  form  pores  with  closed  walls  which  retain  large  quan- 
tities of  water,  vso  that  such  fine  sands  in  spite  of  their  small  adsorptive  power 
show  a  high  minimum  water  capacity.  The  minimum  water  capacity  of  a  soil 
is  not  altered  by  crumbling  but  is  increased  by  puddling,  which  increases  the 
surface  tension. 

Quantitative  investigations  on  the  reaction  of  aqueous  extracts  of  soils, 
T.  Saidel  {Bui  Sect.  Sci,  Acad,  Rounmne,  2  {1913-14),  No.  1,  pp,  38-44;  abs. 


122  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

in  Jour.  Chem.  Soc.  [London],  104  (1913),  No.  611,  I,  p.  1035).— An  electrical 
method  and  apparatus  for  determining  the  reaction  of  soil  extracts  are  de- 
scribed and  tests  of  the  method  on  different  kinds  of  soil  are  reported. 

Alkaline  reactions  caused  by  acids  and  their  acid  salts  in  soils,  G.  Masoni 
(Staz,  Sper.  Agr.  Ital.,  46  (,1913),  No.  Jf,  pp.  2^1-273;  abs.  in  Chem.  Zentbl., 
1913,  I,  No.  2It,  p.  1999;  Jour.  Chem.  Soc.  [London],  IO4  (1913),  No.  611,  I, 
p.  1036;  Chem.  Abs.,  7  (1913),  No.  19,  p.  538i).—"  Organic  and  mineral  acids 
and  their  acid  salts  are  able  to  cause  an  alkaline  reaction  in  soils.  In  calcifer- 
ous  soils  calcium  carbonate  is  formed,  which  in  aqueous  solution,  on  the  addi- 
tion of  acid,  parts  with  hydroxyl.  The  alkaline  reaction  may  also  be  due  to  the 
action  of  acids  on  basic  salts  of  magnesium,  calcium,  or  aluminum.  Acid  alkali 
salts  will  give  rise  to  alkali  carbonates.  The  influence  of  the  alkaline  reaction 
on  the  biological  function  of  the  roots  is  discussed." 

The  chemistry  of  humus,  with  special  reference  to  the  relation  of  humus 
to  the  soil  and  to  the  plant,  S.  L.  Jodidi  (Jour.  Franklin  Inst.,  116  (1913) , 
No.  5,  pp.  565-573). — From  a  review  of  his  own  and  other  investigations  the 
author  concludes,  in  opposition  to  the  earlier  idea  that  humus  is  made  up  of 
but  a  few  organic  compounds,  chiefly  acid  in  their  nature,  that  "more  recent 
investigations  have  thrown  enough  light  upon  the  chemical  nature  of  humus 
or  humus  organic  matter  in  the  soil  to  demonstrate  that  it  is  a  very  complex 
substance  which,  in  addition  to  the  dark-colored  humin  bodies,  contains  a  large 
number  of  organic  compounds  displaying  acid,  basic,  neutral,  and  amphoteric 
character." 

The  value  of  humus  in  soils  is  attributed  not  only  to  the  fact  that  it  contains 
most  of  the  elements  necessary  for  plant  life  but  that  it  affords  a  means  for 
rendering  more  of  the  necessary  inorganic  elements  available,  improves  the 
physical  condition  of  the  soil,  and  in  short  "  makes  the  soil  a  more  habitable 
and  suitable  home  for  the  performance  of  the  life  functions  of  plants." 

The  nature  of  humus  and  its  relation  to  plant  life,  S.  L.  Jodidi  (Biochem. 
Bui.,  3  (1913),  No.  9,  pp.  17-22). — This  article  is  substantially  the  same  as  the 
above. 

Observations  on  the  influence  of  plant  covering  on  soil  temperatures, 
J.  Fkodin  (Lunds  Univ.  Arsskr.,  n.  ser.,  Sect.  2,  S  (1912),  No.  9,  pp.  16,  pis.  4, 
fig.  1). — Soil  temperatures  were  observed  in  midwinter  on  snow-covered  and 
open  soils,  both  fallowed  and  planted. 

It  was  found  that  on  the  coldest  days  the  temperature  at  a  depth  of  10  cm. 
under  the  plant  covering  was  the  same  as  at  a  depth  of  17  cm.  in  fallowed  soil. 
The  temperature  at  10  cm.  in  the  snow-covered  soil  was  found  to  be  equal  to 
that  at  a  depth  of  27.4  cm.  in  naked  soil.  Since  the  plant  covering  of  from  2 
to  4  cm.  apparently  had  the  same  effect  as  a  soil  layer  7  cm.  thick,  and  the 
10  cm.  snow  layer  the  same  effect  as  a  soil  layer  17.4  cm.  thick  it  is  concluded 
that  at  the  same  thickness  coverings  of  vegetation  and  snow  would  have  the 
same  effect.  After  a  thaw  it  was  found  that  under  the  snow  the  top  layer 
of  soil  was  warmer  than  a  layer  20  cm,  deep  and  that  a  still  colder  layer  of 
soil  existed  between  these  two.  This  is  attributed  to  heat  radiation  through 
the  snow  and  is  said  to  have  a  considerable  biological  and  hydrographic  in- 
fluence. 

,A  comparison  of  the  daily  ranges  in  temperature  of  soil  covered  with  vege- 
tation and  fallowed  soil  showed  that  at  10  cm,  depth  the  temperature  range 
of  the  former  was  only  55  per  cent  of  that  of  the  fallowed  soil  and  that  the 
plant  covering  acted  in  this  respect  as  a  soil  layer  9.1  cm,  thick.  Comparisons 
of  the  daily  range  in  temperature  in  the  same  soils  on  clear  quiet  days  in  the 
late  spring  showed  that  the  range  at  a  depth  of  10  cm,  under  vegetation  was 
only  59  per  cent  of  that  of  the  fallowed  land  and  that  the  plant  covering  acted 


SOILS FERTILIZERS.  123 

in  this  respect  as  a  soil  layer  8.6  cm.  thick.  It  is  further  shown  that  the 
differences  in  range  of  temperature  between  soil  covered  with  vegetation  and 
naked  soil  have  a  particular  significance  to  the  biology  and  geography  of  some 
plants,  especially  the  so-called  Alpine  plants. 

The  use  of  dialysis  and  the  determination  of  oxidizing  power  in  judg-ing 
soils,  J.  KoNiG,  J.  Hasenbaumer  and  K.  Glenk  (Landw.  Vers.  Stat.,  70-80 
{1913),  pp.  491-534,  pi.  1,  figs.  2;  abs.  in  Zentbl.  Agr.  Chem.,  42  {1913),  'No.  5, 
pp.  289-295;  Jour.  Chem.  80c.  [London],  IO4  {1913),  No.  607,  I,  p.  578;  Genthl. 
Bakt.  [etc.],  2.  AM,  39  {1913),  No.  ^-7,  pp.  18ft,  i85).— Six  different  soils, 
namely,  sand,  sandy  loam,  loam,  limestone  soil,  clay  soil,  and  schistose  soil,  were 
subjected  to  dialysis,  part  in  the  natural  state,  part  previously  heated  in  a 
vacuum  to  from  95  to  98°  C,  part  heated  to  from  150  to  180°,  and  part  treated 
with  hydrogen  peroxid.  After  dialysis  the  amounts  of  organic  matter,  calcium, 
magnesium,  potassium,  phosphoric  acid,  and  sulphuric  acid  were  estimated. 

The  final  results  showed  that  only  with  dried  clny  soil  did  the  quantity  of  sub- 
stances obtained  by  dialysis  fall  below  that  of  the  natural  soil.  It  was  found 
that  soils  heated  to  150°  yielded  more  soluble  matter  than  untreated  soils, 
similar  results,  but  less  marked,  were  obtained  with  the  soils  dried  at  from  05 
to  98°.  The  amounts  obtained  for  sandy  and  sandy  loam  soils  treated  with 
hydrogen  peroxid  were  considerably  higher  than  those  obtained  from  natural 
soils.  From  the  results  obtained,  and  since  much  time  and  considerable  care 
and  accuracy  are  required,  it  is  concluded  that  dialysis  can  have  no  practical 
application  in  soil  investigation. 

Clearer  indications  of  the  changes  which  soils  undergo  when  heated  and  when 
air-dried  were  obtained  bj-  estimating  the  electrolytic  conductivity.  The  results 
indicate  that  the  ordinary  drying  out  of  soils  produces  a  partial  suspension  of 
the  colloidal  conditions  and  hence  an  increase  in  the  solubility  of  the  plant  food 
in  the  colloidal  combinations. 

The  amounts  of  carboh  dioxid  produced  in  six  different  soils  and  in  the  same 
soils  with  small  amounts  of  dextrose  and  urea  were  estimated  daily  for  three 
weeks.  Contradictory  results  were  obtained  with  and  without  dextrose,  but  at 
a  mean  temperature  of  15.7°  the  limestone  soil  formed  the  largest  proportion  of 
carbon  dioxid.  At  the  end  of  this  experiment  the  amounts  of  ammonia  and 
nitrates  and  the  number  of  bacteria  were  estimated.  Urea  was  almost  com- 
pletely nitrified  in  the  loamy  soil  while  the  clay  soil  showed  only  very  slight 
nitrification.  It  was  noted  that  the  power  of  oxidation  of  a  soil  stands  within 
certain  limits  which  can  not  be  exceeded  within  a  given  time  with  a  given 
air  supply.  The  addition  of  dextrose  considerably  increased  the  number  of 
bacteria  in  all  the  soils,  in  sandy  soils  as  much  as  eightfold.  The  catalytic 
power  was  affected  in  the  same  way  except  in  the  schistose  and  clay  soils. 
The  electrolytic  conductivity  was  increased  by  clay  and  diminished  by  dextrose. 
It  is  concluded  that  determination  of  electrolytic  conductivity  is  the  best 
method  of  disclosing  the  changes  taking  place  in  the  soil  and  further  that  the 
determination  of  oxidizing  power  is  a  very  suitable  method  of  investigating  the 
properties  of  individual  soils. 

The  results  of  pot  exi^ermonts  with  oats  showed  that  heating  the  soil  at  from 
95  to  98°  in  a  vacuum  increased  both  the  total  growth  and  the  mineral  con- 
stituents. From  this  it  is  concluded  that  alternate  drying  out  and  wetting  of 
the  soil  will  promote  the  formation  of  soluble  plant  foods. 

The  addition  of  dextrose  and  gum  arable  to  loamy  sand  and  loam  diminished 

the  yield  of  grain  and  straw.     This  is  attributed  to  an  excess  of  undecomposed 

sugar  in  the  soil  acting  as  a  nonelectrolyte,  impeding  the  movement  of  the  ions- 

in  the  soil,  or  as  a  colloid  shield  restricting  flocculation  of  the  colloids.     The 

28054°— 14 3 


124  EXPEKIMEXT   STATION   EECOKD. 

tnking  up  of  food  from  the  soil  by  plants  is  thought  to  be  effected  by  an  ex- 
change of  ions. 

The  employment  of  dialysis  and  the  determination  of  the  power  of  oxi- 
dation as  a  convenient  method  for  the  judgment  of  soils,  J.  Konig  (Fest- 
schrift 84-  Versamml.  Deut.  Xaturf.  u.  Arzte  von  der  Med.  Naturw.  Gesell. 
Minister,  1912,  pp.  57-77,  ph  1,  fig.  1). — See  also  the  article  noted  above. 

The  soil  solution,  and  the  mineral  constituents  of  the  soil,  A.  D.  Hall, 
Winifred  E.  Beenchley,  and  Lilian  M.  Underwood  {Phil.  Trans.  Roy.  Soc. 
London,  Ser.  B,  204  (1913),  No.  307,  pp.  179-200,  figs,  g).— Wheat  and  barley 
were  grown  in  solutions  made  from  soils  on  which  wheat  and  barley  had  been 
grown  for  60  years.  The  growth  in  the  solutions  was  parallel  to  that  on  the  plats 
and  the  composition  of  the  solutions  as  regards  phosphoric  acid  and  potash 
corresponded  to  the  past  manurial  treatment  and  present  analysis  of  the  plats. 
Growth  in  the  solutions  from  imperfectly  manured  plats  was  brought  to  the 
level  of  that  in  solutions  of  completely  manured  plats  by  the  addition  of  suitable 
salts.  "Wheat  ^ew  as  well  as  barley  in  the  solutions  of  the  wheat  soils  and 
vice  versa.  In  a  similar  set  of  solutions  from  the  same  soil  the  growth  of  buck- 
wheat, white  lupines,  and  sunflowers  corresponded  with  that  of  wheat  and  bar- 
ley.   Boiling  effected  no  alteration  in  the  nutritive  value  of  the  soil  solutions." 

"  In  nutritive  solutions  of  various  degrees  of  dilution  the  growth  of  plants 
varied  directly,  but  not  proportionally  with  the  concentration  of  the  solution, 
though  the  total  plant  food  present  in  the  solution  was  in  excess  of  the  require- 
ments of  the  plant.  When  the  nutrient  solution  was  diffused  as  a  film  over 
sand  or  soil  particles,  as  in  nature,  there  was  no  retardation  of  growth  due  to 
the  slowness  of  the  diffusion  of  the  nutrients  to  the  points  in  the  liquid  film 
which  had  been  exhausted  by  contact  with  the  roots.  Growth  in  such  nutrient 
solutions  forming  a  film  over  sand  particles  was  much  superior  to  the  growth 
in  a  water  culture  of  equal  concentration,  but  the  growth  in  the  water  culture 
was  similarly  increased  if  a  continuous  current  of  air  was  kept  passing 
through  it." 

"  From  the  results  obtained  it  is  generally  concluded :  (1)  The  composition  of 
the  natural  soil  solution  as  regards  phosphoric  acid  and  potash  is  not  constant, 
but  varies  significantly  in  accord  with  the  composition  of  the  soil  and  its  past 
manurial  history. 

"(2)  Within  wide  limits  the  rate  of  growth  of  a  plant  A^aries  with  the  con- 
centration of  the  nutritive  solution,  irrespective  of  the  total  amount  of  plant 
food  available. 

"(3)  When  other  conditions,  such  as  the  supply  of  nitrogen,  water,  and  air 
are  equal,  the  growth  of  the  crop  will  be  determined  by  the  concentration  of  the 
soil  solution  in  phosphoric  acid  and  potash  which,  in  its  turn,  is  determined  by 
the  amount  of  these  substances  in  the  soil,  their  state  of  combination,  and  the 
fertilizer  supplied. 

"(4)  On  normal  cultivated  soils  the  growth  of  crops  like  wheat  and  barley, 
even  when  repeated  for  60  years  in  succession,  does  not  leave  behind  in  the 
soil  specific  toxic  substances  which  have  an  injurious  effect  upon  the  growth 
of  the  same  or  other  plants  in  that  soil." 

The  net  result  of  these  investigations  is  thought  to  uphold  the  theory  of  the 
direct  nutrition  of  the  plant  by  fertilizers. 

Results  of  ten  years'  comparative  field  experiments  on  the  action  of  fal- 
low, manure,  and  clover,  A.  Koch  (In  Festschrift  zum  sieb.^igsten  Gehurtstage 
von  Jacob  Esser.  Berlin,  1913,  pp.  57-93,  figs.  3;  Jour.  Landw.,  61  (1913), 
No.  3,  pp.  245-281,  figs.  3). — ^Three  systems  of  soil  treatment  were  followed  in 
the  experiments  reported  in  this  article.  These  compared  unfertilized  black 
fallow,  manure  (on  potatoes  or  beets),  and  clover  in  a  rotation  of  three  cereals 

\ 


SOILS FERTILIZERS.  125 

(winter  wheat,  rye,  and  oats  or  summer  barley).  The  soil  used  in  the  experi- 
ments was  a  friable  loam. 

Detailed  data  for  yield  and  value  of  the  crops  and  the  nitrogen  content  of 
the  soil  at  different  periods  of  the  experiments  are  summarized.  These  indi- 
cate little  or  no  decline  of  the  nitrogen  supply  of  the  soil  or  of  yield  with  bare 
fallow  as  compared  with  the  manure  and  clover  rotations. 

The  addition  of  cellulose  to  the  soil  as  a  source  of  energy  increased  the 
activity  of  bacteria  which  convert  nitrates  into  albuminoid  substances,  and  thus 
decreased  the  growth  of  crops.  As  soon  as  the  cellulose  was  consumed,  how- 
ever, no  further  transformation  of  nitrates  occurred  and  the  plants  began  to 
make  normal  growth.  The  author  concludes  from  this  that  nitrates  are  essen- 
tial to  plant  growth  in  natural  soils. 

Soil  hyg-iene  and  green  manuring-,  F.  Arndt  (Mitt.  Okonom.  Gcsell.  Sachsen, 
1912-13,  pp.  20-70). — The  author  discusses  soil  moisture  regulation  and  physical 
and  chemical  harmony  in  soils,  and  reports  the  results  of  his  experiments  made 
to  demonstrate  the  value  of  legumes  for  green  manuring. 

Report  of  the  agriculturist,  E.  F.  Gaskill  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1012, 
pt.  1,  pp.  21-34)' — This  is  a  report  of  progress  in  fertilizer  experiments  follow- 
ing the  same  general  lines  as  in  previous  years,  including  plat  and  pot  tests 
(E.  S.  R..  28,  p.  325^. 

The  manag-ement  of  solid  and  liquid  manures,  M.  Ringelmann  (Am&nage- 
ment  dcs  Fumiers  et  des  Purins.  Paris,  1013,  pp.  187,  figs.  103;  rev.  in  Rev. 
Sci.  [Paris],  51  (1913),  II,  No.  7,  p.  210).— This  book  deals  very  fully  with  the 
methods,  structures,  and  appliances  emploj^ed  in  the  preservation  and  handling 
of  farm  manures,  more  especially  liquid  manures.  The  subject  Is  considered 
from  the  sanitary  standpoint  as  well  as  from  that  of  practical  utilization  of  the 
manures  on  the  farm.  Methods  and  appliances  for  distributing  the  manures 
and  manure  liquors  receive  particular  attention. 

Enrichment  of  farmyard  manure  by  cake  feeding*,  A.  D.  Hall  (Jour.  Bd. 
Agr.  [London'],  20  (1913),  No.  8,  pp.  665-672).— On  the  basis  mainly  of  experi- 
ments made  at  Rothamsted,  but  also  from  a  study  of  farm  accounts,  the  author 
concludes  that  the  addition  of  oil  cake  to  the  feed  of  cattle  enriches  the  manure 
in  quickly  available  fertilizing  constituents,  but  does  not  greatly  increase  its 
ultimate  effect.  He  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  value  of  the  practice  of  using 
cake  is  overestimated,  particularly  in  case  of  light  soils. 

Comparative  tests  of  lime  nitrogen,  nitrogen  lime,  sodium  nitrate,  and 
ammonium  sulphate  on  sandy  and  upland  moor  soils,  B.  Tacke  and  F.  Brune 
(Landw.  Vers.  Stat.,  S3  (1013),  No.  1-2,  pp.  1-100).— Vol  experiments  with  dif- 
ferent crops  under  a  variety  of  conditions  gave  results  indicating  that  the  lime 
nitrogen  prepared  by  the  Frank  and  Caro  process  and  nitrogen  lime  prepared 
by  the  Polzenius  process  are  equally  effective  on  sandy  soils,  but  that  the  nitro- 
gen lime  is  only  about  81  per  cent  as  effective  as  that  of  lime  nitrogen  on  moor 
soils.  The  experiments  indicated  that  neither  product  should  be  applied  at  the 
same  time  as  the  seed,  as  if  applied  at  this  time  the  fertilizing  effect  is  only  44 
per  cent  of  that  of  sodium  nitrate.  Applied  as  a  top-dressing  the  materials  are 
from  66  to  67  per  cent  as  effective  as  sodium  nitrate  in  the  case  of  rye  and 
from  80  to  82  per  cent  as  effective  in  the  case  of  oats  and  potatoes.  The  best 
results  were  always  obtained  when  the  materials  were  applied  a  short  time  be- 
fore seeding,  when  they  were  on  the  average  89  per  cent  as  effective  as  sodium 
nitrate.  The  utilization  of  the  nitrogen  by  plants  was  only  54  per  cent  of  that 
of  sodium  nitrate  on  sandy  soils  and  67  per  cent  on  moor  soils. 

The  lime-nitrogen  industry,  E.  O.  Siebneb  (Chcm.  Ztg.,  37  (1013),  Nos.  106, 
pp.  1057,  1058:  108,  pp.  1073-1075).— This  is  a  brief  review  of  the  present  status 
of  the  industry. 


126  EXPEKIMENT  STATION   RECORD. 

Nitrogenous  fertilizers  obtainable  in  the  United  States,  J.  W.  Turrentine 
(U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  37,  pp.  12). — Statistics  of  procUicliou  and  consumption  for 
fertilizing  purposes  of  sodium  nitrate,  ammonium  sulphate,  synthetic  nitrogen 
compounds  (calcium  cyanamid  and  nitrate),  tankage,  and  dried  blood  are  sum- 
marized and  discussed. 

It  is  estimated  that  the  use  of  these  materials  in  fertilizers  in  the  United 
States  during  1912  was  approximately  as  follows:  Ammonium  sulphate  (pro- 
duction in  United  States  155,000  tons,  imports  60,000  tons)  215.000  tons;  sodium 
nitrate  (about  13  per  cent  of  the  imports,  518,613  tons)  70,000  tons;  calcium 
cyanamid  11,264  tons ;  tankage  99,324  tons ;  dried  blood  37,710  tons ;  fish  scrap 
70,000  tons.    See  also  a  previous  note  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  517). 

Figures  are  given  which  indicate  that  less  than  one-sixth  of  the  recoverable 
ammonium  sulphate  lost  in  beehive  coke  ovens  in  the  United  States  is  now 
saved.  Estimates  by  the  Bureau  of  Animal  Industry  indicate  that  if  all  the 
slaughterhouse  wastes  were  saved  the  possible  production  of  tankage  would  be 
222.535,  of  dried  blood  79,794  tons. 

The  replacement  of  potash  in  certain  f eldspathic  rocks  by  substances  used 
as  fertilizers,  G.  Andr:^  (Compt.  Ren4.  Acad,  Sci.  [Paris'\,  157  {1913),  No.  19, 
pp.  856-858;  ahs.  in  Rev.  Set.  [Paris],  51  (1913),  II,  No.  21,  p.  668).— The  results 
reported  by  the  author  show  the  important  role  played  by  the  phenomena  of 
double  decomposition  which  occurs  when  soluble  fertilizing  materials  are  added 
to  the  soil. 

The  replacement  of  potash  by  soda  was  especially  marked  when  microcline 
was  mixed  with  sea  salt  or  with  sodium  nitrate,  the  amount  of  potash  replaced 
being  almost  identical  in  the  two  cases.  This  replacement  explains  the  favor- 
able action  of  salt  when  used  as  a  fertilizer.  Sodium  nitrate  when  applied  to 
the  soil  is  thus  a  means  of  furnishing  a  certain  amount  of  potash  to  plants  as 
a  result  of  double  decomposition  in  contact  with  particles  of  feldspar.  Am- 
monium sulphate  is  also  particularly  active  in  replacing  potash. 

Investigations  on  the  composition  of  Thomas  slag,  M.  Popp  (Osterr.  Chem. 
Ztg.,  16  {1913),  No.  21,  pp.  291,  292). — Four  different  crystalline  forms  occurring 
in  Thomas  slag  are  described  and  their  varying  solubility  in  citric  acid  is  dis- 
cussed. Certain  rhomboidal  blue  crystals  occuring  in  the  slag  were  found  to  be 
95  per  cent  soluble  in  citric  acid,  while  the  brown  columnar  crystals  found  were 
only  41  per  cent  soluble. 

In  ground  slag  it  was  found  that  the  finest  particles  had  the  highest  per- 
centage of  phosphoric  acid,  silicic  acid,  and  lime,  and  the  lowest  percentage 
of  iron.  Separating  the  coarser  particles  by  means  of  an  electromagnet  it  w^as 
found  that  the  nonmagnetic  part  was  almost  identical  in  composition  with  the 
fine  meal.  While  the  phosphoric  acid  of  the  coarse  particles,  as  a  whole,  was 
13  per  cent  soluble,  that  of  the  magnetic  particles  was  20  per  cent  soluble. 

A  method  of  electro-dialysis  was  tried  by  which  it  was  possible  to  separate 
the  particles  into  groups  corresponding  to  their  solubility  in  citric  acid. 

Investigations  on  the  action  of  steamed  and  unsteamed  bone  as  a  phos- 
phatic  fertilizer  in  comparison  with  superphosphate  and  Thomas  slag  as 
well  as  on  the  importance  of  grinding  unsteamed  bone,  B.  Schulze  (Land. 
Vers.  Stat.,  83  {1913),  No.  1-2,  pp.  101-180). — In  a  series  of  pot  experiments  it 
was  found  that  the  phosphoric  acid  of  Thomas  slag  soluble  in  citric  acid  was 
about  90  per  cent  as  effective  as  the  water  soluble  phosphoric  acid  of  super- 
phosphate the  first  year.  Its  utilization  by  plants  was  about  81  per  cent  of 
that  of  water  soluble  phosphoric  acid.  The  after  effects,  however,  in  a  measure 
compensated  for  the  poor  results  the  first  year. 

The  effect  of  the  phosphoric  acid  of  bone  meal  during  the  first  year  was 
barely  half  that  of  superphosphate.    In  the  course  of  three  years  the  average 


SOILS FERTILIZERS.  127 

effect  of  the  phosphoric  acid  of  bone  meal  was  about  60  per  cent  of  that  of 
water  soluble  phosphoric  acid.  The  phosi)horic  acid  of  steamed  bone  meal  was 
somewhat  more  effective  than  that  of  unsteamed  bone;  the  results,  however, 
varied  wirh  the  plants  grown.  The  difference  in  effect  on  cereals  and  on  such 
crops  as  mustard,  buckwheat,  and  spurry  was  especially  marked.  In  no  case, 
however,  did  the  bone  meal  approximate  in  fertilizing  efficiency  the  water  solu- 
ble or  citric  acid  soluble  phosphoric  acid. 

Fine  grinding  of  the  unsteamed  bone  appreciably  increased  the  fertilizing 
efficiency  of  the  phosiihorle  acid. 

The  use  of  raw  phosphate  and  siliceous  lime  as  fertilizers,  T.  Pfeiffer 
(ZentU.  Kunstdunger  Indiii^.,  18  {1913),  Nos.  21,  pp.  4-57,  458;  22,  pp.  473,  W)-— 
Reviewing  work  by  others  the  author  concludes  that  raw  phos-phates  may  be 
profitably  substituted  for  Thomas  slag  under  certain  circumstances,  as,  for 
example,  on  acid  peaty  soils,  but  that  the  conditions  under  which  they  are 
effective  need  to  be  carefully  studied.  The  work  of  Immendorff  and  others 
shows  that  siliceous  lime  may  be  applied  to  soils  without  injury  and  even  with 
benefit  under  certain  conditions. 

Agricultural*  value  of  carbonate  of  lime  recovered  from  causticizing  plant, 
J.  Hendrick  (Rpt.  Brit.  Assoc.  Adv.  Sci.,  1912,  p.  741)- — This  material  is  de- 
scribed and  field  experiments  with  it  are  reported  which  showed  that  it  com- 
pared favorably  with  other  forms  of  lime  as  a  fertilizer. 

The  action  of  quicklime  on  the  soil,  H.  B.  Hutchinson  (Rpt.  Brit.  Assoc. 
Adv.  Sci.,  1912,  p.  740). — Observations  are  reported  which  show  that  the  addi- 
tion of  small  quantities  of  quicklime  to  field  and  garden  soils  stimulates  gen- 
eral bacterial  growth,  but  that  large  quantities  cause  an  Initial  depression  in 
the  numbers  of  bacteria,  the  destruction  of  certain  large  protozoa,  and  a  cessa- 
tion of  all  biological  processes.  When  the  lime  is  converted  into  carbonate  or 
combines  with  the  soil  constituents  there  is  a  gi*eat  increase  in  the  number 
of  bacteria  and  acceleration  of  ammonification. 

"  The  length  of  the  period  dui'ing  which  bacterial  growth  is  suspended  would 
appear  to  be  determined  by  the  quantity  of  lime  applied,  the  initial  reaction  of 
the  soil,  and  the  amount  of  organic  matter  present. 

"  Pot  experiments  have  been  carried  out  with  A-ariously  limed  soils,  and  the 
crop  results  show  close  agreement  with  those  obtained  by  bacteriological  and 
chemical  analyses." 

Mineral  and  nitrogen  contents  of  pine  needles  and  straw,  H.  Bauer  {Ztschr. 
Forst  u.  Jagdw.,  45  {1913),  No.  10,  pp.  659,  660).— Analyses  of  needles  and  of 
straw  of  Finus  cemhra  in  various  stages  of  decomposition  are  reported.  The 
percentages  of  ash  and  nitrogen  were  found  to  be  very  small  but  increased  with 
the  age  of  the  material.  The  increase  of  mineral  constituents  with  age  and 
stage  of  decomposition  was  esi>ecially  marked  in  the  case  of  the  lime.  The 
potash  on  the  other  hand  decreased  with  age. 

Tobacco  stalks  as  a  fertilizer,  H.  D.  Haskins  {Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt. 
1912,  pt.  2,  pp.  80-84). — This  article  gives  analyses  and  discusses  the  fertilizing 
value  of  various  samples  of  leached  and  unleached  tobacco  stalks.  Stalks  ob- 
tained in  the  so-called  priming  system  of  harvesting  the  crop  contained  much 
less  fertilizing  matter  than  those  obtained  by  stripping  in  the  ordinary  manner. 
Stalks  which  had  been  allowed  to  lie  on  the  land  during  the  fall  and  winter 
months  had  lost  about  57  per  cent  of  the  total  nitrogen  and  51  per  cent  of  the 
total  potash. 

Chemical  industries  of  Belgium,  Netherlands,  Norway,  and  Sweden,  T.  H. 
Norton  {U.  S.  Dept.  Com.  and  Labor,  Bur.  Foreign  and  Dom.  Com.,  Spec. 
Agents  Sen,  1912,  No.  65,  pp.  85). — Data  regarding  the  production  of  various 


128  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

materials  used  as  fertilizers  and  for  otlier  agricultural  purposes  are  included  in 
this  report. 

Report  of  the  fertilizer  section,  H.  D.  Haskins  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt. 
1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  103-1 J S). — A  brief  account  is  given  of  the  State  fertilizer  inspec- 
tion and  the  character  and  quality  of  fertilizing  materials  used  in  the  State 
are  discussed. 

AGKICTJLTUIIAL  BOTANY. 

The  action  of  certain  nutrient  and  nonnutrient  bases  on  plant  growth,  M.. 
M.  McCooL  (XeiD  York  Cornell  Sta.  Mem.  2,  pp.  115-216,  figs.  15). — This  memoir 
consists  of  three  papers  as  follows:  (1)  The  antitoxic  action  of  certain  nutrient 
and  nonnutrient  bases  with  respect  to  plants,  (2)  the  toxicity  of  manganese 
and  the  antidotal  relations  between  this  and  various  other  cations  with  respect 
to  green  plants,  and  (3)  toxicity  of  various  cations. 

Extensive  studies  on  the  toxic  and  .antidotal  action  of  various  ions  were 
made,  and  the  chief  conclusions  which  were  derived  from  the  experiments  are 
that  barium,  strontium,  ammonium,  magnesium,  sodium,  and  potassium  were 
poisonous  to  seedlings  in  the  order  given.  Mutual  antagonism  resulted  when 
the  following  cations  were  present  in  solution:  Magnesium  and  strontium,  po- 
tassium and  strontium,  sodium  and  strontium,  sodium  and  potassium,  sodium 
and  ammonium,  potassium  and  barium,  and  magnesium  and  barium.  Calcium 
was  found  the  most  effective  of  any  of  the  substances  studied  in  preventing 
toxic  action.  This  protective  action  was  found  to  be  not  confined  to  the  so- 
called  essential  nutrients,  as  some  of  the  nonessential  ions  possessed  this  prop- 
erty. The  favorable  results  obtained  from  the  application  of  lime  to  many 
types  of  soils  is  believed  to  be  due  in  part  to  the  antidotal  relations. 

In  considering  the  toxicity  of  manganese  the  author  studied  its  effect  in 
various  cultures,  using  pea  and  wheat  seedlings.  It  was  found  that  pure  solu- 
tions of  manganese  salts  are  extremely  poisonous  to  pea  and  wheat  seedlings, 
and  that  the  degree  of  toxicity  is  greatly  reduced  by  full  nutrient  solutions  and 
hy  soil  cultures.  The  injurious  action  of  the  manganese  ion  is  manifested 
mainly  toward  the  tops  of  plants,  chlorosis  of  the  leaves  being  the  first  indica- 
tion of  an  overdose  of  manganese.  Manganese  was  found  less  injurious  to 
plants  grown  in  the  dark  than  to  those  in  the  light,  and  the  ions  of  calcium, 
potassium,  sodium,  and  magnesium  were  effective  in  counteracting  the  poisonous 
action  of  manganese. 

In  the  report  upon  the  toxicity  of  various  cations  the  author  reviews  the  lit- 
erature and  summarizes  his  investigations,  showing  that  barium,  strontium, 
ammonium,  magnesium,  sodium,  and  potassium,  in  the  order  given,  when  pres- 
ent in  pure  solution  are  very  toxic  to  seedlings.  This  toxicity  is  greatly  re- 
duced by  either  full  nutrient  solutions  or  soil  cultures.  Under  the  conditions  of 
the  experiments  much  stronger  solutions  were  required  in  order  to  prevent  top 
growth  than  to  kill  the  roots  of  seedlings.  Seedlings  which  had  been  grown  for 
10  days  either  in  distilled  water,  tap  water,  or  full  nutrient  solutions  were 
found  more  resistant  to  the  toxicants  studied  than  those  which  were  placed 
immediately  in  the  toxic  solutions. 

Bibliographies  of  literature  are  appended  to  the  different  papers. 

Application  of  fertilizers  to  plants  through  their  leaves,  P.  Larue  {Rev. 
Tit.,  40  (1913),  No.  1028,  pp.  26i-264).— Experiments  suggested  by  the  reports 
of  Hiltner  on  his  work  in  applying  fertilizing  solutions  to  aerial  portions  of 
plants  (E.  S.  R.,  27,  pp.  324,  651)  were  carried  out  by  the  author  with  various 
plants. 


AGRICULTURAL  BOTANY.  129 

Potatoes  were  increase<l  in  weifj:bt  by  tbe  use  of  several  different  applications. 
Results  with  mustard  and  soy  beans  were  variable,  some  compounds  tested 
apiiearing  toxic.  In  case  of  grapevines  tbe  conclusion  is  reacbed  tbat  mixtures 
used  against  attacks  of  fungi,  etc.,  may  be  so  proportioned  as  to  give  tbese  sprays 
a  decided  value  as  aerial  fertilizers  if  tbe  necessary  bigber  degree  of  adberence 
can  be  secured  to  prevent  tbeir  removal  by  rains. 

Saponins  as  a  source  of  carbohydrates  for  vegetation,  F.  Solacolu  {Compt. 
Rend.  /S'oc.  Biol.  [Paris],  77/  (1913),  No.  6,  pi).  30 ',-300). —The  author  reports  on 
culture  experiments  with  Aspergillus  niger  and  PenicilUum  glaucum  in  nutritive 
media  containing  various  saponins  named,-  most  of  which  were  commercially 
prepared,  stating  that  all  served  as  nutritive  material  for  these  fungi. 

Studies  on  the  distribution  of  asparagin,  glutaniin,  arginin,  and  allantoin 
in  plants,  A.  Stieger  {Uoppe-Seyler's  Ztschr.  Phy.siol.  Clicni.,  S6  {1913),  No.  J^, 
pp.  245-269). — Tbe  results  are  given  of  investigations  carried  out  regarding  tbe 
occurrence  and  proportion  of  these  products  in  various  portions  of  tbe  plant 
body,  numerous  families  of  plants  being  represented  in  tbe  study. 

It  is  stated  tbat  asparagin  and  glutamin  were  frequently  found  together  in 
various  proportions  and  sometimes  in  different  families,  leading  to  the  conclu- 
sion that  these  products  are  in  some  instances  used  or  stored  at  very  unlike 
rates,  the  differences  in  this  respect  being  apparently  family  characteristics 
in  certain  cases.  Arginin  almost  always  accompanied  asparagin,  but  less  regu- 
larly glutamin.  Allantoin  showed  no  such  close  relation  to  the  other  compounds 
in  question  and  no  conclusion  was  reached  regarding  tbe  part  it  plays  in  plant 
economy. 

The  formation  of  the  anthocyan  pigments  of  plants,  VI,  F.  Keeble,  E.  F. 
Armstrong,  and  W.  X.  Jones  (Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  [London],  Ser.  B,  87  {1913),  No. 
B  503,  pp.  113-131). — This  is  in  continuation  of  a  series  of  papers  (E.  S.  R.,  29, 
p.  421),  tbe  present  one  dealing  with  the  pigment-producing  glucosid  of  tbe 
wallflower,  tbe  formation  of  pigment-producing  substances  from  glucosids,  and 
the  biochemistry  of  Mendelian  color  characters. 

The  pale  yellow  sap  color  of  the  petals  of  the  wallflower  is  said  to  be  a  mix- 
ture of  hydroxyflavone  glucosids.  Tbe  hydrolyzed  product  if  reduced  and  sub- 
sequently oxidized  yields  a  red  pigment.  Tbe  fact  that  flowers  containing  yellow 
pigments  may  be  caused,  by  chemical  treatment,  to  jield  a  red  pigment  sug- 
gests that  red  mutations  should  be  of  possible  occurrence  within  the  species. 
The  formation  of  pigments,  as  tbe  results  of  oxidation  by  oxidase  of  tlie  hydro- 
lyzed products  of  glucosids,  is  determined  by  the  presence  of  aminocompounds 
and  is  of  general  occurrence. 

The  authors  give  a  classification  of  pigments  as  determined  by  their  investi- 
gations. It  is  suggested  as  a  hypothesis  that  tbe  higher  members  of  a  flower 
color  series  owe  their  origin  to  the  presence  with  the  lower  members  of  specific 
substances  which,  acting  as  receivers  of  oxygen,  reduce  the  pigments  character- 
istic of  the  lower  members  of  the  color  series,  accept  oxygen  therefrom,  and 
thereby  become  oxidized  to  pigments  of  specific  color. 

Synthesis  by  sunlight  in  relationship  to  the  origin  of  life. — Synthesis  of 
formaldehyde  from  carbon  dioxid  and  water  by  inorganic  colloids  acting  as 
transformers  of  light  energy,  B.  Moore  and  T.  A.  Webster  {Proc.  Roy.  Soc. 
[London],  Ser.  B,  87  {1913),  No.  B  593,  pp.  163-176).— The  authors  found  that 
organic  matter  (aldehyde)  was  synthesized  from  inorganic  colloidal  uranic 
and  ferric  hydroxids  in  very  dilute  solution.  These  colloids  are  believed  to  act 
as  catalysts  for  light  energy,  converting  it  into  chemical  energy  in  a  reduction 
process  similar  to  the  first  stage  of  synthesis  of  organic  from  inorganic  sub- 
stances in  the  green  plant  by  the  agency  of  chlorophyll.     Such   a  synthesis 


130  EXPEEIMENT   STATION^   EECORD. 

occurring  in  nature,  they  think,  would  probably  constitute  the  first  step  in  the 
origin  of  life. 

Hemicellulose  in  roots,  rhizomes,  and  tubers,  A.  Stiegee  {Hoppe-Seyler's 
Ztschr.  Physiol.  Chem.,  86  {191S),  No.  4,  pp.  270-282).— The  author  details  the 
results  of  examinations  made  on  the  subterranean  parts  of  15  plants.  He  found 
hemicelluloses  in  all,  but  was  not  able  to  settle  the  question  as  to  whether 
these  serve  as  structural  or  exclusively  as  reserve  material.  A  bibliography  Is 
given. 

Protoplasmic  contractions  resembling  plasmolysis  which  are  caused  by 
pure  distilled  water,  W.  J.  V.  Osterhout  (Bot.  Gaz.,  55  {1913),  No.  6,  pp. 
446-451,  figs.  6). — This  amplifies  a  preliminary  account  already  noted  (E.  S.  R., 
29,  p.  134)  and  gives  some  details  of  the  study. 

It  is  stated  that  in  many  cases  contractions  in  young  cells  closely  simulating 
true  plasmolysis  may  take  place  with  great  rapidity  on  immersion  in  pure 
water,  while  older  cells  respond  more  slowly  and  show  by  alterations  of  their 
chromatophores  that  they  are  undergoing  false  plasmolysis.  True  and  false 
plasmolysis  may  be  produced  simultaneously,  these  contractions  usually  becom- 
ing irreversible  at  a  certain  point.  The  effects  observed  for  distilled  water 
were  also  produced  by  that  from  ponds,  rivers,  and  springs,  and  are  therefore 
held  not  to  be  due  to  toxic  products  of  distillation. 

It  is  held  that  the  cause  of  these  phenomena  is  increased  permeability  of 
the  plasma  and  internal  cell  membranes,  as  the  result  of  which  some  or  all  of 
the  osmotically  active  substances  diffuse  out.  The  protoplasm  then  shrinks  as 
the  result  of  the  water  loss  from  the  vacuoles,  this  being  often  followed  by  ap- 
parent coagulation  of  the  protoplasm,  with  most  of  the  features  characteristic  of 
cytolysis  in  animal  cells  usually  absent.  Absorption  of  water  as  a  cause  is 
precluded  by  the  fact  that  the  cells  do  not  increase  in  size.  The  increased  per- 
meability is  held  to  be  due  to  the  loss  of  certain  substances  upon  which  the 
maintenance  of  normal  permeability  depends  (the  most  important  being  the 
inorganic  salts),  which  is  followed  by  increased  permeability  of  the  cell  mem- 
branes as  measured  by  electrical  means. 

Toxic  inorganic  salts  and  acids  as  affecting  plant  growth,  C.  B.  Lipman 
and  F.  H.  Wilson  (Bot.  Gaz.,  55  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  ^OM^^)-— Tabulated  results 
are  given  of  preliminary  studies  made  on  vetch  and  wheat  as  to  the  effects 
thereon  of  varying  proportions  in  the  soil  of  sulphuric  acid  and  of  its  copper, 
zinc,  and  manganese  salts,  leading  to  the  conclusion  that  the  tolerance  of  plants 
for  certain  of  the  inorganic  salts  commonly  regarded  as  A'ery  poisonous  is  much 
greater  than  we  have  been  accustomed  to  believe.  Some  plants  are  said  to  be 
actually  stimulated  by  quite  considerable  proportions  of  such  salts.  A  further 
search  for  the  limits  of  toxicity  is  in  progress.  The  work  is  claimed  to  present 
new  evidence  regarding  the  stimulating  effects  of  manganese  sulphate  on  the 
growth  of  plants.  Certain  facts  are  thought  to  indicate  that  the  soil  flora  is 
permanently  modified  by  the  treatment  of  the  soil  as  herein  outlined. 

Arsenic  compounds  in  agriculture  and  possible  danger  from  their  use,  G. 
Ampola  and  G.  Tommasi  (Ann.  R.  Staz.  Cliim.  Agr.  Sper.  Roma,  2.  ser.^  5 
(1911),  pp.  263-277,  pis.  2;  als.  in  Centhl.  Bakt.  [etc.l,  2.  Aht.,  38  (1913),  No. 
7-12,  pp.  230,  231). — It  was  found  that  arsenic  acid  is  injurious  to  green  plants 
when  present  in  nutritive  solutions  in  concentrations  not  less  than  1  mg.  per 
liter  of  water.  Bean  plants  died  after  24  days  in  3  mg.  and  maize  after  27  days 
in  5  mg.  per  liter,  lupines  showing  an  intermediate  degree  of  resistance,  and  no 
plants  showing  growth  at  a  concentration  of  20  mg.  per  liter. 

In  soil  cultures  the  limits  were  more  difficult  to  determine  on  account  of 
absorption,  but  growth  was  usually  checked  at  a  concentration  corresponding 
to  0.3  mg.  of  arsenic  per  kilogram  of  soil.     The  arsenic  mostly  went  to  the 


AGRICULTURAL  BOTANY.  131 

leaves,  but  small  proportions  were  found  in  the  fleshy  or  juicy  portions  in  the 
case  of  gourds,  tomatoes,  and  beans  when  fresh,  only  traces  being  found  in 
dried  grains,  peas,  etc.  Absorption  of  arsenic  by  soil  is  said  to  vary  with  the 
concentration  and  time  and  to  be  incomplete. 

Arsenic  was  recovered  from  the  soil  under  olive  trees  that  had  been  sprayed 
therewith  for  olive  fly.  It  is  considered  necessary  to  regulate  the  use  of  arsenic 
in  such  connection  on  account  of  possible  injury  therefrom. 

Studies  on  the  anatomical  and  physiolog-ical  influence  of  tobacco  smoke  on 
seedlings,  A.  Purkyt  (Anz.  K.  Alcad.  ^y^ss.  [Vienna],  Math.  Naturw.  Kl.,  1912, 
No.  17,  p.  265;  a&.s\  in  Centhl.  Bakt.  [etc.],  2.  Abt.,  38  {WIS),  No.  7-12,  p.  211).— 
The  author  reports  that  in  tobacco  smoke  plants  develop  high  turgor  which  is 
later  gradually  lost;  that  abnormal  thickening  of  the  stems  is  due  to  growth 
in  the  size  but  not  in  the  number,  of  cells,  which  in  case  of  the  leaf  epidermis 
Is  expressed  in  alterations  of  form,  hypertrophy  of  stomata,  and  deformation 
of  leaf  hairs;  and  that  along  with  other  changes  mentioned,  the  formation  of 
both  wood  and  bast  fiber  is  limited  by  exposure  to  tobacco  smoke. 

Injuries  to  vegetation  by  furnace  gases  and  ashes,  H.  C.  Muxleb  et  al. 
{Ber.  Agr.  Chem.  Kontroll  u.  Vers.  Stat.  Pflanzenkrank.  Prov.  Sachscn.,  1912, 
pp.  19-22). — A  condensed  and  apparently  preliminary  account  is  given  regarding 
the  probable  or  actual  injury  done  to  vegetation  in  the  neighborhood  of  certain 
furnaces,  factories,  etc.,  distributing  smoke  gases,  ashes,  and -dust.  An  illus- 
trative table  is  given  showing  that  leaves  and  twigs  of  hawthorn  in  an  exposed 
situation  gave  a  considerable  increase  of  the  ash,  chlorin,  and  sulphur  content. 

Effects  of  illuminating  gas  on  vegetation,  G.  E.  Stone  (Massachusetts  Sta. 
Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  45-60,  pis.  2). — The  author  presents  a  general  description 
of  the  effects  of  gas  poisoning  on  trees  and  gives  a  number  of  specific  examples 
of  injurious  as  well  as  stimulating  effects  due  to  illuminating  gas.  The 
symptoms  of  gas  poisoning  are  said  to  be  best  obtained  from  a  careful  examina- 
tion of  the  wood  at  the  base  of  the  tree  or  the  roots. 

During  the  winter  a  break  in  a  gas  pipe  led  to  the  defoliation  of  a  large  num- 
ber of  plants  in  a  short  time.  Those  most  severely  injured  were  roses,  ger- 
aniums, and  abutilou,  though  others  were  also  somewhat  injured.  The  ferns, 
mosses,  and  liverworts  near  the  gas  inlet  were  scarcely  affected.  After  being 
defoliated  the  geraniums  and  abutilon  produced  small  leaves,  and  the  leaves 
on  the  variegated  abutilon  which  were  put  out  were  entirely  green. 

On  Carolina  poplars  illuminating  gas  is  said  to  show  some  characteristic 
effects.  The  symptoms  of  gas  poisoning  are  generally  a  peculiar  swelling  and 
cracking  of  the  bark,  the  lesions  often  extending  for  a  foot  or  more  along  the 
trunk.  On  the  sides  of  these  cracks  the  bark  was  bulged  out  and  examination 
showed  a  thick  layer  of  soft  parenchymatous  tissue  extending  to  the  wood  and 
apparently  derived  from  the  cambium  zone.  It  is  believed  that  the  absorption 
of  the  gas  may  have  killed  the  tissue  exterior  to  the  cambium  layer  before  the 
cambium  itself  was  affected,  and  that,  in  this  way,  the  tension  of  the  outer 
tissues  being  diminished,  a  stimulation  of  the  cambium  cells  resulted. 

When  willow  cuttings  were  grown  in  water  charged  with  illuminating  gas 
from  time  to  time,  there  was  found  to  be  a  slight  acceleration  in  the  develop- 
ment of  all  plants  subjected  to  gas,  although  the  gain  was  not  very  marked^ 
The  development  of  the  lenticels  and  roots  seemed  to  be  considerably  favored 
where  the  cuttings  were  placed  in  the  gas-charged  water. 

Influence  of  a  radio-active  body  on  germination,  J.  Crochetelle  (Jour.  Agr. 
Prat.,  n.  ser.,  26  (1913),  No.  37,  pp.  332,  333,  fig.  i).— The  author  gives  a  pre- 
liminary report  of  his  experiments  regarding  the  influence  of  radio-active  sub- 
stance on  some  common  plants.  st<ating  that  while  the  results  obtained  with  dif- 
ferent plants  were  not  uniform,  bean  seedlings  so  treated  showed  a  striking 


132  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECOBD. 

acceleration  of  growth,  wliicli  was  more  marked  iu  cases  wliere  the  radio- 
active powder  was  applied  directly  than  where  plants  in  tubes  were  exposed 
thereto. 

Semipermeability  of  seed  coats,  C.  A.  Shull  (Bot.  Gaz.,  56  {1913),  No.  3, 
pp.  169-199,  figs.  9). — The  author  gives  an  account  of  investigations  carried  on 
for  two  years  regarding  the  character  of  the  seed  coat  of  Xanthium,  with  par- 
ticular reference  to  the  work  of  Becquerel  (E.  S.  R.,  19,  p.  426),  Brown  (B.  S.  R., 
18,  p.  727),  and  Schroeder  (E.  S.  E,.,  25,  p.  123),  with  conclusions  substantially 
as  follows: 

The  dry  seed  coats  of  Xanthium  are  impermeable  to  di*y  alcohol,  ether,  chloro- 
form, and  acetone.  Becquerel's  results  with  coats  of  other  seeds  are  confirmed. 
No  evidence  of  diffusion  of  oxygen  through  dry  seed  coats  was  obtained. 
Selective  semipermeability  independent  of  living  substance  was  established  for 
the  seed  coat  of  Xanthium  (lists  being  given  of  substances  admitted  or  ex- 
cluded), which,  it  is  said,  may  be  removed  and  used  as  an  osmotic  membrane 
of  superior  quality.  The  outer  layer  of  the  testa  can  not  so  function,  and  the 
inner  exceeds  the  middle  layer  in  this  respect,  neither  of  these  two  being  so 
efficient  alone  as  before  their  separation.  The  middle  coat  contains  more  tan- 
nin than  the  inner,  but  the  tannin  does  not  exist  in  either  as  a  continuous  layer, 
and  semipermeability  is  not  destroyed  by  treatment  with  solvents  of  tannin. 
Semipermeability  is  said  to  have  been  demonstrated  for  the  seed  coats  of  plants 
in  six  widely  separated  families,  membranes  of  many  plants  showing  this  prop- 
erty even  when  dead.  It  is  said  that  the  capillary  and  imbibition  force  of  the 
embryo  of  Xanthium  when  the  seed  is  air  dry  is  about  965  atmospheres,  and 
that  an  increase  in  the  moisture  of  the  embryo  equal  to  7  per  cent  of  its  air 
dry  weight  reduces  the  internal  forces  by  590  atmospheres.  It  is  stated  that 
the  unusual  intake  of  water  noticed  with  some  substances,  especially  with  cer- 
tain acids  and  alkalis,  is  due  largely  to  the  development  of  osmotically  active 
substances  inside  the  semipermeable  membrane:  also  that  some  evidence  was 
obtained  unfavorable  to  Armstrong's  hydrone  theory  of  selective  semipermea- 
bility (E.  S.  R.,  21,  p.  126). 

A  bibliography  is  appended. 

The  influence  of  partial  suppression  of  the  reserve  material  in  seeds  upon 
the  anatomy  of  plants,  M.  Delassus  (Conipt.  Rend.  Acad.  Set.  [Paris],  157 
{1913),  i\o.  3,  pp.  228-230). — Reporting  on  an  extension  of  studies  already  noted 
(E.  S.  R.,  26,  p.  729),  the  author  gives  comparative  results  obtained,  conclud- 
ing that  the  effects  of  mutilation  of  cotyledons  upon«the  anatomical  structure 
of  the  young  plants  produced  therefrom  are  marked,  showing  a  retarded  and 
diminished  growth  expressed  by  lowered  development  of  the  tissues,  especially 
those  concerned  with  support  and  protection. 

The  function  of  grape  leaves  in  relation  to  the  clusters,  A.  Marescalchi 
{Staz.  Sper.  Agr.  Ital.,  45  {1912),  No.  12,  pp.  9^0-9^//).— Experimentation  is  said 
to  have  shown  that  grape  clusters  on  defoliated  shoots  still  form  a  considerable 
amount  of  sugar,  also  that  while  quite  a  proportion  of  acid  is  noted  there  is  a 
deficiency  as  regards  diffusible  coloring  matters. 

Some  points  on  the  floral  development  of  red  clover,  J.  N.  Martin  {Proc. 
loioa  Acad.  Sci.,  19  {1912),  p.  129). — This  is  a  brief  discussion  of  the  relative 
rates  of  development  of  different  parts  of  the  flower  of  red  clover,  the  resulting 
inequalities  observed,  and  the  changing  relations  sustained.  A  more  detailed 
account  is  to  appear  later. 

Demonstrations  of  ectotrophic  and  endotrophic  mycorrhiza,  W.  B.  McDou- 
GALL  {Rpt.  Mich.  Acad.  Sci.,  14  {1912),  p.  45). — An  abstract  is  given  of  a  report 
on  an  investigation  conducted  to  determine  if  possible  the  seasonal,  physio- 
logical, and  ecological  relations  of  mycorrhiza. 


FIELD  CROPS.  133 

On  the  sljellbark  hickory  three  forms  of  ectotrophie  niycorrhiza  were  fomul. 
One  of  these  is  bright  yellow  in  color,  distinctly  filamentous,  and  has  numerous 
short  branches  extending  into  the  soil.  The  second  form  is  brown,  the  fungus 
mantle  consisting  of  pseudoparenchyma  such  as  is  found  in  many  lichens.  The 
third  form  is  whitish  or  nearly  colorless,  distinctly  filamentous,  but  smooth  on 
the  outside. 

On  oaks  the  same  variations  in  microscopic  structure  were  found,  but  with- 
out the  variations  in  color,  all  specimens  collected  being  whitish.  On  larch  a 
form  was  found  in  which  the  outer  cells  of  the  root  cortex  were  pushed  apart 
by  the  growth  of  mycelia  between  them.  Endotrophic  mycorrhiza  were  found  in 
great  abundance  on  maples,  while  on  American  linden  the  same  fungus  was 
found  to  be  both  ectotrophic  and  endotrophic. 

Contributions  on  the  colorless  sulphur  bacteria,  G.  Hinze  (Ber.  Dent.  Bot. 
OeselL,  31  (1913),  No.  4,  pp.  189-202,  pi.  i).— The  author  studied  two  sulphur 
bacteria  found  in  slime  and  mud  in  the  Bay  of  Naples,  one  being  already 
known  as  Monas  miilleri,  the  other  being  considered  as  new  and  named  Thio- 
vulum  n.  gen. 

Culture  of  micro-organisms,  E.  Kuster  (Kultiir  der  Milcroorganismcn.  Leip- 
sic  and  Berlin,  1913,  2.  ed.,  rev.  and  enl.,  pp.  218,  figs.  26). — This  is  the  second 
edition  of  a  book  previously  noted  (E.  S.  II..  HO.  p.  93r5). 

FIELD  CROPS. 

Causes  of  the  increased  yields  of  agricultural  crops  during  the  last  three 
decades,  D.  Leiin  (IUus.  Landiv.  Zig.,  32  {1912),  Xos.  69,  pp.  627,  628;  70,  pp. 
636-638). — The  author  discusses  the  increased  yields  during  the  last  three 
decades  and  attributes  them  to  the  increased  intelligent  use  of  commercial 
fertilizers,  the  introduction  of  better  producing  varieties,  management  systems, 
and  methods  of  soil  cultivation. 

Making  money  on  farm  crops,  F.  B.  Nichols  (St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  1913,  pp. 
288,  figs.  80). — This  book  discusses  soils  for  crops  and  the  improvement  of  farm 
crops,  with  chapters  on  the  production  of  alfalfa,  clover,  cowpeas,  com,  wheat* 
oats,  and  the  sorghums. 

[Experiments  with  field  crops]  (Abs.  in-  Jour.  Bd.  Ayr.  [London},  19  (1913), 
Nos.  11,  pp.  936-939;  12,  pp.  1029-1031;  20  {1913),  Xo.  1,  pp.  .^2-.^7).— Several 
abstracts  are  given  of  reports  of  locally  conducted  experiments  in  Great  Britain 
with  grasses,  mangolds,  wheat,  barley,  sugar  beets,  permanent  pastures,  potatoes, 
oats,  peas,  tobacco,  millet,  and  Chinese  alfalfa. 

Field  experiments  {Yorkshire  Council  Agr.  Ed.  and  Univ.  Leeds  [Pamphlet] 
85,  1912,  pp.  2-36). — In  fertilizer  experiments  with  meadow  hay,  the  un- 
manured  plats  consisted  chiefly  of  bent  and  sorrel.  Barnyard  manure  applied 
each  year  seemed  to  encourage  the  growth  of  the  better  grasses,  especially  fox- 
tail and  cocksfoot,  and  to  repress  bent.  Applied  in  alternate  years  it  appar- 
ently increased  the  growth  of  the  desirable  grasses,  particularly  golden  oat 
grass,  rsing  barnyard  manure  and  complete  artificials  in  alternate  years  en- 
couraged foxtail  and  cocksfoot,  golden  oat  grass,  and  tall  oat  grass,  but  the 
highest  percentage  of  good  grasses  followed,  a  complete  mixture  of  artificials 
applied  every  year.  With  niter  and  superphosphate  applied  annually  desirable 
grasses  and  also  sorrel  to  a  slight  extent  were  fostered,  while  with  nitrate  of 
soda  alone  cocksfoot  and  tall  oat  grass  throve  at  the  expense  of  bent,  and  with 
sulphate  of  ammonia  alone  cocksfoot  throve  at  the  expense  of  foxtail  and 
golden  oat  grass.  Lime  did  not  seem  to  increase  the  yield  of  hay  but  to  sup- 
press the  growth  of  sorrel. 


134  EXPERIMENT  STATION   RECORD. 

Plans  of  manurial  experiments  with  pasture  grasses,  potatoes,  and  swedes 
are  given. 

[Field  crop  experiments],  P.  H.  Foulkes  (Field  Expts.  Earpet^- Adams  Agr. 
Col.,  and  Staffordshire  and  Shropshire,  Rpt.  1912,  pp.  S-lJf,  21,  pi.  1). — In  these 
experiments  lime  seemed  to  be  of  benefit  to  grass  lands.  Two  and  one-half  cwt. 
of  superphosphate  and  i  cwt.  of  sulphate  of  potash  apparently  gave  better 
results  than  other  fertilizers  used,  the  yield  being  39  cwt.  32  lbs.  of  hay  per  acre. 

"^^ariety  tests  with  wheat,  oats,  swedes,  mangels,  and  sugar  beets  are  given  in 
tabular  form.  The  results  of  fertilizing  with  a  radio-active  substance  contain- 
ing silica  80.44,  water  and  volatile  organic  matter  10.54,  oxid  of  iron  and 
alumina  2.20,  total  sulphuric  acid  5.40,  soluble  phosphoric  acid  1.37,  and  soluble 
salts  and  soluble  free  acids  3.32  per  cent,  with  a  trace  of  uranium,  and  applied 
with  a  commercial  fertilizer  at  the  rate  of  2  per  cent  of  the  total  application, 
were  contradictory  with  swedes,  but  increased  yields  of  from  2  to  4  tons  per 
acre  followed  its  use  with  mangels. 

Forage  crop  trials  are  reported  with  alfalfa,  sainfoin,  wold  grass,  crimson 
clover,  LatJiyrus  sylvestris,  flax,  and  Heliantia.  A  Chinese  alfalfa  produced  at 
the  rate  of  4  tons  1  cwt.  per  acre.  Wold  grass,  cut  June  13,  yielded  10  tons  6 
cwt.  per  acre,  and  flax  jdelded  520  lbs.  seed  and  26  cwt.  fiber  per  acre. 

Manurial  experiments,  G.  Balfour  and  J.  C.  Rushton  (Field  Expts.  Harper- 
Adams  Agr.  Col.,  and  Staffordshire  and  Shropshire,  Rpt.  1912,  pp.  46-58). — 
Tabulated  results  are  given  of  manurial  experiments  carried  on  at  11  centers 
with  meadow  hay,  mangels,  swedes,  potatoes,  sugar  beets,  and  alfalfa.  Basic 
slag,  500  lbs.  per  acre,  in  place  of  superphosphate  (300  lbs.)  seemed  to  check 
greatly  the  "  potato  disease."  At  one  center  300  lbs.  of  barnyard  manure  per 
acre  apparently  produced  increased  yields  with  mangels. 

Report  of  Hedemarken  Experiment  Station,  1913,  W.  Christie  (Ber. 
Hedemarkens  Amis  Forsoksstat.  Yirks.,  8  (1912),  pp.  59,  2>7s.  3). — Accounts  of 
the  following  lines  of  investigations  are  given :  Trials  with  seed  potatoes  of 
different  sizes,  with  different  distances  of  planting,  and  with  whole  and  cut 
seed  potatoes,  1908-1912 ;  the  starch  content  of  samples  of  potatoes,  1912 ;  trials 
with  alfalfa,  1906-1911;  farm  manure  and  artificial  fertilizers  for  turnips, 
1907-1911;  and  top-dressing  with  artificial  fertilizers  for  meadows,  1910-1912. 

Report  of  Ribe  County  Western  Ag-ricultural  Society,  1912,  N.  Esbjerg 
(Ber.  Rile  Amis  Landbofor.  Havehr.  og  Husmands.,  1913,  pp.  3^). — The  ex- 
periments with  shelter  for  agricultural  crops,  which  were  commenced  in  1909 
(E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  40),  were  continued  during  1912.  The  results  obtained  cor- 
roborated those  previously  reported,  showing  that  shelter  had  a  very  beneficial 
influence  on  the  growth  of  farm  crops  and  increased  the  yields  obtained  in  a 
marked  degree.  The  planting  and  care  of  windbreaks  and  hedges  which  break 
the  force  of  the  wind  therefore  doubtless  constitute  a  phase  of  profitable  per- 
manent farm  improvements. 

Report  of  the  plant  culture  stations,  1912-13,  H.  C.  Larsen  et  al.  (Ber. 
Stat.  Plantea^l.  [Denmark],  1912-13,  pp.  150). — ^A  brief  account  of  the  organ- 
ization and  activities  of  the  different  Danish  plant  culture  stations  during  the 
year. 

Plant  breeding"  at  Tystofte,  E.  Lindhard  (Tidsskr.  Landhr.  Planteavl,  20 
(1913),  No.  1,  pp.  1-23,  figs.  5). — ^The  paper  gives  the  general  principles  fol- 
lowed in  the  plant  breeding  work  done  at  this  experiment  station. 

A  method  for  variety  tests,  O.  Bilger  (Illiis.  Landw.  Ztg.,  32  (1912),  No. 
91,  pp.  827-829,  figs.  3). — This  article  discusses  conditions  arising  from  irregu- 
larities in  soils  and  the  need  of  multiplication  of  plats  to  reduce  experimental 
error  and  secure  comparative  yields.    A  method  of  using  100  plats,  2.4  meters 


FIELD   CROPS.  135 

square,  in  which  20  varieties^  were  so  arranged  as  to  repeat  each  5  times,  is 

I   ±  d.  0.845 

explained   and    illustrated.     The  use  of  the  formula  ~,-  ^         .-    i—j  is  explained 

■yJn{n—\).-yJn^ 

in  calculating  the  probable  experimental   error  for   these  20  plats.     In  this 

formula  2=  the  sum  of  the  yield  of  the  repeated  plats;  (Z=  the  difference  in 

yield  from  the  mean;  n=  the  number  of  plats,  and  0.845  is  a  constant.    By  the 

use  of  this  formula  the  author  states  that  the  probable  error  for  each  plat 

may  be  determined  and  so  increase  the  accuracy  and  usefulness  of  the  result 

of  a  test. 

The  influence  of  different  veg-etative  factors  on  yield  and  counteracting 
relations  of  artificial  factors  added  to  the  soil,  E.  A.  Mitscherlicii  and 
IJ.  Floess  {Landw.  Juhrb.,  J,3  {1913),  Ao.  7,,  pp.  6.',9-66S,  figs.  3).— In  this  article 
the  authors  discuss  the  law  of  minimum  yield,  the  vegetative  factors  of  light, 
soil  temperature,  and  water,  and  the  opposing  influences  of  artificial  vegetative 
factors  in  the  way  of  fertilizers.  It  was  noted  that  responsive  energy  was 
at  its  optimum  in  sunlight;  that  active  energy  in  the  roots  was  the  result  of 
soil  temperature  and  favored  increased  yields;  that  loss  of  energy  through 
increased  root  labor  was  a  factor  in  decreasing  yields;  that  the  plant  yield 
correlated  with  soil  water  subject  to  the  law  of  minimum ;  and  that  yields  were 
limited  by  the  small  quantity  of  soil  water,  but  favored  when  this  water  was 
in  the  upper  soil  layer  and  when  the  plant  food  was  such  as  to  be  soluble  in 
the  water  during  the  entire  vegetative  period,  so  that  the  roots  were  relieved 
of  heavy  work. 

Cereal  investigations  at  the  Nephi  [Utah]  substation,  P.  V.  Cakdon  {U.  8. 
Dcpt.  Agr.  Bui.  30,  pp.  50,  figs.  0). — This  bulletin  contains  a  report  of  the 
work  of  the  substation,  previously  mentioned  (E.  S.  R.,  23,  p.  434),  and  includes 
a  description  of  the  substation  and  of  the  soil  and  climatic  conditions  that 
surround  it.  Tables  give  some  meteorological  data  for  the  years  1S9S  to  1912, 
inclusive.  The  experimental  work  reported  consists  mainly  of  varietal  and 
improvement  tests  of  68  varieties  and  strains  of  winter  wheat,  1  of  winter  oats, 
3  of  winter  barley,  2  of  winter  emmer,  10  of  spring  wheat,  7  of  spring  oats, 
and  14  of  spring  barley.  Tables  present  data  concerning  yields,  stand,  dates 
of  ripening,  height,  ratio  of  weight  of  grain  to  straw,  and  average  weight  per 
bushel  of  wheats  and  barleys,  and  the  results  of  testing  large,  medium,  small, 
and  unseparated  seeds  of  wheat  planted  at  different  distances  in  the  row. 

The  results  obtained  show  that  "  the  winter  varieties  of  all  cereals  have 
given  better  results  than  have  the  spring  varieties.  Of  the  winter  wheat  varie- 
ties, the  hard  red  group  has  given  the  best  yields.  The  soft  white  group,  com- 
monly grown  in  the  Intermountain  States,  is  comparatively  low  in  yield.  There 
seems  to  have  been  no  definite  correlation  between  stand  and  yield.  The  aver- 
age date  of  heading  and  also  the  average  date  of  ripening  were  about  the  same 
for  all  varieties.  The  average  height  of  the  winter  wheats  at  Nephi  during 
1908  to  1912,  inclusive,  was  27  in.  Approximately  1  lb.  of  grain  was  produced 
with  every  pound  of  straw. 

"The  average  bushel  weight  for  all  varieties  of  winter  wheat  for  the  5-year 
period  was  61.4  lbs.,  or  1.4  lbs.  above  the  standard  weight.  The  average  acre 
yield  of  spring  wheats  since  1908  is  only  7.5  bu.  for  durum  varieties  and  8.9  bu. 
for  common  varieties,  which  is  unprofitable  in  comparison  with  the  acre  yield 
of  17  to  23  bu.  from  winter  wheats.  Boswell  winter  oats  have  yielded  very 
well  in  some  seasons.  In  other  seasons  the  yield  has  been  low,  thus  reducing 
the  average  acre  yield  to  17.2  bu.  for  1909  to  1912.  However,  the  variety  gives 
great  promise  as  a  winter  oat  for  the  intermountain  region.  The  Black  Ameri- 
can, Giant  Yellow,  and  Swedish  Select  varieties  of  spring  oats  have  acre  yields 


136  EXPEKIMENT  statio:n'  kecord. 

of  15.2,  14.2,  uud  13.6  bu.,  respectively,  iu  1909  to  1912,  inclusive.  Two  winter 
varieties  of  barley  bave  given  promising  results.  Of  these  2,  Utah  Winter 
(C.  I.  No.  592)  has  yielded  an  average  of  19.6  bu.  per  acre,  as  against  15.8  bu. 
for  Tennessee  Winter  (C.  I.  No.  257).  Three  spring  varieties  were  practically 
failures  and  were  discarded  in  1910.  Black  AVinter  emmer  has  shown  itself 
adapted  to  conditions  at  Nephi,  and  probably  will  prove  a  valuable  crop  on  the 
dry  farms  of  the  Mountain  States.  There  was  no  apparent  difference  during 
1912  between  Buffum  Improved  Black  Winter  emmer  (C.  I.  No.  3331)  and  the 
ordinary  Black  Winter  emmer  (C.  I.  No.  2337).  ... 

"  The  following  data  obtained  from  the  head  rows  are  directly  related  to  the 
results  of  the  plat  experiments:  (1)  The  average  winter  survival  of  the  cereals 
was  about  65  per  cent;  (2)  the  tillering  of  the  winter  cereals  varied  with  the 
thickness  of  the  stand;  (3)  the  average  number  of  culms  per  plant  in  winter 
cereals  seldom  exceeded  25,  though  favored  plants  would  sometimes  have  a 
greater  number;  (4)  the  average  yields  of  the  head  rows  gave  the  winter  cereal 
varieties  about  the  same  rank  as  did  the  plat  experiments;  (5)  the  spring  cereal 
varieties  yielded  less  than  the  winter  varieties,  even  though  a  better  stand  was 
obtained.  .  .  . 

"  Some  work  has  been  done  with  grain  sorghums,  broom  corn,  millets,  and 
prosos,  but  the  results  obtained  have  given  little  promise  that  these  crops  are 
adapted  to  the  dry  lands  of  the  intermountain  region. 

"  In  the  test  of  size  of  seed  with  both  spring  and  winter  varieties  of  wheat, 
the  large  seed  was  best  in  number  of  heads  produced  per  plant  and  in  yield  per 
row.  No  great  difference  was  observed  among  the  different  sizes  of  seed  in  the 
percentage  of  survival,  plants  maturing,  or  length  of  heads  produced.  In  the 
test  of  different  seed  treatments  for  smut,  the  following  points  were  observed : 

(1)  The  effect  of  the  time  of  seeding  on  bunt  depended  largely  on  the  season; 

(2)  the  best  copper-sulphate  treatment  was  1  lb.  of  copper  sulphate  to  10  gal.  of 
v/ater,  the  seed  soaked  10  minutes  and  dried;  (3)  the  best  formalin  treatment 
was  2.5  parts  of  formalin  to  1,000  parts  of  water,  the  seed  soaked  10  minutes 
and  kept  moist  2  hours." 

Prevention  of  lodging-  of  cereals,  Ziehe  (Illiis.  Landw.  Ztg.,  32  (1912),  Xo. 

83,  pp.  761,  762,  figs.  3). — In  a  comparison  with  nitrogen  and  phosphorus, 
potash  gave  the  best  results  in  preventing  lodging,  due,  it  is  believed,  to  the 
greater  constitutional  vigor  of  plants  fertilized  with  this  element. 

The  influence  of  moisture,  fertilizer,  and  firmness  of  the  soil  on  the  root 
development  of  barley  and  wheat  in  early  stages  of  growth,  R.  Polle 
(Uher  den  Einfiuss  verschieden  Jiohen  Wassergehalts,  verschicdener  Diingung 
und  Festigkeit  des  Bodens  auf  die  Wurzelenticickclung  dcs  Weizens  und  der 
Gerste  itn  erstcn  Yegetationsstadium.     Inaiig.  Diss.,  Univ.  Gottingen,  1910,  pp. 

84,  pis.  2). — The  experiments  here  discussed  were  carried  out  in  2  sizes  of 
pots  of  the  Biicherhiillen  form.  Sixty-four  pots  had  a  height  of  20  cm.  and  a 
width  of  6  by  30  cm.,  and  32  were  40  cm.  high  and  6  by  20  cm.  wide.  Half  of 
them  were  filled  with  clay  soil  and  half  with  sanely  soil.  The  low"  vessels  each 
had  2  plants  and  the  higher  ones  1  plant  each.  To  obtain  more  accurate  results 
each  treatment  was  repeated  in  5  pots.  Part  of  the  pots  were  fertilized  with 
3/5  gm.  nitrogen  as  nitrate  of  soda,  1/5  gm.  P2O5  in  CaH4  (P05)2.  and  1/5  gm. 
K2O  in  40  per  cent  potassium  salt,  and  the  sandy  soil  received  0.5  gm.  calcium 
carbonate  in  addition.  In  a  part  of  the  pots  the  soil  was  carefully  and  uni- 
formly packed  in  the  case  of  both  sandy  and  clay  soils,  and  in  the  remainder  the 
2  kinds  of  soils  were  left  in  a  loose  condition.  The  barley  was  planted  on  June 
11  and  harvested  from  June  21  to  26.  The  wheat  was  planted  on  July  14  and 
harvested  from  July  22  to  28.  A  unique  method  is  described  of  securing  the 
roots  in  a  normal  position  by  means  of  pressing  a  board,  provided  with  numer- 


FIELD  CROPS.  137 

ous  long  needles  set  at  right  angles  to  its  surface,  into  tlie  soil  of  the  pot  con- 
taining the  roots  after  one  side  of  the  pot  had  been  removed. 

This  study  was  planned  to  throw  light  on  the  influence  of  fertilizer,  moisture, 
and  firmness  of  soil,  on  the  amount  of  root  growth,  the  length  of  roots,  and  the 
weight  of  above-ground  parts,  and  the  ratio  between  the  root  mass  and  the 
above-ground  parts,  in  respect  to  clay  and  sandy  soils  with  barley  and  wheat. 

A  clay  soil,  fertilized,  showed  a  less  length  of  root  system  in  a  dry  condition 
(11.25  per  cent  moisture  content)  than  in  a  moist  condition  (19  per  cent  mois- 
ture content),  but  a  greater  weight  of  root  growth,  whether  loose  or  hard 
packed,  fertilized  or  not,  with  both  barley  and  wheat.  Root  growth  was  gen- 
erally greater  in  the  loose  clay  with  barley,  but  compaction  was  more  favorable 
with  wheat.  With  wheat,  the  unfertilized  clay  soil  produced  greater  root 
growth  than  the  fertilized  without  regard  to  the  moisture  or  compaction  of 
soil. 

With  a  sandy  soil  the  root  development  was  generally  greater  without  the 
fertilizers,  regardless  of  the  degree  of  moisture  or  firmness  of  soil,  with  both 
barley  and  wheat,  while  in  the  presence  of  other  factors  firmness  favored  root 
development  In  general,  a  greater  root  system  was  produced  in  the  case  of 
barley  in  a  dry  (5.4  per  cent  moisture  content)  sandy  soil,  whether  loose  or 
firm,  fertilized  or  not.  A  dry  sandy  soil  produced  a  better  root  system  with 
wheat  in  a  loose  condition  than  when  compact,  without  regard  to  the  fertilizer 
application. 

In  general,  with  both  barley  and  wheat  1  gm.  of  roots  produced  a  larger 
amount  of  above-ground  parts  in  both  clay  and  sandy  soil  when  fertilized  than 
when  not  fertilized,  in  a  moist  soil  than  in  a  dry  soil,  and  in  a  compact  than  In 
a  loose  soil, 

A  study  of  the  variations  in  chemical  composition  of  the  timothy  and 
wheat  plants  during-  growth  and  ripening,  L.  D.  Haigh  (Orig.  Commun.  8. 
Intemat.  Cong.  Appl.  Chem.  iWasliinigton  and  Neio  York],  26  {1912),  Sects. 
Vla-XIh,  App.,  pp.  115-117). — This  is  an  abstract  giving  the  results  found 
with  timothy  at  7  stages  of  growth  and  with  wheat  at  4  stages. 

"  The  timothy  plant  takes  up  its  plant  food,  nitrogen,  and  ash  constituents  at 
the  most  rapid  rate  in  the  young  stages.  It  continues  at  a  decreasing  rate  to 
absorb  plant  food  during  growth  and  in  about  the  same  rate  as  this  growth 
proceeds.  The  percentage  of  moisture  in  the  green  plant  is  also  the  highest  in 
the  young  stages.  The  heads  of  timothy  increase  in  dry  matter  throughout  the 
growth  and  ripening  period.  This  increase  includes  all  the  plant  constituents 
except  potassium  oxid,  which  had  reached  its  maximum  amount  before  the 
heads  were  collected  for  analysis.  .  .  .  Nitrogen-free  extract  increases  at  the 
greatest  rate  of  all  constituents.  As  the  heads  approach  full  ripening  a  notice- 
able increase  of  phosphorus  pentoxid  occurs.  The  stalks  of  the  timothy  in- 
crease in  dry  matter  during  growth  and  ripening;  this  dry  matter  added  con- 
sists chiefly  of  crude  fiber  and  nitrogen-free  extract.  Nitrogen,  ether  soluble 
material,  potassium  oxid,  and  phosphorus  pentoxid  increase  during  grov/th  but 
decrease  to  some  extent  during  ripening.  The  bulbs  increase  in  dry  matter 
throughout  the  growth  period,  but  the  amount  becomes  constant  before  ripening 
of  the  hay.  The  material  stored  up  is  principally  nitrogenous  matter  and 
nitrogen-free  extract.  No  starch  is  produced  in  the  bulbs  during  the  storing 
process.  Potassium  oxid  is  found  in  maximum  amount  in  the  first  stage  but 
phosphorus  pentoxid  tends  to  increase  in  amount  as  the  plant  matures. 

"  Large  amounts  of  available  potash  and  phosphoric  acid  are  required  for  a 
good  yield  of  timothy.  Timothy  would  hardly  prove  a  profit-yielding  crop  on 
soils  other  than  those  rich  in  potash,  especially  where  the  mineral  elements 
would  have  to  be  supplied  in  the  form  of  fertilizer. 


138  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

"  The  wheat  plant  also  takes  up  its  principal  plant  food,  nitrogenous  and  min- 
eral matter,  at  the  greatest  rate  in  the  young  stages  and  at  a  decreasing  rate  as 
growth  proceeds.  The  highest  percentage  of  moisture  in  the  green  plant  is 
found  in  the  first  series.  The  heads  of  the  wheat  gain  more  uniformly  and  rap- 
idly in  their  amount  of  dry  matter  than  any  other  part.  Nitrogen-free  extract 
is  produced  and  stored  at  a  greater  rate  than  any  other  constituent,  but  nitro- 
gen, ash,  and  ether  soluble  matter  are  added  in  some  quantity  also.  Fiber  is 
practically  all  formed  by  the  time  the  blossom  has  fallen  and  remains  constant 
to  ripening. 

"  The  wheat  stalks  contain  their  maximum  amount  of  dry  matter  at  blos- 
soming time,  after  which  they  pass  some  of  this  material  along  to  the  ripening 
heads.  Nitrogenous  substance  and  nitrogen-free  extract  appear  to  be  the  con- 
stituents which  the  stalks  yield  up  to  the  heads.  The  wheat  roots  and  stub- 
ble increase  in  dry  matter  up  to  the  milk  stage,  after  which  it  decreases  in 
amount,  being  passed  along  to  the  plant  above  ground.  Fiber  present  in  the 
roots  does  not  decrease  in  amount  but  nitrogenous  and  ether  soluble  material, 
ash,  and  nitrogen-free  extract  pass  out  of  the  roots  into  the  growing  plant 
above  ground  during  the  ripening  of  the  heads." 

[Fibers  from  Papua  (British  New  Guinea)  and  India]  (Bui.  Imp.  Inst.  [So. 
Kensington^,  10  (1912),  No.  2,  pp.  214-210). — This  report  includes  analyses  and 
valuations  of  cotton,  sisal  hemp,  Sida  fiber,  Sida  rhomUfoUa,  and  Indian  jute. 

The  use  of  sulphur  in  the  cultivation  of  turnips  and  beets,  A.  Magnien 
(Jour.  Soc.  Nat.  Hort.  France,  Jf.  ser.,  llf  (1913),  Jan.,  pp.  54-56). — Experi- 
ments are  here  cited,  in  which  sulphur  scattered  in  the  row  at  the  rate  of  2  to 
3  gm.  per  meter  at  planting  time  apparently  doubled  the  yields. 

Bean  growing  in  eastern  "Washington  and  Oregon,  and  northern  Idaho, 
L.  W.  Fluharty  (U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Farmers'  Bui.  561,  pp.  12,  figs.  5).— This 
describes  cultural  methods,  with  suggestions  on  marketing,  uses,  and  improve- 
ment of  the  crop. 

Field  trials  on  the  manuring  of  carrots,  E.  E.  Stokes  (Midland  Agr.  and 
Dairy  Col.  Bui.  5,  1912-13,  pp.  38-45). — It  is  concluded  that  "  farmyard  manure 
may  profitably  be  supplemented  with  chemical  fertilizers;  salt  applied  to  the 
description  of  soils  generally  used  for  the  production  of  carrots  is  beneficial, 
especially  in  a  dry,  hot  season;  potash  in  some  form  is  absolutely  necessary, 
especially  when  dung  is  not  so  largely  used ;  phosphates  come  next  in  order  of 
importance ;  and  the  addition  of  nitrogenous  manures  may  be  advisable  to  pro- 
mote a  good  start  and  early  growth." 

Clovers,  M.  Calvino  (Estac.  Agr.  Cent.  [Mexico]  Bol.  69,  1912,  pp.  92,  pis. 
44). — This  bulletin  treats  of  the  climate,  soil,  rotations,  inoculation,  fertilizers, 
cultivation,  harvests,  and  methods  of  conserving  the  crop  and  silage  in  relation 
to  the  clovers  Trifolium  pratense,  T.  repens,  T.  alexandrinum,  T.  soaveolens,  T. 
incarnatum,  and  T.  hyhridum.  Various  methods  of  rotation  in  which  clovers 
are  used  as  green  manures  are  described. 

Crimson  clover,  A.  E.  Grantham  (New  Jersey  Stas.  Circ.  28,  pp.  4)- — This 
gives  suggestions  and  directions  for  growing  the  crop  under  New  Jersey  condi- 
tions. 

Effect  of  frost  on  com,  J.  B.  Lindsey  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  2, 
pp.  67,  68). — Chemical  analysis  of  frosted  corn  revealed  little  new,  excepting 
that  the  fiber  percentage  seemed  to  be  larger  than  is  usually  the  case.  "  In 
case  the  corn  is  intended  for  the  silo,  the  quicker  the  crop  is  ensiled  the  better. 
If  the  crop  is  not  to  be  ensiled,  it  may  be  allowed  to  stand  uncut  for  a  week 
or  two." 

Seed  selection  of  Egytian  cotton,  T.  H.  Kearney  (U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  38, 
pp.  8). — In  this  bulletin  the  author  discusses  the  importance  of  keeping  the 


FIELD   CROPS.  139 

Stock  pure  and  describes  methods  that  may  be  employed  by  breeders  whereby 
the  purity  of  the  seed  may  be  maintained.  It  is  believed  that  but  one  variety 
of  cotton  should  be  grown  in  a  locality,  that  careful  rogueing  should  be  prac- 
ticed, and  that  growers'  associations  should  arrange  for  pure  seed  production. 

Nine  titles  of  Bureau  of  Plant  Industry  publications  on  this  subject  are 
appended. 

Propagating  cotton  plants  by  slips,  G.  Gastet  (Rev.  Uort.  Alg6ric,  6  (1012), 
No.  5,  pp.  144-1-iS,  figs.  4;  «&«.  in  Internat.  Inst.  Agr.  [Rome^,  Bui.  Bur.  Agr. 
Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  3  (1912),  No.  10,  pp.  2164,  2165).— A  method  by  which 
herbaceous  slips  are  pricked  out  in  the  hotbed  or  greenhouse  is  described  in  this 
article.  The  plants  from  which  the  slips  are  taken  are  removed  from  the  field 
to  the  greenhouse  late  in  the  season,  and  profuse  budding  is  induced. 

Cowpeas  for  soil  improvement,  A.  E.  Grantham  (New  Jersey  Stas.  Circ.  27, 
pp.  4). — This  gives  directions  and  suggestions  for  growing  the  crop  under  New 
Jersey  conditions. 

On  the  value  of  meadow  foxtail  grown  on  peat  soils  and  the  influence  of 
the  time  of  cutting,  H.  von  Feilitzen,  I.  Lugner  and  E.  Nystrom  (Svenska 
Mosskulfurfor.  Tidskr.,  27  (1918),  No.  3,  pp.  224-245).— Previously  noted  from 
another  source  (E.  S.  R.,  2S,  p.  834). 

A  variety  test  of  potatoes,  E.  F.  Gaskill  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912, 
pt.  2,  pp.  11-16). — This  paper  contains  brief  notes  on  tests  including  371  va- 
rieties during  the  past  18  years.  The  rate  of  yields  ranged  from  66  to  509  bu. 
per  acre.  It  is  noted  that  the  majority  of  the  new  varieties  are  inferior  to  the 
old  standard  sorts,  like  Beauty  of  Hebron,  Green  Mountain,  Early  Rose,  and 
Irish  Cobbler,  and  that  northern-grown  seed  was  preferable  to  home-grown  seed. 
[Field  crop  experiments],  G.  T.  Malthouse  (Field  Expts.  Harper-Adams 
Agr.  Col.,  and  Staffordshire  and  Shropshire,  Rpt.  1912,  pp.  17-19). — Results  of 
variety  tests  of  potatoes  show  yields  as  high  as  6  tons  13^  cwt.  per  acre. 

On  the  use  of  sulphur  for  the  prevention  of  potato  scab  and  as  an  indirect 
fertilizer,  H.  von  Feilitzen  (K.  Landtbr.  Akad.  Handl.  och  Tidskr.,  52  (1913), 
No.  2,  pp.  120-130). — Of  the  5  varieties  of  potatoes  experimented  with  during 
1911,  all  but  1  yielded  more  on  the  plats  receiving  400  kg.  of  sulphur  per  hec- 
tare (356  lbs.  per  acre)  in  addition  to  normal  fertilizers  than  on  those  that  did 
not  receive  sulphur,  and  the  tubers  were  larger  and  better  developed.  Some 
improvements  in  regard  to  the  appearance  of  scab  were  noted  on  these  plats. 

Trials  with  sulphur  for  horse  beans  and  ray  grass  during  1912  are  also  re- 
ported.    A  bibliography  on  the  subject  of  sulphur  for  plants  is  appended. 

Lessons  for  American  potato  growers  from  German  experiences,  W.  A. 
Orton  (U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  47,  pp.  12). — The  author  discusses  potato  produc- 
tion as  carried  on  in  Germany,  with  special  reference  to  conditions  in  this 
country. 

It  is  noted  that  in  Germany  "  the  acreage  is  more  than  double  that  of  the 
United  States  and  the  crop  harvested  more  than  4  times  our  total.  Of  these 
potatoes  40  per  cent  are  fed  to  stock,  28  per  cent  are  used  for  table  purposes, 
12  per  cent  for  seed,  6  per  cent  for  alcohol,  4  per  cent  for  starch  and  related 
products,  and  10  per  cent  decay.  The  per  capita  consumption  for  food  is  7.3 
bu.  per  year  in  Germany,  as  compared  with  an  estimate  of  2.6  bu.  in  the  United 
States.  .  .  . 

"  We  must  hereafter  produce  enough  potatoes  to  supply  all  our  needs,  as 
most  sources  of  foreign  imports  have  been  closed  by  a  plant-disease  quarantine. 
To  do  this  economically  we  should  find  a  profitable  outlet  for  a  surplus  produc- 
tion, .  .  .     The  most  promising  use  for  culls  and  surplus  potatoes  appears  to  be 
28054°— 14 4 


140  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECOED. 

in  feeding  hogs.  There  are  possibilities  in  starch  and  alcohol  and  some  hope 
of  adapting  the  method  of  drying  now  used  in  Germany." 

Beet  sug-ar  in  New  England,  J.  B.  Lindsey  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912, 
pt.  2,  pp.  69,  70). — The  author  briefly  reviews  attempts  to  introduce  sugar-beet 
culture  in  Massachusetts,  and  concludes  '*  that  while  the  climate  is  satisfactory 
and  a  considerable  area  is  suited  to  the  beet,  economic  conditions  are  not 
favorable  to  the  production  of  beet  sugar  in  Massachusetts." 

Sugar-cane  experiments,  J.  B.  Harbison  and  R.  Ward  (Jour.  Bd.  Agr.  Brit. 
Guiana,  6  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  123-126).— In  a  test  with  molasses  as  a  fertilizer 
for  sugar  cane,  only  a  slight  Increase  could  be  detected  from  applications  of 
100.  200,  and  300  gal.  per  acre.  Partially  sterilizing  the  soil  of  experimental 
plats  with  chlorinated  lime  applied  at  the  rate  of  150  lbs.  per  acre  apparently 
gave  slightly  increased  yields  of  cane  over  untreated  plats. 

Classification  of  the  forms  of  Helianthus  annuus,  T.  Sazyperow  (Trudy 
Bmro  Prlkl.  Bot.  (Bui.  Angew.  Bot.),  6  (1913),  No.  2,  pp.  95-110,  figs.  3).— Four 
forms  are  mentioned,  viz,  common,  white,  black,  and  armored  sunflower.  The 
last-named  has  a  subepidermal  layer  of  parenchyma  cells  which  seem  to  be 
especially  useful  as  a  protection  against  the  attacks  of  disease. 

Research  work  at  Harrow  Experimental  Station,  1911,  W.  A.  Barnet 
(Canada  Dcpt.  Agr.,  Tobacco  Div.  Bui.  AI4,  1912,  pp.  20,  pis.  2). — This  bulletin 
reports  experiments  in  which  different  kinds  of  seed  beds  were  established  for 
tobacco. 

The  conditions  point  to  the  advisability  of  making  up  the  bed  10  days  before 
sowing,  which  was  done  at  the  rate  of  1  teaspoonful  (1/7  oz.)  of  seed  to  70 
sq.  ft.  To  hasten  the  growth  of  seedlings  a  stock  solution  of  1/4  lb.  of  nitrate 
of  soda  to  2  gal.  of  water  was  made,  one  pint  of  which  was  diluted  with  10  qt. 
of  water  for  application. 

Tests  in  curing  in  small  and  large  kilns  and  fertilizer  tests  with  bright  tobacco 
were  carried  on.  In  a  comparison  between  the  bright  tobacco  and  Burley,  the 
Burley  proved  the  more  profitable.  A  description  of  a  new  curing  barn  is 
given. 

Tobacco  culture,  G:  N.  Blackshaw  (Rhodesia  Agr.  Jour.,  10  (1912),  No.  1, 
pp.  56-66,  pis.  5). — In  this  article  methods  of  preparing  the  soil  are  given,  these 
including  the  burning  of  the  soil  to  a  depth  of  1/2  in.  As  a  remedy  for  cut- 
worms a  poison  is  suggested  which  consists  of  1  lb.  arsenite  of  soda,  8  lbs. 
brown  sugar,  and  10  gal.  of  water ;  this  is  to  be  mixed  with  green  stuff  or  corn 
meal  and  distributed  over  the  ground  a  few  days  before  the  tobacco  is  trans- 
planted. Broadcasting  or  drilling  the  fertilizer  in  the  soil  before  the  plants 
are  set  is  advised,  as  compared  with  top-dressing  later. 

Suggestions  for  gathering  and  storing  the  seed  and  directions  for  growing, 
curing,  storing,  and  baling  Turkish  tobacco  are  given. 

Cultivation  of  tobacco  for  the  preparation  of  fruit  and  hop  washes  (Jour. 
Bd.  Agr.  [London],  19  (1913),  No.  12,  pp.  985-994). — This  article  discusses  the 
difference  between  smoking  tobacco  and  that  used  for  the  extraction  of  nicotin. 
It  is  stated  that  the  latter  should  be  of  rank,  coarse-growing  varieties  unfit  for 
smoking  purposes.  Methods  of  cultivating,  fertilizing,  harvesting,  extracting, 
and  preparing  the  washes  are  discussed.  The  cost  and  returns  per  acre  are 
given.  In  Kent  in  1911  yields  of  over  2,000  lbs.  of  dry  leaves,  with  over  150 
lbs.  of  nicotin,  per  acre  were  obtained. 

A  cross  between  Triticum.  vulgare  and  T.  monococcum,  N.  Wawiloff 
(Trudy  Bmro  Prlkl.  Bot.  (Bui.  Angew.  Bot.),  6  (1913),  No.  1,  pp.  1-19,  pi.  1, 
fig.  1). — The  chief  characteristics  of  this  cross  were  observed  to  have  been 
lateness  in  ripening  and  sterility. 


HORTICULTURE.  141 

Wheat  growing"  in  Wisconsin,  E.  J.  Delwiche  and  B.  D.  Leith  (Wiseonsiii 
Sta.  Bui.  233,  pp.  3-22,  figs.  8). — This  bulletin  outlines  briefly  the  present  status 
of  wheat  growing  in  Wisconsin,  and  includes  reports  on  results  of  experiments 
which  for  six  successive  seasons  have  been  carried  on  at  the  station  at  Madison 
and  at  the  substations  in  the  different  sections  of  the  State.  In  this  con- 
nection are  discussed  the  cause  of  the  decline  in  wheat  growing  in  Wiscon- 
sin, the  present  outlook,  and  wheat  and  soil  depletion.  Under  essentials  of 
wheat  culture  are  discussed  rotations,  soil  preparation,  good  seed,  time  and 
manner  of  seeding,  harvesting  and  threshing,  and  spring  and  winter  wheat. 

Tabulated  data  of  variety  tests  of  both  winter  and  spring  wheats  are  given, 
including  nearly  30  selections.  In  general,  winter  wheat  outyielded  spring 
wheat. 

Some  variable  results  of  seed  testing",  G.  E.  Stone  {Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpf. 
1912,  pt.  2,  pp.  22-30). — This  paper  gives  results  of  purity  and  germination 
tests  made  at  about  20  different  seed-testing  stations  of  seed  taken  from  the 
name  bulk,  and  discusses  the  difficulties  underlying  the  identification  of  seeds. 
The  seeds  used  were  red  clover,  timothj^  Kentuclvy  blue  grass,  orchard  grass, 
millet,  and  alfalfa.  Wide  variations  were  obtained  from  the  various  stations. 
The  germination  of  Kentucky  blue  grass  was  reported  at  from  3  to  88  per  cent, 
and  orchard  grass  showed  a  range  of  45  per  cent. 

Seed  work  for  the  year  1912,  G.  E.  Stone  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912, 
pt.  2,  pp.  17-21). — This  gives  results  with  285  samples  for  germination  and 
82  samples  for  purity  tests.  A  total  of  1,517  lbs.  seed  wag  separated.  The  seeds 
tested  for  purity  were  of  unusually  high  grade. 

"Yellow  rattle,"  as  a  weed  on  arable  land,  Winifred  E.  Brenchley  (Jour. 
Bd.  Agr.  [London^,  19  (1913),  No.  12,  pp.  1003-1009,  figs.  2).— Two  distinct 
species  of  this  parasite  are  noted,  Rhinanthtis  minor  and  R.  major.  Their  life 
history,  means  of  attaching  to  cultivated  crops,  especially  grasses  and  cereals, 
and  the  method  of  combating,  which  consists  chiefly  of  fallow  cultivation  for 
a  season,  are  discussed. 

HOKTICULTURE. 

Intensive  farming,  L.  C.  Corbett  (New  York,  1913,  pp.  146-\-IV,  pis.  8, 
figs.  3). — This  comprises  a  popular  handbook  of  information  on  the  fundamental 
practices  employed  in  various  types  of  intensive  farming.  The  subject  matter 
is  discussed  under  the  following  general  headings:  The  problem,  vegetable 
growing,  onions,  celery,  frame  culture,  the  vegetable  forcing  industry,  fruit 
growing,  small  fruits,  the  citrus  industry,  plant  breeding  as  a  factor  in  inten- 
sive farming,  seed  growing,  the  nursery  an  example  of  intensive  crop  production, 
irrigation,  animal  industry,  economics  of  intensive  industries,  and  the  cropping 
system  as  a  unit. 

Recent  progress  in  Belgian  horticulture,  Vernieuwe  (Internat.  Inst.  Agr. 
[Rome],  Mo.  Bui.  Agr.  Intel,  and  Plant  Diseases,  4  (1913),  No.  9,  pp.  1321- 
1326). — In.  this  paper  the  author  briefly  reviews  the  recent  developments  in 
Belgian  horticulture,  including  the  measures  employed  to  maintain  and  safe- 
guard the  interests  of  the  horticultural  industry. 

Malnutrition  or  overfertilization  of  greenhouse  crops,  H.  D.  Haskins 
(Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  2,  pp.  71-79). — An  analytic  study  of  green- 
house soils  in  which  cucumbers  and  sweet  peas  made  sickly  growth  leads  the 
author  to  conclude  that  imperfect  growth  and  development  were  due  in  these 
cases,  as  well  as  in  many  other  cases  where  plant  growth  is  unsatisfactory, 
to  an  annual  accumulation  of  soluble  plant  food  rather  than  to  fungi  and  bac- 
teria.   With  cucumbers  the  trouble  does  not  usually  develop  until  the  third  year 


142  EXPERIMENT   STATION   KECORD. 

after  the  soil  has  been  placed  in  the  houses.  The  plants  which  at  first  are  usu- 
ally very  vigorous  turn  yellow  prematurely  and  fail  to  develop  fruit. 

The  author  emphasizes  the  importance  of  good  drainage  in  greenhouse  beds 
and  benches.  Wherever  indications  of  overfertilization  appear  the  soil  should 
be  leached  out  with  hot  water  as  soon  as  the  crop  is  removed.  The  crop  may 
sometimes  be  saved  by  applying  about  3  in.  of  fresh  loam  to  the  surface  of  the 
bed  and  working  lightly  around  the  plants.  This  promotes  the  formation  of 
new  roots.  After  the  removal  of  the  crop  from  one-third  to  one-half  of  the 
soil  in  the  benches  should  be  replaced  with  new  loam  before  replanting. 

The  influence  of  various  lig-ht  intensities  and  soil  moisture  on  the  growth, 
of  cucumbers,  and  their  susceptibility  to  burning"  from  hydrocyanic  acid 
gas,  G.  E.  Stone  (llassachnsetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  61-72,  pi.  1).—The 
experiments  here  reported  were  conducted  at  the  station  by  F.  L.  Thomas  with 
cucumber  plants  which  were  grown  in  the  greenhouse  under  varying  light  and 
soil  moisture  conditions  alongside  plants  growing  under  normal  conditions. 
After  the  plants  had  reached  a  certain  degree  of  development  they  were  all  sub- 
mitted to  the  same  normal  hydrocyanic  acid  gas  fumigation. 

Summarizing  the  data  relative  to  light  conditions,  the  greatest  average  height 
of  the  plants  and  length  of  internodes  were  found  in  the  series  where  the  light 
was  less,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  the  shortest  internodes  and  greatest  diame- 
ter of  the  stems  occurred  in  those  plants  which  received  the  most  light.  The 
average  length  and  width  of  leaf  was  variable  but  the  plants  grown  where  the 
light  was  excluded  had  the  largest  leaves.  It  is  suggested  that  the  production 
of  larger  leaves  under  certain  light  intensities  is  apparently  a  response  to  a 
demand  for  greater  carbon  assimilation.  In  the  soil  moisture  experiments  the 
average  height  of  the  plants  was  greater  and  the  leaves  larger  in  the  pots  con- 
t;iining  the  largest  percentage  of  water.  Within  certain  limits  the  diameter  of 
the  stems  and  length  of  the  leaf  petioles  and  internodes  was  also  greater  in  the 
plants  growing  in  a  higher  percentage  of  soil  moisture;  in  pots  containing  as 
high  as  70  per  cent  of  water  there  was  too  much  water  for  the  best  devel- 
opment. 

Burning  from  hydrocyanic  acid  gas  was  more  extensive  on  plants  grown 
under  a  poor  light  and  excessive  moisture  conditions  than  where  the  light  and 
moisture  conditions  were  good,  showing  that  burning  by  fumigation  is  induced 
by  a  difference  in  the  development  of  the  tissues  whether  brought  about  by 
inferior  light  conditions  or  excessive  moisture.  Further  experiments  are  being 
conducted  to  throw  more  light  on  the  influence  of  other  factors  on  burning. 

Some  effects  of  fertilizers  on  the  growth  and  composition  of  asparagus 
roots,  F.  W.  Morse  {Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  15/f-167) .—The 
experiments  here  reported  have  been  noted  from  another  source  (E.  S.  R.,  28, 
p.  236). 

The  inheritance  of  blossom  color  in  beans,  J.  K.  Shaw  (3Iassachnsetts  Sta. 
Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  182-203,  pi.  1). — The  author  here  presents  and  discusses  a 
series  of  tables  which  show  the  inheritance  of  blossom  color  in  various  combi- 
nations of  some  19  varieties  of  garden  beans,  the  progeny  from  the  crosses  hav- 
ing been  self-fertilized  through  four  generations.  An  interpretation  of  the 
results  relative  to  blossom  color  is  to  be  made  later  through  an  analysis  of  the 
records  of  the  inheritance  of  seed-coat  color. 

Report  of  cranberry  substation  for  1912,  H.  J.  Fsanklin  (Massachusetts 
Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  209-234). — A  progress  report  on  the  experiments  con- 
ducted and  observations  made  at  the  cranberry  substation  during  the  year 
(E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  341).  The  subject  matter  is  discussed  under  the  following  gen- 
eral headings:  Weather  observations,  frost  protection,  fungus  diseases,  varie- 
ties, blossom  pollination,  fertilizers,  insects  (see  p.  154),  and  miscellaneous. 


HORTICULTURE.  143 

Progress  in  determining  the  local  condiiiuns  wliicli  indicate  frost  is  reported, 
ttie  season's  records  indicating  tliat  the  early  evening  dew  point  can  be  relied 
upon  to  a  considerable  extent  in  forecasting  minimum  temperatures  on  the  bogs. 
The  use  of  oil  heaters  was  found  to  be  effective  as  protection  against  frost,  but 
was  too  expensive  to  be  practicable. 

In  the  work  with  fungus  diseases  being  conducted  in  cooperation  with  the 
U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  five  plats  each  4  rods  square  received  two 
sprayings  of  Bordeaux  mixture  and  one  of  neutral  copper  acetate.  Two  lbs. 
of  resin  fish-oil  soap  were  used  with  the  Bordeaux  in  all  cases  and  with  the; 
acetate.  As  compared  with  the  check  plats  increased  yields  of  from  45  to  144 
per  cent  were  secured  on  the  sprayed  plats.  During  the  previous  year  the 
sprayed  plats  showed  no  increase  in  quantity  of  fruit  over  their  checks,  hence 
it  is  suggested  that  the  effects  of  annual  spraying  may  be  cumulative.  When 
the  fruit  was  gathered  no  distinct  difference  in  color  between  the  berries  from 
the  sprayed  plats  and  their  checks  was  observed,  but  differences  in  the  size  of 
the  berries  appeared  to  be  influenced  by  the  time  of  picking.  In  early  picked 
fruit  the  berries  on  the  check  plats  were  larger,  whereas  in  the  last  pickings 
the  berries  on  the  sprayed  plats  were  larger.  It  is  suggested  that  this  was  due 
to  a  retardation  in  the  development  of  the  fruit  on  the  sprayed  vines  due  to  the 
heavier  crop  which  they  were  producing.  The  keeping  quality  was  improved 
by  spraying,  although  this  was  more  marked  with  the  Howe  variety.  This  and 
the  distinctly  greater  increase  in  quantity  of  fruit  on  the  Howe  plats  indicate 
the  presence  of  a  special  diseased  condition  affecting  tliat  variety  more  seriously 
than  the  others.  This  disease,  hitherto  undetermined,  has  been  tentatively 
called  "blosson  end  rot."  Its  characteristic  effect  on  the  fruit  is  to  cause  it  to 
rot,  beginning  at  the  blossom  end  and  working  gradually  toward  the  stem  end, 
the  berry  becoming  soft,  but  remaining  plump  and  watery,  as  the  decay  pro- 
gresses. The  tests  appeared  to  give  no  evidence  that  the  stage  of  ripeness  at 
which  the  berries  were  picked  had  any  effect  on  their  keeping  quality.  Observa- 
tions made  during  the  past  two  years  seem  to  indicate  that  resanding  favors 
fungus  diseases  and  that  spring  sanding  favors  fungus  development  more  than 
does  fall  sanding. 

The  pollination  experiments  as  continued  on  another  part  of  the  bog 
(E.  S.  R.,  26,  p.  841)  appeared  to  contradict  partially  the  results  previously 
secured,  inasmuch  as  the  area  over  which  the  bees  were  excluded  bore  at  least 
half  a  crop  of  berries.     The  experiment  is  to  be  repeated. 

Observations  made  during  the  year  indicate  that  the  berries  of  a  heavy  cran- 
berry crop  will,  other  conditions  being  equal,  keep  better  than  those  of  a  light 
crop,  and  that  the  surface  roughening  of  the  fruit  in  certain  varieties  may  be 
relied  upon  to  some  extent  as  an  indicator  of  their  keeping  quality. 

The  results  of  storage  tests  which  were  carried  out  with  berries  from  all  the 
fertilizer  plats  gave  no  evidence  that  any  of  the  fertilizers,  except  perhaps  the 
acid  phosphate,  had  affected  the  keeping  quality.  Nitrate  of  soda  had  a  marketl 
effect  in  increasing  the  quantity  of  fruit,  although  the  variation  in  size  between 
the  berries  from  the  different  plats  was  not  very  great.  Potash  caused  no 
increase  in  fruit  and  the  phosphate  but  very  little.  If  lime  had  any  effect,  it 
was  detrimental.  The  vines  on  the  plats  to  which  nitrate  was  applied  made  a 
more  luxuriant  but  desirable  growth  than  those  on  the  rest  of  the  bog. 

New  varieties  of  fruits,  A.  Xomblot  {IV.  Conf.  Internat.  G^n^tique  Paris, 
Compt.  Rend,  et  Raps.,  1911,  pp.  464-468). — With  the  view  of  procuring  new 
varieties  of  tree  fruits  sowings  of  seed  from  different  varieties  were  made  a 
number  of  years  ago.  Consideration  is  here  given  to  those  forms  which  have 
arisen  from  naturally  fertilized  fruits. 


144  EXPEKIMENT  STATION   RECORD. 

The  results  with  the  cherry  have  shown  that  certain  types,  as  the  Bigarreau, 
Morello,  Blacli  Heart,  etc.,  possess  eome  degree  of  fixity.  The  ^Nlirabelle  and 
Green  Gage  i)lums  and  a  number  of  peaches  have  also  proved  to  be  relatively 
fixed.  In  the  case  of  apples  and  pears  many  forms  varying  in  their  vegetative 
characters  and  not  resembling  the  maternal  parent  have  been  obtained. 

The  author  is  not  inclined  to  favor  grafting  as  a  means  of  hastening  the 
fruiting  period  of  seedling  trees  since  this  method  has  not  given  conclusive  re- 
sults. Moreover,  he  does  not  favor  the  propagation  of  varieties  by  the  use  of 
immature  wood. 

Crew  work,  costs,  and  returns  in  commercial  orcharding  in  West  Vir- 
ginia, J.  H.  Aenold  (U.  S.  Dept.  Affr.  Bui.  29,  pp.  24,  figs.  5). — In  this  bulletin 
the  author  summarizes  and  analyzes  the  experiences  in  orchard  management 
of  different  individuals  who  have  been  pioneers  in  the  development  of  the 
peach  industry  in  the  drainage  basin  of  the  Potomac  River  in  West  Virginia. 
Practically  every  factor  involved  in  peach  growing  is  considered  with  special 
reference  to  the  determination  of  costs. 

From  an  analysis  of  the  data  secured  the  author  comes  to  the  general  con- 
clusion that  with  the  most  favorable  conditions  that  can  be  reasonably  ex- 
pected and  under  the  most  skillful  and  experienced  management,  average  divi- 
dends of  over  25  per  cent  are  practically  impossible.  At  the  average  price  of 
65  cts.  per  basket  a  good  manager  might  reasonably  expect  to  pay  10  per  cent 
dividends  on  the  money  invested. 

Cultivation  and  exploitation  of  the  avocado,  G.  R.  Valencia  {Estac.  Agr. 
Cent.  [Mexico']  Bol.  71,  1912,  pp.  70,  pis.  20). — A  popular  treatise  on  the  botany, 
culture,  exploitation,  and  uses  of  the  avocado. 

Mulberry  and  fig*  culture,  M.  Calvino  {Estac.  Agr.  Cent.  {Mexico}  Bol.  75, 
1912,  pp.  33,  pJs.  8). — ^A  popular  cultural  treatise  with  special  reference  to 
Mexican  conditions. 

On  some  hybrids  of  Vitis  vinifera  and  V.  berlandieri,  Gard  {IV.  Conf. 
Internat.  Gen^tique  Paris,  Compt.  Rend,  et  Raps.,  1911,  pp.  395,  396)  * — In 
studying  a  number  of  hybrid  forms  of  V.  herlandieriXV.  vinifera  raised  from 
seed  of  V.  herlandien  it  was  observed  with  regard  to  the  stem  that  the  hairy 
character  of  the  maternal  parent  and  also  the  glabrous  character  of  most  varie- 
ties of  y.  vinifera  occurred  among  the  hybrids,  together  with  a  large  number  of 
intermediate  forms.  Transverse  sections  of  the  stem  show  that  the  structure 
is  sometimes  intermediate  between  the  two  parents  and  sometimes  nearer  that  of 
V.  vinifera.  Most  generally  certain  characters  of  the  liber  and  of  the  sec- 
ondary wood,  and  especially  those  of  the  primary  wood,  are  nearer  V.  vinifera. 
In  the  roots,  on  the  other  hand,  these  characters  are  nearer  the'  other  parent 
and  are  in  accordance  with  the  power  of  resistance  to  phylloxera  and  the 
excellent  qualities  as  stocks  possessed  by  these  hybrids. 

On  the  use  of  seedling  vines  as  scions,  Tr.vbut  {Prog.  Agr.  et  Yit.  {Ed. 
VEst-Centre),  34  {1913),  No.  46,  pp.  625,  626,  figs.  2).— The  author  here  calls 
attention  to  some  successful  results  secured  during  the  past  season  in  cleft 
grafting  grape  seedlings  on  green  shoots  of  old  vines.  At  the  beginning  of 
June  young  plants  which  had  only  their  cotyledons  were  trimmed  like  ordinary 
scions  and  inserted  on  the  top  of  green  shoots.  The  end  of  the  shoot  was 
wrapped  with  a  small  band  of  paraflSn  paper  secured  with  raflBa.  The  com- 
pleted graft  was  then  covered  with  a  small  paraffined  paper  bag  in  order  to 
preserve  the  humidity.  The  parts  united  in  about  2  weeks'  time  after  which  th(i 
young  plants  grew  vigorously.  By  October  the  union  was  hardly  visible  and 
the  shoot  was  about  3  meters  long. 

The  application  of  this  method  for  the  rapid  propagation  of  new  varieties  is 
suggested. 


HORTICULTURE.  145 

The  reconstruction  of  vineyards  without  grafting,  C.  Oberlin  {Weinbau  u. 
Weinfiandel,  31  {1913),  Nos.  28,  pp.  287,  288;  20,  p.  207;  30,  pp.  307,  308;  31, 
pp.  317,  318;  32,  pp.  327,  328;  33,  pp.  337,  338;  34,  p.  3^7).— After  a  general 
survey  of  the  results  secured  in  reconstituting  phylloxera  infested  vineyards  in 
Europe  the  author  concludes  in  substance  tliat,  although  the  use  of  American 
grape  stocks  may  be  the  best  means  of  reconstituting  the  vineyards  in  the 
warmer  parts  of  Europe,  the  use  of  grafted  vines  is  too  costly  and  complicated 
a  process  for  cold  climate  regions  such  as  Alsace-Lorraine,  where  it  is  necessary 
to  plant  the  grape  sufficiently  deep  to  protect  the  grafts  from  frosts.  He  calls 
attention  to  the  relative  resistance  of  grapes  grown  by  the  cordon  system  to 
phylloxera  as  compared  with  grapes  grown  on  individual  stakes,  as  well  as  the 
greater  ease  with  which  cultural  and  spraying  treatments  may  be  given.  With 
special  reference  to  the  industry  in  Alsace-Lorraine  he  suggests  that  the  double 
arm  cordon  system  be  adopted  and  attention  also  given  to  the  testing  of  direct- 
bearing  American-European  hybrids  which  are  much  more  frost  resistant  than 
the  grafted  stocks. 

Some  new  or  little-known  Philippine  economics,  O.  W.  Barrett  {Philippine 
Agr.  Rev.  [EngUsJi  Ed.],  6  {1013),  No.  10,  pp.  403-503,  pis.  10). — Brief  descrip- 
tions are  given  of  a  large  number  of  native  fruits  and  plants  of  more  or  less 
economic  importance. 

The  Kafir  orange,  D.  Fairchild  {Amer.  Breeders  Mag.,  4  {1013),  No.  3, 
pp.  148-153,  figs.  2). — Attention  is  here  called  to  the  Kafir  orange  {Strychnos 
spinosa),  an  edible  member  of  the  strychnin  producing  genus  which  has  been 
successfully  grown  in  Florida  and  southern  California.  Notes  are  also  given 
on  other  species  of  this  genus  which  promise  to  succeed  in  our  semitropical 
regions  and  which  with  a  little  improvement  through  hybridization  and  selec- 
tion may  offer  a  number  of  unique  fruits  to  American  growers. 

American  medicinal  flowers,  fruits,  and  seeds,  Alice  Henkel  (17.  /sf.  Dept. 
Agr.  Bill.  26,  pp.  16,  figs.  12). — This  bulletin  describes  the  following  13  plants, 
the  flowers,  fruits,  or  seeds  of  which  are  in  greatest  demand  for  medicinal  pur- 
poses: Juniper  {Juniperus  communis),  saw  palmetto  {Screnoa  scrrulata), 
wormseed  {Chenopodiiim  antlielminticuiiv) ,  pokeweed  {Phytolacca  americana), 
black  mustard  {Brassica  nigra),  white  mustard  {Sinapis  alha),  raspberries 
{Ruhiis  occidentalis  and  R.  st7-igosiis),  prickly  ash  {Zanthoxylum  americanum 
and  Z.  clava^hermUis) ,  smooth  sumac  {Rhus  glabra),  American  linden  {Tilia 
americana),  poison  hemlock  {Conium  maculatum),  jimson  weed  {Datura  stra- 
monium,), mullein  {Verbasaim  thapsus),  and  elder  {Samhucus  canadensis). 

Each  plant  is  discussed  with  reference  to  its  sjTionymy,  habitat  and  range, 
description,  collection,  uses,  and  prices.  Brief  suggestions  are  given  relative  to 
the  collection  of  flowers,  fruits,  and  seeds. 

Experiments  in  bulb  growing  at  the  United  States  Bulb  Garden  at  Bel- 
lingham,  P.  H.  Dorsett  {U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  28,  pp.  21,  figs.  21)  —In  1908 
the  Bureau  of  Plant  Industry  established  an  experimental  bulb  garden  at  Bel- 
lingham,  Wash.,  to  determine  the  feasibility  of  growing  the  so-called  *'  Dutch 
bulbs,"  including  hyacinths,  narcissuses,  and  tulips  in  the  United  States.  This 
bulletin  reports  the  progress  and  present  status  of  the  work,  including  the  cul- 
tural practices  thus  far  employed. 

Generally  speaking  the  results  have  been  satisfactory,  a  high  grade  of  bulbs 
having  been  produced.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Department  is  not  prepared  to 
recommend  the  commercial  culture  of  "  Dutch  bulbs  "  in  this  country  until  fur- 
ther information  is  gained  relative  to  climatic  and  soil  requirements,  cultural 
practices,  and  methods  of  harvesting,  curing,  storing,  transporting,  and  mar- 
keting the  crop. 


146  EXPERIMENT    STATION    RECORD. 

Weed  extermination,  G.  E.  Stone  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  2,  pp. 
35-40,  pis.  3). — In  this  article  the  author  discusses  different  methods  of  exter- 
minating weeds  from  hiwns.  Descriptions  of  devices  for  applying  arsenate  of 
soda,  cutting  weeds,  and  spreading  fertilizer  are  included. 

Legislation  ag-ainst  the  diseases  and  pests  of  cultivated  plants  in  Ceylon, 
T.  Fetch  (Dept.  Agr.  Ceylon  Bill.  6,  1913,  pp.  79-93).— This  bulletin  contains 
the  text  of  regulations  which  have  been  issued  in  Ceylon  under  ordinances  en- 
acted for  the  control  of  native  diseases  and  pests  and  for  preventing  the  intro- 
duction of  others. 

FORESTRY. 

Forest  valuation,  F.  Riebel  (Wahlwertrcchming.  Vienna  and  Leipsic,  1912, 
2.  ccL,  rev.  and  enl.,  pp.  XVI+527,  pis.  2). — Part  1  of  this  work  comprises  a 
theoretical  discussion  of  various  factors  which  enter  into  the  determination  of 
the  money  value  of  a  forest  or  a  forest  enterprise,  consideration  being  given  to 
the  general  economic,  forest  economic,  and  mathematical  fundamental  prin- 
ciples of  forestry,  and  to  the  various  methods  of  forest  valuation.  In  part  2 
the  application  of  the  theoretical  knowledge  relative  to  forest  valuation  to  exist- 
ing cases  is  illustrated  by  numerous  examples. 

An  economic  study  of  acacias,  C.  H.  Shinn  (U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bill.  9,  pp.  38, 
pis.  11). — In  this  bulletin  the  author  discusses  the  economic  importance  of  the 
leading  acacias  in  various  countries  with  the  idea  of  bringing  about  more  gen- 
eral planting  in  suitable  regions  in  this  country. 

A  study  of  the  cultural  requirements  of  the  many  species  of  acacia  which  have 
been  grown  as  ornamentals  in  this  country,  chiefly  in  California,  leads  to  the 
general  conclusion  that  plantations  properly  located  and  managed  are  as  likely 
to  prosper  in  America  as  in  other  countries,  where  the  various  species  haA'e  been 
a  valuable  source  of  tanbark,  gums,  timber,  etc.  Attention  is  called  to  the  fact, 
however,  that  thus  far  our  knowledge  relative  to  the  success  of  acacias  in  this 
country  is  chiefly  of  a  cultural  nature.  It  is  yet  to  be  determined  whether  the 
trees  can  be  produced  under  close-planted  commercial  conditions  and  whether 
the  products  can  be  harvested  and  marketed  in  competition  with  those  produced 
cheaply  abroad. 

Manihot  caoutchouc,  A.  Zimmermann  {Der  Manihot-Eautschiik.  Jena,  1913, 
pp.  XI-^342,  figs.  151). — ^A  treatise  on  the  culture,  exploitation,  and  preparation 
of  the  various  Manihot  rubbers.  Other  rubber-yielding  species  are  considered 
in  as  far  as  the  practices  employed  in  handling  them  are  of  value  for  the  culture 
of  the  Manihot  species.  The  subject  matter  is  based  partially  on  a  review  of 
the  literature  of  the  subject  and  partially  upon  observations  made  in  German 
East  Africa,  as  well  as  on  the  author's  personal  investigations. 

An  extensive  bibliography  of  the  subject  is  appended. 

Device  for  planting  white  pine  seed,  G.  E.  Stone  (Massaehusetts  Sta.  Rpt. 
1912,  pt.  2,  pp.  31,  32,  pi.  1). — The  device  here  described  consists  of  a  hollow 
iron  tube  about  %  in.  in  diameter  at  the  top  of  which  is  a  funnel  and  to  the 
bottom  of  which  is  attached  a  bent  piece  of  strap  iron  about  If  in.  in  width 
and  thick  enough  to  give  the  required  rigidity.  This  is  sharpened  at  the  end 
like  a  chisel.  The  hollow  handle  is  extended  by  means  of  a  rubber  tube  so  that 
when  the  blade  is  thrust  into  the  ground  the  opening  comes  over  the  hole  which 
is  made  when  the  handle  is  brought  to  a  vertical  position.  The  seed  is  planted 
by  dropping  it  into  the  funnel  at  the  top  of  the  handle. 

Condition  of  experimental  teleg'raph  poles,  treated  and  untreated,  after 
eight  years'  service,  C.  H.  Teesdale  (Engin.  News,  70  {1913),  No.  22,  pp.  1084- 
1086,  figs.  4). — The  work  here  reported  was  started  in  the  summer  of  1905, 


DISEASES   OF   PLANTS.  147 

when  a  large  number  of  treated  and  untreated  chestnut  and  white  cedar  poles 
were  set  up  in  experimental  lines  in  cooperation  with  the  American  Telegraph 
and  Telephone  Company.  The  previous  results  of  this  test  have  been  noted 
(E.  S,  R.,  25,  p.  344),  In  the  present  report  an  outline  is  given  of  the  experi- 
mentJil  treatments,  together  with  the  results  secured  after  a  test  of  8  years. 

As  a  result  of  this  experiment  it  appears  that  the  average  life  of  the  untreated 
seasoned  and  gi*een  southern  white  cedar  poles  in  this  line  will  not  exceed 
7  to  8  years.  Seasoned  poles  set  untreated  showed  a  larger  percentage  of  re- 
movals than  the  green  poles.  This  is  attributed  to  the  length  of  time  the  sea- 
soned poles  were  held  before  they  were  set.  The  chestnut  poles  were  found  to 
be  in  a  much  better  condition  than  the  cedar.  Some  63  per  cent  of  the  untreated 
poles  were  still  only  slightly  decayed,  while  of  the  treated  poles,  excluding  tar 
coating,  91  per  cent  were  either  sound  or  only  slightly  decayed.  Good  results 
were  obtained  with  all  preservatives,  except  tar.  Coal-tar  products  gave  better 
results  than  wood-tar  products.  The  results  obtained  with  the  carbolineums 
were  only  slightly  better  than  with  coal-tar  creosote.  The  southern  white  cedar 
poles  brush-treated  with  good  preservatives  showed  less  decay  than  untreated 
chestnut  poles  but  were  decayed  more  than  the  treated  chestnut  poles.  Fewer 
removals  and  fewer  badly  decayed  poles  were  found  in  the  portions  of  the  line 
running  through  swamps  and  wet  locations  than  in  dryer  situations.  The  worst 
conditions  were  found  in  cultivated  fields  and  dry  sandy  situations. 

The  author  concludes  that,  although  brush  treatments  with  a  good  preservative 
gave  an  increased  life  to  poles  sufficient  to  pay  well  for  the  cost  of  treatment, 
to  be  really  effective  the  application  should  be  sufficient  to  treat  all  the  sapwood 
and  in  the  case  of  chestnut  probably  some  of  the  heartwood. 

DISEASES  OF  PLANTS. 

An  outline  of  some  of  the  topics  covered  by  the  department  of  vegetable 
physiology  and  pathology  since  its  inception,  G.  E.  Stone  {Massachusetts 
Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  97-101). — A  bibliography  of  the  more  important  papers 
published  by  the  department  since  1888  is  given. 

Diseases  more  or  less  common  during  the  year,  G.  E.  Stone  (Massachusetts 
Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  lit.  1,  pp.  38-40).— Brief  notes  are  given  on  winterkilling  of 
twigs  and  roots  of  apple  trees  and  the  occurrence  of  scab  (Fiisicladimn  den- 
dnticum),  apple  fruit  rots,  bitter  rot  (Glocosponum  fnictigenum) ,  and  of  white 
pine  blister  rust  on  currants.  A  large  number  of  other  diseases  due  to  para- 
sitic fungi  are  listed.  In  addition  notes  are  given  on  some  forest  and  shade 
tree  troubles,  among  them  a  mottling  of  chestnut  leaves,  the  killing  back  of 
twigs  of  elm,  maple,  ash,  butternut,  Norway  spruce,  and  sycamore,  root  dis- 
eases of  elm,  maple,  and  oak,  as  well  as  winter  injury  to  other  species.  It  is 
stated  that  the  winter  of  1912  was  one  of  the  worst  on  record  for  the  depth 
of  freezing  and  that  vegetation  in  general  was  in  poor  condition  owing  to 
drought. 

Work  of  the  botanical  research  laboratory  and  of  the  laboratory  for  plant 
diseases  at  Klosterneuburg,  L.  Linsbauer,  J.  K.  Schechner,  and  F.  Zweigelt 
{Programm  u.  JaJtresber.  K.  K.  Hoh.  Lehranst.  Wein  u.  Ohsfbau  Klostcnieuhurg, 
1911-12,  pp.  14I-I66,  figs.  6;  Internat.  Inst.  Agr.  [Rome],  Mo.  Bid.  Agr.  Intel, 
and  Plant  Diseases,  4  (1913),  No.  7,  pp.  III4,  1115).— The  first  article  noted 
herein  is  the  regular  report  regarding  observations  made  on  various  diseases 
of  orchard  and  small  fruits,  grapes,  vegetables,  etc.,  and  of  studies  on  some 
physiological  problems,  a  list  of  addresses  and  publications  being  appended. 
The  second  article  noted  is  a  short  and  more  specific  account,  by  Linsbauer.  of 
some   physiological   investigations   bearing   upon   the   development   and   some 


148  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECOED. 

pliysiological  aspects  of  certain  grape  diseases,  including  Plasmopara,  Pseudo- 
peziza  traclieipliila,  and  "  Droali." 

Studies  of  plant  diseases,  H.  C.  Muller,  E.  Molz,  and  D.  Morgenthaleb 
{Ber.  Agr.  Chem.  Kontroll  u.  Vers.  Stat.  Pflanzenkrank.  Prov.  Sachsen.,  1912, 
pp.  67-76). — This  is  a  condensed  report  on  studies  carried  out  on  various 
diseases  of  grains,  beets,  potatoes,  fruit  trees,  and  garden  vegetables,  with  a 
list  of  remedies  and  apparatus  for  their  application  tested  and  approved  by  the 
station, 

Notes  on  Cronartium  coleosporioides  and  C.  filamentosum,  E.  P.  Meinecke 
{Phytopathology,  S  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  167,  J68).— The  author  reports  the  suc- 
cessful infection  of  CastiUcia  miniata  with  secidiospores  of  Peridermium  sta- 
lactiforme  from  Pinus  contorta. 

Mosaic  and  allied  diseases,  with  especial  reference  to  tobacco  and  toma- 
toes, G.  H.  Chapman  {Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  2,  pp.  41-51). — A  report 
is  given  of  observations  on  this  disease  of  tobacco  and  tomatoes  which  the 
author  says  he  has  been  able  to  produce  on  other  plants,  such  as  ragweed, 
jjmson  weed,  etc. 

The  disease  is  held  to  be  of  physiological  origin  and  is  caused  by  the  exces- 
sive activity  of  the  oxidase  and  peroxidase  enzyms  in  the  plant  and  the  partial 
loss  of  fimction  of  catalase.  It  is  not  considered  due  to  any  one  enzym  alone 
nor  to  any  special  virus.  It  is  infectious  but  not  contagious,  and  does  not 
occur  in  seed  beds  when  new  soil  is  used  nor  in  properly  sterilized  seed  beds. 

Directions  are  given  for  the  handling  of  the  seed  beds,  the  use  of  fertilizers, 
the  choice  of  soils,  etc.,  to  reduce  as  much  as  possible  the  occurrence  of  this 
trouble.    A  bibliography  is  appended. 

Cucumber  and  tomato  canker  {Oard,  Cliron.,  3.  ser.,  5Jf  {1913),  No.  1393, 
pp.  167,  168,  fig.  1). — This  disease,  due  to  Mycosphwrella  citrullina,  the  same 
fungus  which  attacks  muskmelons  in  the  United  States  (E.  S.  R.,  21,  p.  148),  is 
said  to  be  widely  spread  in  Great  Britain,  where  it  is  causing  considerable  loss 
to  tomatoes  and  cucumbers  grown  under  glass,  and  it  has  recently  been  shown 
to  occur  on  fruits  of  tomatoes  grown  in  the  open  (E.  S,  R.,  29,  p.  847). 

The  fungus  appears  to  be  a  wound  parasite  and  is  spread  most  rapidly  by 
the  pycnidiospores.  On  the  tomato  the  symptoms  which  have  been  most  fre- 
quently seen  are  the  wilting  of  the  whole  or  top  part  of  the  plant,  and  the 
appearance  of  brown  sunken  areas  on  some  parts  of  the  stem.  These  are 
generally  within  1  or  2  in.  of  the  soil,  although  in  some  instances  the  canker 
may  be  found  farther  up  the  stem. 

Comparatively  little  is  known  regarding  methods  of  prevention,  but  attention 
to  the  proper  temperature  and  humidity  of  the  houses  and  spraying  with 
Bordeaux  mixture,  it  is  thought,  would  tend  to  prevent  the  serious  occurrence 
of  the  trouble. 

White-heads  or  take-all  of  wheat  and  oats  {Bd.  Agr.  and  Fisheries  [Lon- 
don].  Leaflet  273,  1913,  pp.  4,  fig.  1). — ^A  brief  description  of  this  disease, 
Ophiobolus  graminis,  in  its  different  aspects  is  given  with  a  discussion  of  its 
prevalence,  mode  of  attack,  and  prevention.  It  is  said  to  flourish  also  on 
couch  grass,  Bromus  steiyilis,  etc.,  requiring  their  suppression  or  control;  like- 
wise it  is  said  to  attack  oats,  rendering  this  crop  unfit  for  rotation  as  a  means  of 
starving  out  the  fungus.  Blindness  or  abortion  of  the  grain  in  the  ear  may  be 
due  to  other  causes  named,  but  such  cases  may  be  recognized  by  the  absence  of 
the  characteristic  blackening  at  the  base  of  the  stem. 

It  is  claimed  that  superphosphate  of  lime  at  the  rate  of  1^  cwt.  per  acre 
applied  when  the  crop  is  young  proved  effective  at  Kew,  and  that  in  Australia 
iron  sulphate  at  the  rate  of  1  cwt.  per  acre  checked  this  disease. 


DISEASES   OF   PLANTS.  149 

The  barberry  and  its  relation  to  black  rust  of  grain,  H.  T.  Gussow  {Phyto- 
pathology, 3  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  178,  179). — Attention  is  called  to  a  report  on  the 
disappearance  of  Puccinia  graminis  in  Denmark  following  the  application  of 
the  law  relating  to  the  destiniction  of  barberries. 

The  action  of  different  luminous  radiations  on  the  formation  of  conidia  on 
Botrytis  cinerea,  F.  ;iik1  Mme.  F.  Moreau  iBuh  Hoc.  Hot.  France,  60  {1913), 
Xo.  2-3,  pp.  80-83). — The  authors,  studying  the  development  of  B.  oinerea  on 
carrot  under  a  pure  strong  spectrum,  found  that  conidia  were  formed  under 
these  circumstances  ouly  in  the  violet-blue  portion  of  the  spectrum.  This  result 
agreed  with  that  obtaiued  by  Reidemeister  (E.  S.  R.,  23,  p.  48),  but  disagreed 
with  that  reported  by  some  other  authors  named. 

A  bacterial  rot  of  cucumbers,  O.  F.  Burger  {Phytopathology,  3  {1913),  No, 
3,  pp.  169,  170). — A  brief  report  is  given  of  two  years'  investigations  of  a  bac- 
terial disease  of  the  leaves  and  fruit  of  cucumbers. 

On  the  fruit  watery  spots  with  brown  centers  appear,  and  later  the  cucumbers 
become  soft  and  translucent.  The  first  indication  of  infection  on  the  leaves  is 
shown  by  the  presence  of  watery  spots.  Cultures  made  from  the  material 
showed  the  presence  of  a  bacterium,  and  inoculation  experiments  demonstrated 
that  this  organism  was  the  cause  of  the  trouble. 

Vines  were  reported  as  drying  up  without  setting  fruit,  and  this  led  to  inocu- 
lation experiments  on  healthy  flowers.  These  were  found  to  turn  yellow, 
blacken,  and  dry  up  without  developing  any  fruit. 

The  cultural  characteristics  of  the  organism,  which  is  a  species  of  Pseu- 
domonas,  are  being  investigated  further. 

Corynespora  leaf  spot  of  cucumbers,  W.  Grosser  {Illus.  Schles.  Monatfichr. 
Obst.  Gemuse  ii.  Gartcnhau,  2  {1913),  No.  8,  p.  137). — A  discussion  is  given  of 
a  disease  of  cucumbers  said  to  cause  great  damage  in  England,  but  heretofore 
only  sporadic  in  Germany,  and  attributed  to  C.  ma;<;ei. 

In  the  absence  of  complete  investigations  as  regards  efficient  and  inexpen- 
sive means  of  control,  the  author  recommends  soaking  the  seed  4  hours  in  0.5 
per  cent  formalin  solution  before  planting,  also  spraying  the  plant  with  0.4  per 
cent  Bordeaux  mixture,  as  preventive  measures.  No  remedy  is  offered  as 
effective  after  the  general  outbreak  of  the  disease. 

Fusarium  or  Verticillium  on  okra  in  North  Carolina?  G.  W.  Wilson 
(Phytopathology,  3  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  183-185). — In  a  previous  publication 
(E.  S.  R.,  26,  p.  844),  a  disease  of  okra  attributed  to  F.  vasinfectum  was  de- 
scribed. Later  the  identity  of  the  fungus  had  been  questioned,  and  the  author 
reports  somewhat  more  in  detail  upon  the  disease  and  its  causal  organism.  The 
studies  are  said  to  show  that  the  fungus  was  not  a  Verticillium  but  a  Fusarium, 
as  previously  reported. 

Black  heart  of  potatoes,  E.  T.  Bartholomew  (Phytopathology,  3  (1913),  No. 
S,  pp.  180-182,  pi.  1). — The  attention  of  the  department  of  plant  pathology  of 
the  Wisconsin  Station  has  been  called  to  a  blaclcening  of  the  tissues  of  potatoes. 
An  examination  of  these  tissues  showed  them  to  be  sterile.  Following  this  a 
laboratory  experiment  was  conducted,  and  it  was  found  possible  to  produce  the 
condition  if  potatoes  were  taken  from  the  storage  cellar  and  exposed  to  a  tem- 
perature of  from  38  to  45°  C.  (98.4  to  113°  F.)  for  from  IS  to  48  hours.  The 
blackening  did  not  develop  to  the  same  extent  in  all  the  potatoes.  The  change 
apparently  begins  in  the  center  and  radiates  toward  the  margin,  and  if  the  ab- 
normal potatoes  are  allowed  to  remain  10  days  or  2  weeks  before  cutting,  the 
blackened  tv^^sues  in  the  center  shrink,  leaving  a  hollow  with  a  black  lining. 

Further  studies  are  being  made  on  the  physiological  changes  which  cause  the 
blackening,  and  for  the  present  attention  is  directed  to  the  disease  and  the  im- 
portance of  keeping  potatoes  at  a  uniformly  low  temperature. 


150  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECOED. 

Experiments  relating"  to  the  control  of  potato  scab,  G.  E.  Stone  and  G.  H. 
Chapman  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  84-96,  pi.  1). — The  results 
of  experiments  with  various  chemicals  for  the  prevention  of  potato  scab  are 
given.  These  experiments  were  begun  in  1908  and  continued  for  4  years,  dif- 
ferent substances  being  employed.  The  potatoes  were  grown  in  soil  in  tiles 
23  in.  in  diameter,  and  the  treatment  consisted  of  sterilization  and  the  use  of 
formalin,  potassium  permanganate,  sulphuric  acid,  sulphur,  copper  sulphate, 
carbon  bisulphid,  a  commercial  by-product  called  by  the  author  "by-product 
A,"  etc. 

Summarizing  the  results  of  the  experiments,  it  is  shown  that  many  of  the 
substances  used  had  little  effect  in  preventing  scab,  while  others  seemed  to  pos- 
sess some  value.  Steaming  the  soil  seemed  to  have  but  little  effect  on  the  pro- 
duction of  scab.  The  best  results  were  obtained  by  the  use  of  by-product  A  in 
dry  form,  followed  by  sulphur  treatment  and  by-product  A  in  solution  and 
steam  heating.  The  by-product  seems  to  act  slowly  and  continuously  as  a 
germicide,  and  it  is  thought  that  it  may  prove  efficient  in  the  control  of  other 
fungi. 

The  relation  of  cane  cultivation  to  the  control  of  fung-us  diseases,  J.  R. 
Johnston  (Porto  Rico  Sugar  Producers'  Sta.  Circ.  3  (English  Ed.),  pp.  13). — 
The  author  describes  the  various  cultural  methods  that  have  been  tested  for 
growing  cane,  and  points  out  methods  to  be  adopted  for  the  control  of  fungus 
diseases  so  far  as  any  relation  exists  between  them  and  the  agricultural  prac- 
tices. 

The  black  rots  of  the  sweet  potato,  J.  J.  Taubenhaus  (Phytopathology,  3 
(1913),  No.  3,  pp.  159-166,  pis.  3).— A  study  of  the  black  rot  of  the  sweet  potato, 
described  by  Halsted  (E.  S.  U.,  2,  p.  416)  and  since  attributed  to  Sphceroneina 
fimT)riatum,  has  been  made,  and  the  author  has  come  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
disease  is  not  due  to  this  species,  but  is  a  sclerotium  fungus,  to  which  the  name 
Sclerotium  'bataticola  n.  sp.  is  given.  In  order  to  distinguish  this  disease  from 
the  black  rot  caused  by  Trichoderma  komngi,  it  is  proposed  to  call  it  the  char- 
coal rot  of  the  sweet  potato. 

A  third  black  rot  of  the  sweet  potato  is  described,  which  is  said  to  be  due  to 
Lasiodiplodia  tuhericola.  For  this  the  author  proposes  the  name  Java  black 
rot,  as  this  indicates  the  source  from  which  the  disease  was  first  obtained. 

Study  of  recent  diseases  of  grapevines,  their  importance  and  treatment, 
V.  C.  M.  DE  ZtJNiGA  (Estac.  Enol.  Earo  Mem.,  1912,  pp.  85-98).— Giving  the 
results  of  several  years'  study  of  arrepollao  or  achaparrado  (court-noue)  of 
grapevines  in  the  Rioja,  Spain,  the  author  states  that  this  trouble  although  not 
very  serious  at  present  is  more  frequently  met  with  on  lowlands  and  levels  and 
in  valley  bottoms  than  in  higher  portions  of  the  valleys  and  on  benches. 
Clayey,  cold,  compact  soils  appear  to  favor  court-noue  more  than  do  loose  stony 
or  slaty  soils,  the  percentage  of  moisture  seeming  to  bear  some  relation  to  its  ap- 
pearance as  do  also  abrupt  temperature  changes  in  winter  and  spring.  Con- 
siderable differences  are  noted  in  the  susceptibility  of  different  varieties,  Riparia 
and  Berlandieri  proving  relatively  resistant.  It  is  thought  also  that  vigorous 
growth  in  autumn  tends  to  decrease  the  likelihood  of  this  trouble  in  spring. 

Downy  mildew  in  Vaucluse  in  1913,  E.  Zacharewicz  (Rev.  Vit.,  40  (1913), 
No.  1025,  pp.  171-174)' — Three  outbreaks  of  downy  mildew  were  noted  in  the 
Department  of  Vaucluse  in  1913.  Both  copper  sulphate  mixed  with  powdered 
soap  to  the  amount  of  1.5  per  cent  each  in  water,  and  a  mixture  of  70  parts  of 
sulphur  with  30  parts  of  20  per  cent  sulphosteatite,  were  used  soon ^ after  rains 
with  good  results,  as  also  was  a  treatment  of  powdered  lime  55  parts,  20  per 
cent  sulphosteatite  40  parts,  and  naptha  soap  5  parts,  all  these  treatments  be- 


DISEASES   OF   PLANTS.  151 

ing  liberally  applied.  Employment  of  chemical  fertilizers  with  some  restric- 
tion as  regards  nitrogen  is  also  claimed  to  prove  helpful  in  producing  a  freer 
lineal  gi-owth  of  the  shoots  favorable  to  aeration  and  to  the  application  of 
sprays.  The  chief  reliance  is  placed  upon  copper  sulphate  as  a  basis  of  fungi- 
cidal  treatment. 

Mildew  in  1913,  A.  Cadoret  {Prog.  Agr.  et  Vit.  (Ed.  VEst-Centre),  34  (1913), 
No.  34,  pp.  238,  239).— In  continuance  of  previous  reports  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  551) 
the  author  states  that,  believing  both  single  and  successive  outbreaks  of  downy 
mildew  to  be  favored  by  humidity,  he  tested  the  effects  of  3  sprayings  following 
showers  or  rains  extending  over  several  days  in  the  latter  part  of  May  and  the 
early  part  of  June.  Almost  no  injury  resulted  from  mildew,  while  crops  around 
suffered  heavily.  Similar  tests  on  a  neighboring  vineyard  showed,  however,  a 
loss  of  about  50  per  cent,  heavy  dews  being  noted  in  this  case.  Further  tests 
are  contemplated. 

A  Botrytis  disease  of  dahlias,  M.  T.  Cook  and  C.  A.  Schwarze  (Phyto- 
pathology, 3  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  171-174,  pi.  1). — During  the  past  year  the  authors' 
attention  was  called  to  a  root  rot  of  dahlias  in  storage.  The  disease  appeared 
to  be  most  severe  under  warm,  moist  conditions,  combined  with  poor  ventilation, 
and  was  caused  by  a  species  of  Botrytis  corresponding  very  closely  to  the 
description  of  B.  cincrca.  Infections  always  take  place  through  wounds,  and  it 
was  imposible  to  secure  the  penetration  of  the  fungus  through  the  uninjured 
epidermis. 

Some  fungus  diseases  of  trees,  L.  H,  Pammel  (Proc.  loiva  Acad.  Soi.,  18 
(1911),  pp.  25-33,  p?s.  4,  figs.  2). — Descriptions  are  given  of  the  heart  rot  of 
Populus  trcmuloides,  due  to  Forties  igmarius  and  F.  applanatus ;  the  oyster 
fungus  (Pleurotus  ulmarius)  on  box  elder  and  basswood;  the  root  rot  fungus 
(Polystictus  versicolor)  on  maples,  oak,  apple,  cherry,  and  other  deciduous 
trees ;  the  root  rot  of  oak,  due  to  Armillaria  mellea ;  the  spot  of  butternut  and 
black  walnut  (Gnomonia  leptostyla)  ;  and  attacks  of  Taphrina  on  the  Rocky 
Mountain  hard  maples. 

Shade  tree  troubles,  G.  E.  Stone  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp. 
73-83,  2J?s.  7). — The  author  describes  staghead  and  root  injury  to  maple  and 
other  trees,  injury  to  cork  cambium,  sun  scald,  bleeding,  injuries  from  snow, 
effect  of  grading  on  trees,  and  injuries  from  various  treatments  for  protection 
against  insect  pests. 

Chestnut  blight,  G.  E.  Stone  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  2,  pp.  33, 
34). — A  brief  account  is  given  of  observations  by  the  author  on  the  spread  of 
the  chestnut  blight  and  the  injury  which  it  is  causing.  This  disease  seems  to 
be  spreading  in  the  Connecticut  and  other  western  valleys  of  the  State,  while  the 
eastern  central  section  of  the  State  still  remains  comparatively  free  from  the 
disease.  Along  with  the  blight  there  is  said  to  be  a  deterioration  of  chestnut 
trees  which  is  in  no  way  associated  with  the  blight  fungus. 

The  blights  of  coniferous  nursery  stock,  C.  Hartley  (U.  S.  Dcpt.  Agr.  Bui. 
44>  PP-  21). — The  author  describes  the  more  common  blights  to  which  coniferous 
nursery  stock  is  subject  and  offers  suggestions  for  their  control.  Among  those 
described  are  sun  scorch,  winterkilling,  diseases  due  to  parasitic  fungi,  stem 
giixlle,  mulch  injury,  red  cedar  blight,  and  mechanical  root  injury. 

Sim  scorch,  which  is  said  to  be  the  commonest  summer  trouble,  results  in  the 
death  of  the  roots  before  the  tops  are  killed  and  is  due  to  excessive  water  loss. 
Watering,  shading,  and  the  avoidance  of  crowding,  as  well  as  increasing  the 
humus  content  of  the  soil  should  be  adopted  for  the  prevention  of  this  injury. 

Winterkilling  is  due  to  the  drying  out  of  the  plants  when  the  soil  is  frozen 
and  may  be  prevented  by  the  use  of  a  light  straw  mulch  or  windbreaks. 


152  EXPERIMENT  STATION  EECORD. 

Mulch  injury  follows  the  heavy  mulching  of  the  plants  and  may  be  avoided  by 
the  use  of  light  mulches  and  spraying  with  Bordeaux  mixture  before  the  appli- 
cation of  the  mulch. 

The  fungus  diseases  described  are  needle  cast  due  to  Lopliodermmm  pinastri, 
blight  caused  by  Pestalozzia  fnnerea,  root  rots  due  to  RMzoctonia  sp.,  and  stem 
girdle  caused  by  a  fungus  which  may  prove  to  be  P.  liariigii.  Notes  are  also 
given  on  the  red  cedar  blight,  concerning  which  but  little  is  known,  and  no 
recommendations  are  made  for  its  control. 

Herpotrichia  and  Neopeckia  on  conifers,  W.  C.  Stubgis  {Phytopathology, 
S  {1013),  No.  3,  pp.  152-158,  pU.  2). — The  author  reports  having  observed  in 
northern  Wyoming  in  1902  the  prevalence  of  a  fungus  on  leaves  and  twigs  of 
Ahics  lasiocarpa  and  Picea  engelmamii.  Later  and  in  nearly  the  same  locality 
what  appeared  to  be  the  same  fungus  was  found  on  Pinus  murrayana.  An  ex- 
amination made  of  the  specimens  collected  showed  that  that  occurring  on  the 
fir  and  spruce  was  H.  nigra,  while  that  on  the  pine  was  N,  coulteri. 

The  damage  caused  by  these  two  fungi  is,  so  far  as  the  author's  observation 
goes,  very  slight,  but  on  account  of  the  possibility  of  their  causing  the  destruc- 
tion of  conifers  in  seed  beds  or  later,  attention  is  called  to  them,  and  both 
species  are  described  and  their  synonymy  given. 

A  new  rust,  G.  E.  Stone  {Massachusetts  8ta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  4^-44)- — 
The  occuiTence  in  the  State  of  the  Cronartium  form  of  Pendermium  stroti, 
the  cause  of  the  white  pine  blister  rust,  is  noted.  The  rust  was  observed  on 
a  block  of  200  currant  plants  which  had  been  introduced  from  a  New  York 
nursery.  Nearly  all  the  plants  were  infected,  although  a  small  block  of  black 
currants  a  quarter  of  a  mile  away  showed  no  indication  of  the  fimgus,  nor  did 
a  rigid  examination  of  a  plantation  of  8-year-old  pines  reveal  any  signs  of 
blister  rust  infection.  As  the  black  currants  are  not  considered  of  any  great 
economic  importance  the  author  suggests  their  destruction. 

Spotting  of  rubber  on  the  plantation,  V.  Cayla  {Jour.  Agr.  Trop.,  13  {1913), 
No.  145,  pp.  221-223). — Referring  to  articles  published  by  K.  Bancroft  (E.  S.  R., 
29,  p.  451)  and  others,  the  author  gives  a  brief  outline  of  the  beginning  and 
progress  of  this  condition  of  rubber  appearing  in  the  various  stages  of  its  pro- 
duction, mentioning  several  organisms  found  in  connection  therewith. 

An  investigation  of  lime-sulphur  injury,  its  causes  and  prevention,  V.  I. 
Satro  {Oregon  Sta.  Research  Bid.  2,  pp.  32,  p?s.  4)- — Attention  is  called  to  the 
uncertain  usage  of  the  term  lime-sulphur  injury,  and  on  account  of  this  indefi- 
nite use  the  author  has  carried  on  some  investigations  to  determine  what  chem- 
ical ingredients  of  the  lime-sulphur  spray  can  be  classed  as  injurious  in  a  strict 
sense. 

A  series  of  experiments  was  conducted  in  which  the  various  materials  which 
go  to  make  up  the  spray  and  the  compounds  which  are  liable  to  occur  in  the 
spray  before  and  after  its  application  were  used.  These  were  sprayed  on 
potato  and  bean  foliage  as  well  as  on  the  foliage  and  fruit  of  apples,  pears, 
cherries,  peaches,  and  plums.  Considerable  varietal  susceptibility  to  lime- 
sulphur  injury  was  noted,  but  it  was  found  that  the  injury,  in  the  proper  use 
of  the  term,  was  caused  by  the  calcium  polysulphids  and  to  a  somewhat  less 
extent  by  calcium  thiosulphate.  The  other  normal  ingredients  occurring  in  the 
lime-sulphur  mixture,  either  before  or  after  its  application,  were  found  to  be 
harmless. 

A  test  was  made  of  a  number  of  samples  of  lime-sulphur  mixture  to  determine 
whether  their  specific  gravity  could  be  taken  as  an  index  of  their  possible 
injurious  effect.  It  was  found  that  the  specific  gravity  alone  of  the  lime- 
sulphur  spray  does  not  indicate  to  what  extent  sulphids  are  in  solution  and 


ECONOMIC   ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY.  153 

that  different  experiments  using  the  densities  of  different  concentrates  as  bases 
for  dilution  can  not  be  compared  accurately,  so  far  as  spray  injury  is  concerned. 

In  an  investigation  made  of  means  for  the  prevention  of  lime-sulphur  injury 
it  was  found  that  it  could  be  prevented  to  some  extent  by  a  considerable  dilu- 
tion of  the  solution  or  by  the  use  of  substances  that  would  render  the  sulphids 
insoluble.  Among  those  tested  were  iron,  copi")er,  and  zinc  sulphates,  sulphuric 
acid,  and  carbon  dioxid. 

The  author  considers  self-boiled  lime  sulphur  to  be  a  mixture  of  lime  and 
sulphur  rather  than  a  combination.  Much  of  the  injury  attributed  to  lime- 
sulphur  sprays  he  attributes  to  other  causes,  particularly  to  sunburn. 

Spreading-  capacity  and  adherence  of  sprays,  V.  Vermorel  and  E.  Dantony 
(Prog.  Agr.  et  Tit.  (Ed.  VEst-Ccntre),  3/f  {1913),  No.  25,  pp.  778-780).— This  is 
a  brief  general  discussion  of  the  constitution  of  sprays  intended  for  ordinary 
protective  purposes ;  also  of  those  intended  to  be  especially  adapted  to  spread- 
ing on  application  or  to  adherence  under  adverse  weather  conditions,  or  to 
both  these  purposes. 

Preparation  of  alkaline  sprays,  V.  Veemorel  and  E.  Dantony  (Pi'og.  Agr. 
et  Vit.  (Ed.  VEst-Centre),  54  (191S),  No.  24,  pp.  7//5,  74^).— The  authors  give 
formulas  and  directions  for  the  preparation  of  Bordeaux  and  Burgundy  mix- 
tures claimed  to  possess  superior  qualities  as  regards  both  spreading  and 
adhesion,  casein  and  gelatin  being  employed  for  this  purpose. 

ECONOMIC  ZOOLOGY— ENTOMOLOGY. 

Game  protection  and  propagation  in  America,  H.  Chase  (Philadelphia  and 
London,  1913,  pp.  V-\-238). — A  handbook  of  practical  information  for  officials 
and  others  interested  in  the  cause  of  conservation  of  wild  life. 

Game  law  blue  book,  C.  B.  Reynolds  (New  York,  1913,  pp.  136). — A  com- 
pilation of  the  game  and  fish  laws  of  the  various  States  and  of  Canada,  revised 
to  date. 

Bats  and  their  extermination,  W.  A.  Daley  (Pud.  Health  [Landon],  21 
(1913),  No.  1,  pp.  23-28). — This  paper  draws  attention  to  the  public  health 
aspects  of  the  rat  problem  and  the  methods  of  destroying  these  pests. 

Rat  proofing  a  municipal  sewer  system,  F.  Simpson  (Pw&.  Health  Rpts. 
[U.  S.'\,  28  (1913),  No.  U,  pp.  2283-2290) .—A  report  of  an  investigation  con- 
ducted with  a  view  to  finding  a  practical  method  of  rat  proofing  the  sewer 
system  of  San  Francisco. 

A  history  of  the  game  birds,  wild  fowl,  and  shore  birds  of  Massachusetts 
and  adjacent  States,  E.  H.  Forbush  (Boston:  Mass.  Bd.  Agr.,  1912,  pp.  XTV-f- 
622,  pis.  37,  figs.  i08).— Following  a  brief  introduction  (pp.  1-35)  the  subject 
is  dealt  with  under  the  headings  of  (1)  a  history  of  the  birds  now  hunted  for 
food  or  sport  in  Massachusetts  and  adjacent  States  (pp.  89-396)  ;  (2)  a  history 
of  the  game  birds  and  other  birds  hunted  for  food  or  sport,  which  have  been 
driven  out  of  Massachusetts  and  adjacent  States,  or  exterminated,  since  the 
settlement  of  the  country  (pp.  399-^94)  ;  and  (3)  the  conservation  of  game 
birds,  wild  fowl,  and  shore  birds  (pp.  497-595). 

Insect  porters  of  bacterial  infections,  C.  J.  Martin  (Brit.  Med.  Jour.,  1913, 
Nos.  271Jf.  pp.  1-8,  figs.  12;  2715,  pp.  59-68,  figs.  12).— A  summarized  account 
delivered  before  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians. 

Insect  record  for  1912  in  Massachusetts,  H.  T.  Fernald  (Massachusetts 
8ta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  2,  pp.  85-87). — The  year  was  made  notable  by  the  large  num- 
ber of  different  insects,  some  400  forms,  about  which  inquiries  were  made. 
Among  the  more  important  were  various  plant  lice;  the  elm  leaf  beetle;  the 
bronze  birch  borer  (Agrilus  anxius) ;  the  apple  tree  tent  caterpillar;  the  apple 


154  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

twig  borer;  the  bud  moth;  the  jiiuiper  scale  {Diaspis  cariieU),  a  European 
pest  which  was  found  in  such  abundance  on  plants  imported  from  abroad  as  to 
seriously  injure  them;  the  box  leaf  miner  (Motiarthropalpiis  buxi)  which  seri- 
ously attacked  box  hedges;  the  cottonwood  leaf  beetle  (Lina  scripta)  which 
fed  on  the  leaves  of  poplars  in  a  nursery  at  Agawam;  the  chestnut  borer 
(Leptura  zehra),  observed  in  connection  with  the  chestnut  bark  disease;  the 
fall  army  worm,  which  was  unusually  abundant  and  destructive;  and  termites 
(Tennes  flavipes)  w^hich  attacked  the  stems  of  growing  cabbages  and  corn 
plants. 

General  survey  of  the  insect  fauna  of  the  soil  within  a  limited  area  near 
Manchester;  a  consideration  of  the  relationships  between  soil  insects  and 
the  physical  conditions  of  their  habitat,  A.  E.  Cameron  (Jour.  Econ.  Biol., 
8  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  159-204,  2)7s.  2,  figs.  3).— Part  1  (pp.  159-187)  of  this  paper 
consists  of  a  general  survey  of  the  insect  fauna  of  the  soil  at  the  grounds  of 
the  experimental  laboratory,  Fallowfield;  part  2  (pp.  187-199)  deals  with  the 
soil  insects  and  the  physical  conditions  of  their  habitat. 

Phytopathological  report  for  the  year  1912,  P.  Marchal  (Bui.  Agr.  Alg4rie 
ct  Tunisie,  19  (1913,  No.  9,  pp.  193-199). — This  report  deals  with  the  occurrence 
of  the  more  important  insect  pests  of  the  year. 

Report  of  the  entomologist,  E.  Ballard  (Nyasaland  Dept.  Agr.  Ann.  Rpt. 
1913,  pp.  29-32). — This  report  deals  largely  with  the  occurrence  of  insect  pests 
during  the  year. 

List  of  insect  pests,  H.  Morstatt  (Pflanzer,  9  (1913),  No.  6,  pp.  288-296).— 
This  is  a  classified  list  of  the  more  important  insect  enemies  of  plants  and 
plant  products  in  German  East  Africa,  with  the  nature  of  their  injury. 

[Cranberry  insects  in  1912],  H.  J.  Franklin  (Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt. 
1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  225-234)  • — This  is  a  report  of  observations  and  study  made  of 
cranberry  insects  on  Cape  Cod  in  1912  in  continuation  of  those  previously  noted 
(E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  352),  and  of  which  an  account  from  another  source  has  also 
been  previously  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  854). 

As  regards  the  fruit  worm  (Mineola  vaccinii)  the  author  states  that  late 
holding  of  winter  flowage  is  the  surest  method  of  control  thus  far  discovered 
and  that  spraying  as  a  remedy  for  it  is  still  of  doubtful  practicability.  There 
are,  however,  a  few  bogs  which  can  not  be  winter  flowed  that  will  pay  a  moder- 
ate return  if  the  fruit  fly  is  kept  within  bounds.  The  experimental  resanding 
of  such  a  bog  on  May  23  to  a  depth  of  1  in.,  the  uprights  being  raked  up  through 
the  sand  when  covered  by  it,  was  but  partially  successful,  since  numerous  moths 
were  observed  on  netting  which  covered  the  experimental  plat  and  some  40  per 
cent  of  the  berries  which  developed  on  this  area  were  destroyed  by  fruit  worms. 
The  author  thinks  that  the  best  treatment  for  this  insect  on  such  bogs  would 
consist  in  the  destruction  of  the  remnant  of  the  crop  in  the  years  when  the 
severe  injury  either  from  frost  or  winter-kill  occurs  and  that  this  could  prob- 
ably be  most  readily  done  by  spraying  with  a  20  per  cent  solution  of  iron  sul- 
phate. It  is  his  opinion  that  as  a  rule  more  is  lost  through  injury  done  to  the 
vine  in  harvesting  a  very  light  crop  than  is  gained  by  saving  and  marketing  the 
berries. 

The  flowed  bog  fireworm  or  blackhead  cranberry  worm  (Rhopohota  vaccini- 
ana)  is  the  source  of  but  little  or  no  damage  on  bogs  that  are  not  winter  flowed. 
The  main  cause  of  serious  infestation  by  this  pest  is  the  killing  and  driving 
ashore  of  its  natural  enemies  by  flowage,  as  was  pointed  out  in  the  report  of  the 
previous  year.  Through  collections  made  by  sweeping  it  was  determined  that 
spiders  are  the  most  numerous  of  all  forms  capable  of  destroying  the  fire- 
worms.    Comparisons  showed  that  the  dry  bog  had  far  more  spiders  and  also  a 


ECONOMIC    ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY.  155 

somewhat  larger  number  of  parasitic  insects  than  did  any  of  the  winter  flowed 
bogs  even  as  late  as  August  20.  The  information  obtained  in  the  study  of  this 
insect  emphasizes  the  importance  of  spraying  with  arsenical  poisons  before  the 
infestation  starts.  Since  most  bogs  should  be  sprayed  several  times  each  year 
to  control  fungus  diseases,  Paris  green  for  use  against  the  fireworm  may  be 
applied  at  the  same  time  by  adding  1  lb.  to  every  50  gal.  of  Bordeaux  mixture. 
A  brief  description  is  given  of  the  most  successful  treatment  for  the  control  of 
the  cranberry  insects  through  the  application  of  water  to  the  bogs  which  has 
come  to  the  author's  attention.  He  states  that  there  is  little  doubt  that  any 
bog  can  be  freed  from  this  fireworm  by  treating  it  for  a  few  years  as  a  strictly 
dry  bog. 

The  season's  observations  of  the  cranberry  girdler  (Cramhus  hortellus)  are 
said  to  sustain  in  every  particular  the  conclusions  concerning  it  reached  the 
previous  two  years.  Resanding  every  other  year  is  usually  sufficient  to  pre- 
vent infestation  by  it.  Reflowing  for  a  week  or  10  days  right  after  picking  is 
still  a  standard  remedy  for  it  where  sufficient  water  is  available. 

Methods  of  controlling'  mill  and  stored  grain  insects,  together  with  the 
habits  and  life  histories  of  the  common  infesting  species,  G.  A.  Dean  (A'an- 
sas  Sta.  Bui.  189,  pp.  139-236,  figs.  62).— The  first  part  of  this  bulletin  deals 
at  some  length  with  the  use  of  heat  as  a  means  of  controlling  mill  insects,  and 
reports  experiments  conducted,  many  of  the  details  of  which  have  been  pre- 
viously noted  from  other  sources  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  253).  The  author  presents 
illustrations,  temperature  records,  and  other  data  relating  to  mills  which  have 
used  heat  successfully.  Hydrocyanic  acid  gas  treatment  for  mill  insects  is 
next  taken  up  and  described  at  length.  This  is  followed  by  a  discussion  of 
carbon  bisulphid  fumigation  as  a  means  of  destroying  insects  injurious  to  grain 
stored  in  granaries  and  small  elevators.  The  last  part  of  the  bulletin  (pp. 
198-236)  is  devoted  to  a  discussion  of  the  habits  and  life  history  of  the  com- 
mon stored  grain  and  mill  insects,  some  25  of  which  are  described  and  figured. 
"The  only  practical  and  efficient  method  at  present  known  of  completely 
controlling  all  classes  of  mill-iufevSting  insects  is  by  the  application  of  high 
temperatures,  and  this  method  has  been  so  developed  within  the  last  3  years 
that  it  promises  to  revolutionize  the  present  inadequate  methods.  In  Kansas 
the  heating  of  several  mills  has  absolutely  proved  that  no  stage  of  a  mill  insect, 
even  in  the  most  inaccessible  places,  could  withstand  the  heat,  and  several 
mills  in  Ohio,  Illinois,  Nebraska,  Iowa,  Indiana,  southern  Canada,  and  else- 
where have  corroborated  the  practicability  and  the  efficiency  of  heat  as  a  means 
of  controlling  mill  insects.  .  .  .  Many  insects  do  not  yield  readily  to  hydro- 
cyanic acid  gas,  but  no  mill  insect  can  withstiind  for  any  length  of  time  a 
temperature  of  from  118  to  122°  F.  .  .  . 

"A  mill  that  has  sufficient  radiation  to  heat  it  in  winter  to  a  temperature 
of  70°  can  readily  be  heated  in  summer  to  a  temi^erature  of  from  118  to  122". 
With  the  heat  method  there  is  no  possibility  of  injuring  the  floors,  belts,  or 
mill  machinery  and  there  is  practically  no  danger  from  Are.  The  Mutual  Fire 
Prevention  Bureau,  representing  eight  of  the  principal  millers'  insurance  com- 
panies, recommends  the  heating  system  for  effective  fumigation  against  all  mill 
and  stored  grain  infesting  insects.  If  a  mill  is  infested  with  Mediterranean 
flour  moth,  hydrocyanic  acid  gas  is  a  very  effective  treatment,  but  in  no  case 
where  it  is  possible  to  use  heat  is  the  hydrocyanic  acid  gas  treatment  recom- 
mended." 

The  destruction  of  injurious  insects  by  vegetable  parasites,  L.  Le  Moult 
(Prog.  Agr.  ct  Tit.   (Ed.  VEst-Ccntre) ,  8Jf  (1913),  Nos.  34,  PP.  239-2^6;  35,  pp. 
265-277;  36,  pp.  297-308)  .—This  is  a  general  review. 
28054°— 14 5 


166  EXPEEIMENT  STATION   RECORD. 

Tests  of  insecticides,  H.  T.  Febnald  {Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  2, 
pp.  88-91). — Several  insecticides  were  tested  during  the  year  but  no  attempt 
was  made  to  draw  final  conclusions  as  to  their  value. 

Entomoid,  claimed  to  be  a  combination  of  lime-sulphur  and  a  miscible  oil, 
applied  at  the  strength  of  1 :  50  killed  many  San  Jos§  scales,  but  a  sufficient 
number  were  left  so  that  the  trees  were  about  in  their  former  condition  at  least 
3  mouths  earlier  than  was  the  case  in  1911.  Nicine,  used  in  large  amounts  in 
drills  to  protect  corn  from  wireworms  and  about  the  base  of  onions  to  protect 
them  from  the  onion  maggot,  had  no  injurious  effect  on  the  plants  but  did  not 
give  absolute  protection  from  a  light  infestation  of  wireworms  nor  afford  a 
high  degree  of  protection  from  the  maggot.  Soil  Fumigant  and  Insecticide 
was  applied  to  parts  of  the  same  com  plats  as  Nicine  to  protect  corn  from 
wireworms  but  the  infestation  proved  to  be  insufficient  to  enable  a  determina- 
tion of  its  value.  Tests  with  two  commercial  brands  of  zinc  arsenite  applied  at 
the  rate  of  1  lb.  to  10  gal.  of  water  to  elm,  maple,  and  wild  cherry  leaves 
showed  that  both  adhered  well  and  destroyed  the  elm  leaf  beetle  larvae,  but 
injured  the  leaves  of  all  three  trees.  Both  applications  are  believed  to  have 
been  too  strong. 

The  common  house  roach  as  a  carrier  of  disease,  R.  C.  Longfellow  {Amer. 
Jour.  Pu^.  Health,  3  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  58-6i).— Attention  is  called  to  the  role 
of  this  insect  in  the  dissemination  of  various  species  of  bacteria. 

Notes  on  the  occurrence  of  the  woolly  aphis,  Schizoneura  lanigera,  in  the 
core  of  apples,  T.  R.  Hewitt  {Jour.  Econ.  Biol.,  8  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  95-98, 
fig.  1). — The  author  has  found  the  core  of  Newtown  Pippins  from  California 
that  were  purchased  from  a  Dublin  fruit  dealer  to  be  infested  with  8.  lanigera. 
In  3  of  7  apples  examined  the  aphids  were  alive.  It  is  stated  that  externally 
the  apples  did  not  appear  to  be  infested,  except  for  a  little  mildewy  appearance 
of  the  eye,  but  on  being  cut  in  two  through  the  core  the  aphids  were  easily 
seen.  There  is  a  small  channel  connecting  the  eye  with  the  core  in  this  apple 
and  through  this  channel  the  aphids  gained  access  to  the  core.  This  channel, 
however,  is  not  common  in  many  varieties. 

"  The  core  presented  a  white  moldy  appearance,  due  to  the  woolly  secretion 
of  the  aphids.  In  the  apples  in  which  the  aphids  were  dead  the  cores  were 
moldy,  due  to  the  growth  of  some  fungus,  which  was  probably  secondary.  The 
damage  done  to  the  core  was  very  slight,  as  the  aphids  did  not  api>ear  to  have 
pierced  through  the  carpels.  In  one  apple,  which  was  rather  more  badly 
infested  than  the  others,  the  seeds  presented  a  damaged  appearance,  but  the 
flesh  of  the  apple  was  not  injured  In  any  instance." 

The  economic  importance  of  such  infestations  is  found  in  the  possible  dis- 
semination of  this  pest  in  apples  to  uninfested  orchards  or  districts. 

Report  on  peach  aphis  investigations  during  late  winter  and  early  spring, 
1912,  C.  B.  Hardenbebg  {Agr.  Jour.  Union  So.  Africa,  6  {1913),  No.  2,  pp. 
224-235). — This  is  a  report  of  studies  of  the  life  history  and  of  control  experi- 
ments with  the  black  and  green  peach  aphids  in  the  Transvaal. 

The  black  peach  aphis  is  said  to  be  attacked  by  a  hymenopterous  parasite  and 
2  syrphids,  Xanthogramma  scutellaris  and  an  undetermined  species.  The  green 
peach  aphis  suffers  in  addition  from  the  attack  of  a  third  species  of  syrphus 
fly,  and  3  species  of  lady  beetles  have  been  found  to  feed  upon  it.  Observations 
of  the  life  cycle  of  X.  scuteUaris  are  reported. 

Tobacco  extract  in  a  solution  containing  about  0.082  per  cent  nicotin  is  the 
most  effective  strength  and  no  advantage  is  gained  in  using  a  stronger  solution. 
The  green  peach  aphis  can  be  effectively  kept  under  control  by  3  thorough 
sprayings  about  5  days  apart,  the  first  being  applied  as  soon  as  the  first  leaves 
open  out. 


ECONOMIC    ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY.  157 

The  San  Jose  scale  in  Tennessee  with  methods  for  its  control,  G.  M.  Bent- 
ley  (Tenn.  Bd.  Ent.  Bui.  8,  1913,  pp.  2/t,  figs.  2i).— This  account  has  b«en 
previously  noted  from  another  source  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  53), 

Some  preliminary  notes  on  a  scale  insect  infesting  the  banana  in  Fiji, 
F.  P.  Jepson  {Dept.  Agr.  Fiji  Bid.  5,  1913,  pp.  7;  ahs.  in  Rev.  Appl.  Ent.,  1 
(1913),  Ser.  A,  No.  Jf,  p.  136). — This  paper  relates  to  the  infestation  of  bananas 
by  the  transparent  coconut  scale  (Aspidiotus  destructor). 

The  Abutilon  moth  (Cosmophila  erosa),  F.  H.  Chittenden  (U.  S.  Dept. 
Agr.,  Bur.  Ent  Bid.  126,  pp.  10,  pis.  5). — This  is  a  summarized  account  of  the 
present  knowledge  of  the  Abutilon  moth,  the  larvae  of  which  defoliate  okra, 
hollj'hock,  and  Abutilon  in  Virginia  and  the  District  of  Columbia.  It  has  also 
been  observed  feeding  on  Hibiscus  esculentus  and  Malva  rotundifolia  in  the 
District  of  Columbia  and  on  cowpeas  in  Mississippi.  Technical  descriptions  are 
given  of  its  several  stages. 

The  application  of  a  spray  consisting  of  40  per  cent  nicotin  sulphate  *  oz.. 
whale-oil  soap  1  lb.,  and  lukewarm  water  5  gal.  resulted  in  the  destruction  of 
95  per  cent  of  the  larvae.  A  second  application  resulted  in  the  complete  eradi- 
cation of  the  pest. 

A  bibliography  of  10  titles  is  appended. 

The  red-humped  caterpillar  (Schizura  concinna),  E.  J.  Yosler  (J/o.  Bui. 
Com.  Hort.  Cal,  2  (1913),  No.  9,  pp.  65Jf-657,  figs.  2 ) .—Considerable  damage  to 
the  apple,  walnut,  etc.,  is  often  caused  in  the  central  portion  of  California  by 
this  pest. 

The  finiit  tree  leaf  roller  (Archips  argyrospila),  G.  P.  Weldon  (Mo.  Bid. 
Com.  Hort.  Cal.,  2  (1913),  No,  9,  pp.  637-647,  figs.  6).— This  leaf  roller  is  said  to 
have  ruined  much  of  the  fruit  in  several  orchards  in  San  Diego  County,  Cal. 

A  new  sugar-cane  pest,  C.  Fuller  (Agr.  Jour.  Union  So.  Africa,  5  (1913), 
No.  6,  pp.  931-933). — This  paper  deals  with  a  caterpillar  which  webs  together 
the  immature  leaves  forming  the  spike  of  the  cane  and.  living  within  the  pro- 
tecting tube  so  formed,  feeds  upon  the  inner  surface  of  the  outer  leaf  forming 
the  spike. 

The  Hessian  fly,  T.  J.  Headlee  and  J.  B.  Parker  (Kansas  Sta.  Bid.  188, 
pp.  83-138,  figs.  15). — In  this  bulletin  the  authors  have  brought  together  the 
results  of  their  personal  investigations  in  Kansas,  together  with  a  review  of 
the  more  important  findings  of  other  investigators.  The  subject  is  dealt  with 
under  the  headings  history  and  distribution,  habits  and  life  history,  seasonal 
history,  natural  checks,  injury,  and  measures  of  control.  A  diagram  depicting 
the  life  history  is  included  (see  fig.  1). 

It  is  stated  that  six  different  outbreaks  of  the  Hessian  fly  have  occurred  in 
Kansas  during  the  41  years  that  it  is  known  to  have  been  present  there.  Dur- 
ing the  last  and  greatest  of  these  outbreaks,  that  of  1908,  10,000,000  bushels  of 
wheat  were  destroyed. 

The  length  of  its  life  cycle  is  variable,  ranging  under  field  conditions  from 
45  days  to  12  months  or  more,  dry  weather  and  cool  weather  lengthening  it, 
and  moist  and  warm  weather  shortening  the  perio<:l.  "The  number  of  broods 
is  variable.  In  1908  main-spring,  supplementary-spring,  midsummer,  main- 
fall,  and  supplementary-fall  broods  were  determined.  In  dry  summers  it  is 
likely  that  midsummer  and  supplementary-fall  broods  would  not  appear,  and 
it  is  likely  that  in  very  dry  years,  particularly  when  the  drought  begins  early, 
the  supplementary-spring  brood  might  be  eliminated." 

Under  measures  of  control  mention  is  made  of  grazing,  rolling  or  brushing, 
mowing,  fly-proof  wheat,  spraying  and  dusting  infested  plants,  intermittent 
wheat  culture,  and  trap  planting  as  of  little,  if  any,  value.  The  useful  methods 
include  the  destruction  of  the  fly  in  infested  stubble  by  burning  or  plowing 


158 


EXPERIMENT  STATION  RECORD. 


under,  the  destruction  of  volunteer  wheat,  and  late  sowing.  "  The  sources  of 
the  flies  which  form  each  of  the  broods  are  variable,  for  the  members  of  a  single 
brood  came  from  as  many  as  three  different  places— old  stubble,  regular  crop, 
and  volunteer  wheat.  The  measures  of  control  must  be  of  such  a  nature  as  to 
close  up  all  these  sources  of  supply.  Temperature  and  moisture  are  the  only 
climatic  elements  that  appear  materially  to  influence  the  fly.  Low  temperature 
or  low  moisture,  or  both  acting  simultaneously,  always  retard  its  development, 


1^   =  PUP/l/^//l  /A/  REGUL/}^  C/^OP. 

n  =  PUP/^p//i  /A/  \/olunt£:er  ia/he/^t. 

DHH   =  PUP/iP//^  /A/  OLD  STUBBLE. 

mm   =  REGULAR  BROODS . 

mm    =  SUPPLEA^EAJT^RY   BROODS, 

Fig.  1. — Diagram  to  represent  the  number  of  broods  of  Hessian  fly  in  Kansas  in  1908, 
the  period  of  their  appearance,  and  the  sources  from  which  they  came. 

and  may,  if  extreme,  destroy  it.  High  temperature  and  high  moisture  are  uni- 
versally favorable  to  its  development.  Although  both  predaceous  and  parasitic 
enemies  always  reduce  the  fly,  their  action  is  so  irregular  and  so  rarely  sufiBcient 
that  dependence  upon  them  for  protection  is  folly  ...  In  the  fall  the  central 
shoot  of  the  young  plant  is  stunted  and  killed ;  if  the  attack  be  serious  enough, 
the  whole  plant  and  the  whole  field  may  be  destroyed.  Ordinarily  the  slow  de- 
struction of  the  central  shoots  causes  the  tillers  to  grow  vigorously,  giving  the 


ECONOMIC   ZOOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY.  159 

field  a  dark  green  appearance.  In  the  spring,  the  maggots  interfere  with  the 
sap  flow,  cause  the  heads  partly  or  completely  to  fail  to  fill,  and  so  weaken  the 
stalks  that  many  break  and  fall  before  harvest.  The  fly  infesting  the  old 
stubble  can  best  be  destroyed  by  plowing  the  stubble  under  so  carefully  and 
deeply  that  when  the  ground  is  packed  down  into  a  good  seed  bed  for  wheat, 
there  will  be  at  least  4  in.  of  soil  between  the  stubble  and  the  surface.  The 
growth  of  volunteer  wheat  is  a  menace,  and  should  not  be  tolerated  before  the 
regular  crop  is  sown.  In  average  years  with  proper  preparation  of  the  seed  bed, 
the  date  of  safe  sowing  is  at  least  as  early  as  the  date  on  which  wheat  should 
be  sown  to  make  a  maximum  yield  if  no  fly  were  present." 

A  schedule  of  procedure  based  upon  the  life  history  studies  here  reported  is 
outlined  which  if  it  is  followed  it  is  thought  will  enable  the  farmer  to  escape 
serious  fly  damage  and  give  the  best  possible  chance  to  obtain  a  maximum  crop. 
A  map  of  Kansas  which  shows  the  date  of  safe  sowing  calculated  directly  from 
1907-8,  1908-9,  and  1909-10  experimental  sowings  is  included,  from  which  the 
safe-sowing  date  may  be  readily  determined  for  the  various  counties. 

The  red  clover  g-all  gnat  (Amblyspatha  ormerodi  n.  sp.),  R.  S.  MacDou- 
GALL  (Jour,  Bd.  Agr.  [London],  20  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  225-230,  pis.  4).— A  great 
destruction  of  red  clover  by  this  cecidomyiid  is  reported  to  have  taken  place 
during  the  winter  and  spring  of  1912-13.  complaints  having  been  received  from 
a  large  number  of  counties.  In  practically  all  the  samples  received  red  maggots 
were  found  either  in  the  soil  surrounding  the  plants  or,  on  dissection,  in  the 
spoiled  plants. 

It  is  thought  that  a  fungus  of  the  genus  Sclerotinia  and  an  eelworm  (Tylen- 
chus  devastatrix)  may  be  associated  with  the  gall  midge  in  the  injury. 

A  jumping  maggot  which,  lives  in  cactus  blooms  (Acucula  saltans  n.  g. 
and  n.  sp.),  C.  H.  T.  Townsend  {Canad.  Ent.,  45  (1913),  No.  8,  pp.  262-265).— 
A  new  dipteran  collected  from  a  columnar  cactus,  probably  Cereus  sp.,  at  the 
western  base  of  the  Andes  some  40  miles  inland  from  Lima,  Peru,  is  described 
as  A.  saltans.     This  maggot  causes  the  petals  to  shrivel  before  they  open. 

Mosquito  extermination  and  its  problems,  E.  Winship  (Engin.  Rec,  61 
(1913),  No.  18,  pp.  490-492,  figs.  2). — ^A  discussion  of  the  subject  by  a  sanitary 
engineer  in  which  he  outlines  the  essentials  of  success  in  ridding  communities 
of  the  pest. 

The  natural  host  of  Phlebotomus  minutus,  F.  M.  Howlett  (Indian  Jour. 
Med.  Research,  1  (1913),  No.  1,  pp.  34-38,  pi.  1,  fig.  i).— The  author  finds  the 
wall  lizard,  or  gecko,  to  be  the  natural  host  of  P.  minutus.  He  states  that  there 
is  no  doubt  but  that  this  fly  has  a  distinct  preference  for  biting  lizards  as 
compared  with  man,  and  that  it  is  in  fact  primarily  a  parasite  of  the  lizard. 
A  Phlebotomus  (probably  P.  'minutus  nigcr)  has  once  been  observed  biting  an 
agamid  lizard,  and  a  sand  fly  has  been  observed  twice  biting  the  head  of  the 
common  toad   (Bufo  mclanosticticus). 

Recent  literature,  especially  the  medical  literature,  on  sand  flies  (Phle- 
botomus, Simulium,  Ceratopogoninae),  K.  Friederichs  (Ztschr.  Wiss.  Insek- 
tenbioL,  9  (1913),  Nos.  1,  pp.  26-31;  4,  pp.  133-138) .—This,  review  follows  a  list 
of  63  recent  publications  on  the  subject. 

Control  measures  for  use  against  flies,  L.  Vaillard  (Rev.  Set.  [Parts],  51 
(1913),  II,  No.  7,  pp.  193-206,  figs.  7;  Rev.  G&n.  ScL,  24  (1913),  No.  9,  pp. 
352-358;  Off.  Internat.  Hyg.  Pul).  [Paris],  Bui.  Mens.,  5  (1913),  No.  8,  pp. 
IS  13-1336)  .—A  detailed  discussion. 

The  distance  house  flies,  blue  bottles,  and  stable  flies  may  travel  over 
water,  C.  F.  Hodge  (Science,  n.  ser.,  38  (1913),  No.  980,  pp.  512,  5i3).— This 
paper  describes  a  plague  of  flies  on  the  cribs  of  the  waterworks,  situated  li,  5, 
and  6  miles,  respectively,  out  in  Lake  Erie,  from  the  city  of  Cleveland,  Ohio. 


160  EXPERIMENT   STATION  EECORD. 

"  The  only  explanation  for  the  above  facts  seems  to  be  that  the  flies  are  blown  at 
least  6  miles  off  shore,  and  that  they  gather  on  the  cribs  as  temporary  resting 
places." 

An  unusual  outbreak  of  Stomoxys  calcitrans  following  floods,  C.  Fuller 
{Agr.  Jour.  Union  So.  Africa,  5  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  922-925). — A  discussion  of 
an  unusual  outbreak  of  the  stable  fly  in  South  Africa. 

The  maggot  fly  pest  in  sheep,  H.  S.  Major  (Agr.  Gaz.  ts.  S.  Wales,  24  {1913), 
A'o.  8,  pp.  645-653). — A  discussion  of  this  pest  has  been  previously  noted  from 
another  source  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  656). 

The  bean  stem  maggot,  R.  W.  Jack  {Rhodesia  Agr.  Jour.,  10  {1913),  No.  4, 
pp.  545-553,  pis.  4). — The  author  here  discusses  the  life  history,  bionomics,  and 
injury  caused  by  Agromyza  fahalis,  a  native  African  species  which  is  generally 
distributed  south  of  the  Zambesi.  This  dipteran  is  said  to  be  the  most  serious 
drawback  to  the  successful  cultivation  of  cowpeas  and  certain  other  kinds  of 
beans  in  this  territory. 

Experiments  for  the  control  of  the  onion  maggot,  H.  T.  Fernald  and  A.  I. 
Bourne  {Massachusetts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  1,  pp.  171-179). — This  paper  pre- 
sents the  details  of  experiments  in  which  a  number  of  insecticides  and  repel- 
lents were  tested  with  a  view  to  determining  their  efficacy  in  controlling  the 
onion  maggot. 

The  experiments  with  carbon  bisulphid,  Nicine,  powdered  hellebore,  a  helle- 
bore decoction,  a  soap  wash,  carbolized  lime,  and  kerosene  emulsion  gave  what 
may  be  considered  as  negative  results.  More  satisfactory  results  were  obtained 
in  the  control  of  the  maggots  from  the  application  of  carbolic  acid  emulsion, 
made  by  dissolving  1  lb.  of  soap  in  1  gal.  of  water,  adding  1  lb.  of  crude  carbolic 
acid,  and  churning  as  in  kerosene  emulsion.  Applications  along  the  rows  by 
means  of  a  force  pump  without  a  nozzle  at  strengths  of  1 :  30,  1 :  40,  and  1 :  50 
parts  of  water  decidedly  checked  the  infestation  in  the  rows  to  which  it  was 
applied.  It  is  estimated  that  the  cost  of  this  material  and  labor  varies  from  $8 
to  $12  per  acre  for  each  application,  according  to  the  strength  used.  Since  it 
would  be  necessary  to  make  at  least  3  and  probably  4  applications,  the  cost 
would  amount  to  from  $35  to  $50  per  acre. 

"The  whole  experiment  indicates  (a)  that  no  entirely  effective  method  of 
controlling  the  onion  maggot  has  as  yet  been  discovered  ;  (b)  that  many  of  those 
thus  far  recommended  are  of  little  value,  at  least  on  large  fields;  (c)  that  the 
cost  of  treatment  with  most  of  them  is  so  great  as  to  render  them  unavailable 
for  large  areas.  Finally,  the  most  promising  line  of  investigation  seems  to  be 
the  discovery  of  something  which  will  effectually  repel  the  insects  or  destroy 
the  maggots,  and  which  can  be  applied  either  as  a  part  of  the  planting  process 
or  in  connection  with  cultivation,  thus  avoiding  the  necessity  of  special  treat- 
ments by  combining  these  with  usual  methods  of  cultivation." 

The  manzanita  Serica  (Serica  anthracina),  E.  O.  Essig  {Mo.  Bui.  Com. 
Hort.  Cal.,  2  {1913),  No.  8,  pp.  622,  623,  fig.  i).— This  beetle  is  reported  to  be  a 
source  of  serious  injury  in  Eldorado  County,  California,  through  its  defoliation, 
especially  of  the  prune  and  apple.  In  some  instances  the  trees  have  been  killed 
by  the  constant  and  complete  defoliation. 

The  application  of  arsenate  of  lead,  at  the  rate  of  8  lbs.  to  100  gal.  of  water 
to  which  8  lbs.  of  lime  has  been  added,  as  soon  as  the  beetles  appear  in  the 
spring  is  recommended. 

A  critical  discussion  of  the  Halticini  attacking  Cruciferse  in  central 
Surope,  F.  Heikertinger  {CentU.  Bakt.  [etc.],  2.  Aht.,  36  {1912),  No.  1-5,  pp. 
98-127,  figs.  18). — The  several  parts  of  this  paper  deal  with  the  genera  and 
species  of  flea  beetles  attacking  crucifers  and  the  nature  of  their  injury,  the 
cultivated  crucifers  attacked,  tables  for  the  determination  of  the  species  of 


ECONOMIC   ZOOLOGY — ENTOMOLOGY.  161 

Phyllotreta  and  Psylliodes  infesting  Cruciferie  in  Germany,  Austria,  and 
Switzerland,  etc. 

Th.e  destructive  Eleodes  (Eleodes  omissa  borealis),  E.  O.  Essig  {Mo.  BuI. 
Com.  Hort.  Cat.,  2  (1913),  No.  8,  p.  627,  fig.  i).— This  tenebrionid  beetle  is 
reported  to  have  been  the  source  of  injury  to  orange  trees  around  Bakersfield 
and  to  have  stripped  a  large  number  of  apricot  and  plum  trees  in  an  orchard 
lit  Wasco,  Kern  County. 

The  fruit  tree  bark  beetle  (Scolytus  rugulosus),  E,  O.  Essig  (Mo.  Bui. 
Com.  Hort.  Cal.,  2  {1913),  No.  9,  p.  658). — The  author  records  the  occurrence 
of  the  shot-hole  borer  in  apricot  trees  at  Ontario,  Cal.,  this  being  the  first 
authentic  report  of  its  occurrence  in  the  State. 

Investigations  of  the  fung-us-growing-  fruit  tree  bark  beetle  Xyleborus 
(Anisandrus)  dispar  and  its  food  fungus,  O.  Schneider-Orelli  {Centbl. 
Bakt.  [etc.],  2.  Alt.,  38  {1913),  No.  1-6,  pp.  25-110,  pis.  3,  figs.  7;  abs.  in  Rev. 
Appl.  Ent.,  1  {1913),  Ser.  A,  No.  8,  pp.  259-261).— This  is  a  report  of  a  detailed 
study  of  the  bionomics  of  the  scolytid  beetle  X.  dispar  and  contains  the  results  of 
numerous  experiments  regarding  its  feeding  habits.  The  experimental  propa- 
gation of  its  food  fungus  Monilia  Candida  is  also  discussed. 

The  females  emerge  from  their  burrows  in  the  spring  and  soon  commence  a 
new  system  of  burrows,  the  walls  of  which  become  lined  with  a  dense  mass 
of  this  so-called  ambrosia  fungus  upon  which  the  larvae  feed.  The  spores  are 
said  to  be  spread  through  being  taken  up  by  the  adult  beetles,  and  later  regurgi- 
tated from  the  stomach. 

A  billbug  injurious  to  small  grain  (Sphenophorus  discolor),  H.  S.  Smith 
(Mo.  Bui.  Com.  Hort.  Cal.,  2  {1913),  No.  8,  pp.  619-621,  figs.  3).— Considerable 
injury  is  said  to  have  been  caused  by  8.  discolor  to  all  varieties  of  barley, 
wheat,  and  oats  in  the  vicinity  of  Sacramento. 

Black  brood  in  bees,  I.  L.  Serbinow  (Vyestnik  Russ.  Obsheh.  Pchelovod., 
1912,  No.  11,  pp.  426-429;  ads.  in  Rev.  Appl.  Ent.,  1  {1913),  Ser.  A,  No.  3,  pp. 
94-96). — This  article  relates  to  European  foul  brood  and  its  occurrence  In 
Russia. 

A  preliminary  account  of  a  chalcidid  of  the  genus  Tetrastichus  which, 
parasitizes  Ceratitis  and  Dacus  in  West  Africa,  F.  Silvestri  {Atti  R.  Accad. 
Lincei,  Rend.  CI.  Sci.  Fis.,  Mat.  e  Nat.,  5.  ser.,  22  {1913),  II,  No.  5,  pp.  205, 
206). — ^A  new  species  of  Tetrastichus  reared  from  Ceratitis  stictica,  C.  gif- 
fardii,  and  Dacus  cucumarius  in  Nigeria,  Kamerun,  Gold  Coast,  and  Dahomey 
is  described  under  the  name  T.  giffardii. 

A  new  braconid  of  the  genus  Microdus  from  Canada,  C.  H.  Richardson.  Jr., 
{Canad.  Ent.,  45  {1913),  No.  7,  pp.  211,  212). — A  new  braconid  reared  from  the 
eye-spotted  bud  moth  at  Bridgetown.  Nova  Scotia,  is  described  as  Microdus 
ocellance. 

The  enemies  of  plant  pests:  The  Aphelininas,  R.  G.  Mercet  {Trab.  Mus. 
Cien.  Nat.  [Spain],  1912,  No.  10,  pp.  306,  figs.  68).— A  synopsis  of  this  impor- 
tant group  of  chalcidid  i)arasites,  including  tables  for  the  separation  of  genera 
and  species,  is  presented. 

Collembola  damaging  pine  trees,  W.  E.  Collinge  {Jour.  Econ.  Biol.,  8 
{1913),  No.  2,  p.  99). — The  author  reports  finding  that  Seira  ni^romaculata 
causes  the  young  needles  on  shoots  of  Pinus  sylvestrig  to  wither  and  drop. 
"The  insect  seems  to  be  attracted  by  the  resinous  gum.  and  as  soon  as  the 
leaf  bud  opens  makes  its  way  to  the  bases  of  the  young  leaves  and  commences 
to  bite  into  the  same ;  after  a  short  time  the  needles  turn  yellow  and  ultimately 
fall  away.  Sometimes  only  part  of  the  base  is  destroyed  and  part  of  the 
bud  remains  in  a  damaged  condition,  but  in  most  cases  the  new  buds  are  com- 
pletely ruined." 


162  EXPERIMENT   STATION  RECORD. 

Experiments  in  the  use  of  sheep  in  the  eradication  of  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tain spotted  fever  tick,  H.  P.  Wood  {U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  45,  pp.  11). — This 
is  a  report  of  experiments  conducted  to  determine  the  value  of  sheep  in  de- 
stroying Dermacentor  venustus  as  brought  to  attention  by  L.  D.  Fricks  in  an 
article  previously  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  29,  p.  658). 

Two  experiments,  the  first  with  20  sheep,  the  other  with  2  sheep,  were 
carried  through.  The  first  was  conducted  in  a  country  known  to  be  well 
infested  with  ticks,  being  adjacent  to  the  foothills  and  well  supplied  with 
bushes  of  various  sorts,  a  growth  of  small  pines,  a  few  fairly  large  trees, 
and  several  streams  of  water.  The  conditions  were  such  that  there  could 
have  been  few,  if  any,  ticks  on  the  sheep  at  the  time  they  were  driven  into 
"ticky"  country.  During  the  course  of  the  experiment,  which  was  com- 
menced on  June  3,  two  thorough  examinations  were  made,  commencing  June 
10  and  23,  respectively,  of  each  sheep  to  locate  the  living  ticks  and  to  remove 
the  dead  ones.  Numerous  other,  but  less  thorough,  examinations  were  also 
made,  when  any  dead  found  were  removed  and  the  living  ones  noted.  In 
the  second  experiment  ticks  were  collected  by  dragging  cloths  over  the  gr(fund, 
and  then  placed  upon  the  sheep — on  the  first  June  20  and  on  the  other  June 
25,  the  examinations  also  being  made  twice  a  day.  The  details  of  the  results 
are  presented  in  both  tabular  and  descriptive  form. 

The  experiments  show  that  sheep  are  good  collectors  of  ticks,  6  sheep  with 
heavy  wool  having  picked  up  72  females  and  47  males  in  11  days.  Thus  in 
"  ticky  "  country  which  is  favorable  to  the  herding  of  sheep  it  would  be  advan- 
tageous to  use  them  as  collectors  of  ticks,  since  by  dipping  the  sheep  once  in 
7  days  it  would  seem  that  much  good  could  be  accomplished.  In  order  to  bring 
about  the  greatest  good  it  would  be  necessary  to  herd  the  sheep  with  a  knowl- 
edge of  the  location  of  the  ticks,  since  it  is  extremely  doubtful  if  they  would 
be  of  much  importance  as  collectors  of  ticks  if  allowed  to  run  free.  Of  33 
female  ticks  placed  upon  a  sheep  in  the  second  experiment  but  one  fed  sufli- 
ciently  to  lay  eggs.  There  were  in  all,  however,  6  females  which  stood  a  fair 
chance  of  engorging,  so  that  it  is  difiicult  to  say  what  percentage  of  females 
that  get  on  a  sheep  in  nature  will  engorge  to  repletion. 

Several  limitations  to  the  practicability  of  using  sheep  exclusively  in  the 
eradication  of  the  spotted  fever  tick,  namely,  (1)  the  necessity  of  eliminating 
all  other  live  stock  except  that  on  which  the  ticks  could  be  destroyed  at  weekly 
intervals  by  dipping  or  otherwise;  (2)  the  impracticability  of  heavily  stocking 
a  given  area  with  sheep  and  attempting  to  carry  the  usual  number  of  other 
live  stock  on  the  same  pastures;  and  (3)  the  necessity  of  cutting  down  all 
vegetation  higher  than  a  sheep's  back,  emphasize  the  great  importance  of  fol- 
lowing the  plan  of  dipping  domestic  animals  which  is  successfully  under  way. 
Thus  while  sheep  may  be  used  under  some  conditions  of  the  work,  the  main 
reliance  must  be  upon  the  dipping  of  horses  and  cattle. 

FOODS— HUMAN  NUTRITION. 

Bouillon  cubes — their  contents  and  food  value  compared  with  meat  ex- 
tracts and  homemade  preparations  of  meat,  F.  C.  Cook  [U.  8.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui. 
27,  pp.  7,  figs.  10). — The  composition  and  nature  of  commercial  bouillon  cubes 
are  discussed  on  the  basis  of  analytical  data,  in  comparison  with  commercial 
meat  extracts  and  similar  preparations  and  homemade  broths  and  soups. 

The  author's  summary  follows. 

"  One-half  to  three-fourths  of  bouillon  cubes  is  table  salt.  The  cubes  are  not 
concentrated  beef  or  meat  essence,  as  many  people  believe.  They  are  valuable 
stimulants  or  flavoring  agents,  but  have  little  or  no  real  food  value.  Bouillon 
cubes,  therefore,  are  relatively  expensive. 


FOODS — HUMAN    NUTRITION.  163 

"  Semisolid  meat  extracts  sold  in  jars  are  not  concentrated  beef.  They  are 
stimulants  and  flavoring  adjuncts  and  have  only  a  slight  food  value,  owing  to  a 
small  amount  of  protein  (muscle-building  food)  which  they  contain.  They  are 
more  expensive  than  homemade  soups. 

"  Fluid  meat  extracts  are  dilute  solutions  of  semisolid  meat  extracts.  They 
are  sold  in  bottles  and  are  flavored.  They  are  more  expensive  than  the  semi- 
solid meat  extracts  because  they  contain  more  water. 

"Commercial  meat  juices  are  largely  deprived  of  their  most  valuable  food 
constituent — the  coagulable  protein,  or  muscle-building  food.  They  are  similar 
to  fluid  meat  extracts,  and  some  makes  cost  more. 

"Homemade  meat  broth  is  more  nutritious  and  provides  more  meat  extrac- 
tives, protein,  and  fat  at  less  expense  than  the  commercial  preparations. 

"  Homemade  meat  and  vegetable  soup  contains  much  more  food  and  is  there- 
fore much  cheaper  than  the  bouillons  or  soups  prepared  from  commercial  cubes, 
extracts,  or  juices." 

Bouillon  cubes,  F.  C.  Cook  {Jour.  Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.,  5  {1913),  No.  12, 
pp.  989,  990). — Analytical  data  are  rer)orted  regarding  the  bouillon  cubes 
referred  to  above. 

"Bouillon  cubes  on  the  market  at  present  consist  of  about  5  per  cent  of 
water,  1  to  4.5  per  cent  of  ether  extract  (fat),  and  50  to  74  per  cent  of  ash 
which  is  practiclly  all  sodium  chlorid.  The  nitrogen  bodies  and  undetermined 
organic  material  amount  to  20  to  40  per  cent.  The  phosphoric  acid  {V^Ot) 
varies  from  0.4  to  1.8  per  cent,  the  total  nitrogen  from  2.1  to  3.6  per  cent,  and 
the  total  creatinin  from  0.49  to  1.67  per  cent. 

"A  cube  prepared  largely  from  meat  extract  gives  high  total  phosphoric  acid 
(PsOb),  total  nitrogen,  and  total  creatinin  figures.  The  amount  of  nitrogen 
precipitated  by  absolute  alcohol  and  hydrochloric  acid  is  also  markedly  higher 
than  in  a  cube  containing  much  plant  and  little  meat  extract.  .  .  . 

"Bouillon  is  a  clear  broth,  the  basis  of  which  is  meat;  consequently  a  true 
bouillon  cube  should  show  high  creatinin  and  high  total  nitrogen  figures,  and 
should  be  prepared  entirely,  or  largely  from  meat  stock  or  meat  extract  in  addi- 
tion to  the  salt  and  fat  present.  Several  of  the  cubes  on  the  market  contain 
much  more  plant  than  meat  extract  and  are  not  entitled  to  the  name  'bouillon' 
unless  modified." 

Notes  on  rare  fishes  sold  for  food  in  east  London,  F.  J.  Stubbs  {Zoologist, 
Jf.  ser.,  17  {1913),  No.  202,  pp.  377-381)  .—These  notes  were  collected  during  the 
preparation  for  the  Whitechapel  (Stepney  Borough)  Museum  of  an  exhibit  of 
the  food  fishes  for  sale  in  east  London  and  include,  besides  a  description  of  the 
method  of  making  casts  of  the  fishes,  brief  notes  on  the  habitat  and  appearance 
of  the  less  common  varieties.  Among  the  latter  are  the  greater  weever 
{Tracfiinus  draco),  beryx  {Beryx  dccadactylus) ,  sea  bream  {Pagellus  centro- 
dontus),  ide  {Leuciscus  idus),  sile  smelt  {Argentina  silus).  lesser  ling  {Molva 
dipterygia),  Macrurus  rupestris,  Malacocephalus  Icevis  {Macrurus  Icevis),  and 
lumpsucker  {Gyclopteriis  lunvpiis). 

Size  of  the  sample  necessary  for  the  accurate  determination  of  the  sani- 
tary quality  of  shell  oysters,  G.  H.  Smith  {Anier.  Jour.  Puh.  Health,  3  {1913), 
No.  7,  pp.  705-708). — According  to  the  author,  consistent  results  can  not  be 
obtained  with  less  than  15  oysters.  A  standard  of  purity  for  oyster  liquor 
should  be  established  similar  to  the  standards  in  use  for  water  and  milk. 

Studies  of  phosphatids,  particularly  those  in  egg  yolk,  J.  Eppleb  {Hoppe- 
Seyler's  Ztschr.  Physiol.  Chem.,  87  {1913),  No.  4,  pp.  235-254).— Analytical 
data  are  reported  and  discussed. 


164  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

The  gluten  content  of  flour,  K.  Budai  (Bauer)  (Ztschr.  Gesam.  GetreWew., 
5  (1913),  No.  6,  pp.  171-179). — General  and  analytical  data  are  given  regarding 
the  amount  of  gluten  in  different  flours  and  its  relation  to  their  quality. 

A  preliminary  study  on  the  conditions  which  affect  the  activity  of  the 
amylolytic  enzyms  in  wheat  flour,  C.  O.  Swanson  and  J.  W.  Calvin  {Jour. 
Amer.  Chem.  Sac,  35  {1913),  No.  10,  pp.  1635-1643) .—The  effects  of  tempera- 
ture, the  duration  of  the  digestion  period,  the  optimum  proportion  of  flour  and 
water,  and  the  effect  on  the  production  of  reducing  sugars  of  chemicals  were 
studied,  including  sulphuric  acid,  sodium  hydroxid,  dibasic  potassium  phos- 
phate, and  sodium  chlorid  in  varying  concentrations  and  quantities. 

The  experiments,  according  to  the  authors,  showed  that  "  the  optimum  tem- 
perature for  the  production  of  the  maximum  amount  of  reducing  sugars  is 
very  near  65° ;  that  the  best  proportion  of  water  and  flour  lies  between  1 : 4 
and  1 :  10,  and  that  there  is  little  difference  between  these  two  limits.  It  has 
also  been  shown  that  the  largest  transformation  takes  place  during  "the  first 
hour;  approximately  88  per  cent  of  the  total  change  occurs  during  the  first 
hour.  The  inhibiting  effect  of  various  chemicals  has  been  shown.  The  inhibit- 
ing action  is  greater  toward  straight  flour  than  toward  low-grade." 

Some  points  in  the  making  and  judging  of  bread,  Isabel  Bevieb  {Univ. 
III.  Bill.,  10  {1913),  No.  25,  pp.  44,  pis.  7). — As  the  author  points  out,  the  char- 
acteristics of  good  bread  are  symmetry  of  size  and  shape,  bloom  and  crispness 
of  crust,  and  a  tender,  elastic  crumb  of  fine  grain.  The  conclusions  drawn 
from  the  investigation  were  in  effect  the  following : 

Recipes  differ  widely  as  regards  nonessentials,  sugar,  salt,  and  shortening,  but 
agree  as  to  the  proportion  of  1  cup  of  liquid  to  3  of  flour.  Yeast  is  a  plant, 
and  so  subject  to  laws  of  plant  growth  as  regards  food  and  moisture.  If  in 
good  condition,  yeast  probably  does  not  influence  the  flavor  of  bread.  Water 
is  the  best  liquid  as  regards  flavor.  Because  of  the  small  proportion  used  and 
the  fact  that  almost  any  form  of  milk  is  largely  water,  little  effect  on  flavor  is 
produced  by  the  use  of  skim  milk  or  buttermilk.  Both  seem  to  contribute  to 
tenderness  of  crumb. 

Salt  prevents  a  flat  taste,  retards  fermentation,  and,  used  to  excess,  causes 
loss  of  color  in  crust  and  of  tenderness  in  crumb.  Sugar  darkens  the  color  of 
the  crust.  Within  limits,  it  increases  the  volume  of  the  loaf.  Salt  and  sugar 
combined  in  proportion  of  1 :  2,  respectively,  improve  both  flavor  and  volume. 

Bread  making  is  an  art  that  demands  careful  attention  to  certain  essential 
details  such  as  character,  temperature,  and  amount  of  yeast,  condition  and 
amount  of  flour,  time  and  temperature  of  fermentation  and  baking.  The  mate- 
rial of  pans  is  a  question  of  choice.  Tin  seems  to  yield  the  best  results  in 
common  practice.  Covered  and  uncovered  pans  have  not  been  tried  enough  for 
definite  conclusions. 

The  process  of  bread  making  for  winter  wheat  flour  differs  from  the  process 
for  spring  wheat  flour  in  that  winter  wheat  requires  more  liquid,  a  slacker 
dough,  is  much  better  with  3  risings  instead  of  2,  and  should  be  allowed  to 
finish  proving  in  the  oven. 

A  new  method  of  keeping  bread  fresh  and  its  significance  with  respect 
to  the  night  work  of  bakers,  J.  R.  Katz  {Chem.  WeekN.,  10  {1913),  No.  24, 
pp.  488-495,  figs.  3). — Experiments  on  the  vapor  tension  and  water  content  of 
bread  crust  showed  that  so  long  as  the  moisture  did  not  exceed  18  per  cent  the 
crust  retained  the  characteristics  of  freshness.  In  an  atmosphere  with  85  per 
cent  humidity  bread  crust  remained  unaltered  for  a  long  time. 

Bread  remained  fresh  from  10  to  15  hours  when  kept  in  a  chamber  which 
contained  a  shallow  pan  filled  with  saturated  salt  solution,  and  in  which  an 
air  circulation  was  maintained  by  means  of  a  small  ventilating  fan.    The  only 


FOODS — HUMAN   NUTRITION.  165 

regulation  necessary  was  the  addition  of  water  to  the  brine  to  maintain  the 
desired  concentration.  In  the  author's  opinion,  such  apparatus  is  particularly 
well  suited  to  small  bakeries,  and  by  its  use  he  believes  that  it  might  be  pos- 
sible to  do  away  with  night  work. 

The  grinding  of  corn  meal  for  bread,  F.  P.  Dunnington  {Alu7nni  Bui. 
Univ.  Va.,  3.  scr.,  6  {1913),  No.  4,  pp.  521-532).— The  data  discussed  in  this 
paper  were  reported  in  an  earlier  publication  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  360). 

[Banana  recipes],  O.  W.  Barkett  {PJiilippinc  Agr.  Rev.  \_EngUfih  Ed.],  6 
(1913),  No.  9,  pp.  451,  452). — In  a  discussion  of  the  use  of  bananas  recipes  are 
given  for  preparing  bananas  and  plantains  for  the  table. 

Hickory  nuts  and  hickory  nut  oil,  G.  O.  Peterson  and  E.  H.  S.  Bailey 
{Jour.  Indus,  and  Engin.  Chem.,  5  {1913),  No.  9,  pp.  739,  7^0).— An  analysis  of 
hickory  nut  meats  is  reported  in  connection  with  a  study  of  the  oil  and  its 
characteristics. 

According  to  the  authors,  "  the  food  value  of  hickory  nuts  is  high ;  the  oils 
from  the  two  species  of  hickory  nuts,  Carya  ovata  and  C.  amara,  are  practically 
identical  and  are  similar  to  cotton-seed  oil ;  the  oil  retains  the  flavor  of  the 
hickory  nut,  and  is  practically  equal  to  olive  oil;  [and]  the  possibility  of 
extracting  the  oil  on  a  commercial  basis  should  be  further  investigated." 

[Analyses  of  food,  beverages,  and  drugs],  W.  Hanson  {Bien.  Rpts.  State 
Dairy  and  Food  Comr.,  8tate  Chem.  and  State  Dairy  and  Food  Bur.  Utah, 
1911-12,  pp.  191). — The  results  of  a  large  number  of  analyses  of  foods,  bever- 
ages, and  drugs  are  reported  and  discussed,  and  reports  of  the  2  years'  work  are 
presented. 

Food  and  drug  and  weight  and  measures  laws  of  the  State  of  Nevada, 
with  the  rules  and  regulations  adopted  for  the  enforcement  of  the  same 
{Nevada  Stu.  Bui.  80,  pp.  22). — The  full  text  of  the  state  laws,  rules,  and 
regulations  is  given. 

Wisconsin  dairy  and  food  laws  and  decisions  of  courts,  J.  Q.  Emery  {Madi- 
son, Wis.;  Dairy  and  Food  Comr.,  1913,  pp.  92). — A  compilation  of  the  state 
laws  regarding  the  inspection,  manufacture,  and  sale  of  food  and  dairy  products, 
as  amended  in  1913.  together  with  court  interpretations  and  rulings. 

A  study  of  the  use  of  ice  and  other  means  of  preserving  food  in  homes, 
J.  R.  Williams  {Jour.  Amer.  Med.  Assoc.,  61  {1913),  No.  12,  pp.  932-935,  figs. 
2). — In  this  paper,  read  in  the  section  on  preventive  medicine  and  public  health 
of  the  American  Medical  Association.  Minneapolis,  June,  1013,  the  results  are 
presented  of  a  study  of  upwards  of  100  homes  in  5  sections  of  Rochester,  N.  Y., 
socially  and  economically  different.  Information  was  collected  regarding  the 
use  of  milk,  means  for  caring  for  it,  the  size,  make,  and  kind  of  refrigerator 
used,  the  amount  of  ice  used  weekly  and  yearly  with  its  cost,  and  similar  topics, 
and  temperature  measurements  were  made  of  refrigerators,  living  rooms,  and 
cellars.  From  his  studies  the  author  considers  that  the  following  conclusions 
are  warranted : 

"  The  temperatures  of  cellars  or  living  rooms  in  dwelling  houses  are  not  suffi- 
ciently low  during  the  warm  months  of  the  year  to  protect  milk  and  other 
perishable  foods  from  rapid  bacterial  decomposition.  Therefore  an  efficient 
refrigerator  in  the  home  is  a  necessity. 

"  Most  of  the  refrigerators  in  common  use  are  almost  worthless  and  grossly 
uneconomical.  There  is  a  large  field  for  the  manufacturer  who  will  make  a 
properly  insulated  and  efficient  box  which  can  be  sold  at  a  moderate  price, 

"  If  more  economical  methods  of  ice  manufacture  and  distribution  were  em- 
ployed, the  cost  of  ice  to  the  consumer  could  be  materially  lowered.  If  to  this 
saving  were  added  that  which  would  result  from  proper  ice  box  construction, 


166  EXPERIMENT  STATION  RECORD. 

refrigeration  vastly  superior  to  that  now  found  in  the  average  home  could  be 
had  for  at  least  one-fourth  the  present  cost." 

The  paper  is  followed  by  a  discussion. 

Cooking  and  heating  with  electricity,  C.  T.  Phillips  (Architect  and  Engin., 
3Jf  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  93-99,  figs.  7).— Electric  cooking  equipment  of  different 
sorts  is  described  and  data  summarized  regarding  the  rates  for  electricity  for 
cooliing  purposes  in  different  parts  of  the  United  States  and  the  cost  of  cooking 
by  this  method. 

The  food  factor  in  some  sociologic  problems  (Jour.  Amer.  Med.  Assoc,  61 
{1913),  No.  16,  p.  1463). — In  discussing  the  problem  of  food  in  relation  to  socio- 
logical problems,  the  following  statement  is  made : 

"Perhaps  our  sociologists  have  not  sufficiently  appreciated  in  the  past  that 
the  occurrence  of  conditions  in  which  the  support  of  the  family  and  the  provi- 
sion of  even  the  barest  necessities  prevent  the  attainment  of  any  variety  and 
interest  in  life  and  almost  enforce  a  monotonous  existence  reacts  in  a  variety 
of  w^ays  on  the  health  and  efficiency  of  the  community  through  the  diet  factors 
referred  to.  The  essays  at  amelioration  and  reform  must  accordingly  take  into 
account  possible  changes  in  the  mode  of  feeding  which  might  set  free  a  greater 
proportion  of  the  income  for  other  things  than  food.  Dietary  habits  need  to  be 
dealt  with  in  this  field  quite  as  much  as  ignorance  and  the  *  stultifying  influ- 
ence of  the  surroundings.'  " 

[Increased  cost  of  maintenance  of  children]  (In  Special  Report  Chicago 
Nursery  and  Half -Orphan  Asylum,  1860-1913.  Chicago  [1913],  pp.  12,  13). ~ 
Since  its  establishment  in  1S74  the  institution  has  cared  for  more  than  4,500 
children  for  periods  varying  from  a  few  weeks  to  a  long  term  of  years. 

A  gradual  increase  in  the  cost  of  support  per  child  has  been  noted.  The 
average  cost  of  maintenance  from  1874  to  1883  was  $79.98  per  child  per  year; 
from  1884  to  1893,  $88.68;  from  1894-1903,  $101.45;  and  from  1904  to  1913, 
$140.60.  These  estimates  "  do  not  take  into  account  the  numerous  contribu- 
tions of  food,  clothing,  and  general  equipment  which  have  made  it  possible  to 
keep  the  expenses  down  to  these  figures.  Nor  do  they  include  the  maintenance, 
repairs,  and  improvements  of  the  building." 

Cost  of  living  in  Nova  Scotia,  J.  W.  Ragsdale  {Daily  Cons,  and  Trade  Rpts. 
[U.  8.],  16  {1913),  No.  157,  p.  i5^).— Data  are  given  regarding  the  kinds  and 
amounts  of  food  consumed  by  a  family  consisting  of  a  man  and  woman  and  4 
children. 

[Using  the  usual  factors  for  the  composition  of  food,  etc.,  it  has  been  cal- 
culated that  the  food  purchased  for  this  family  (calculated  to  be  equal  to  3.7 
men)  supplied  116  gm.  protein  and  3,325  calories  of  energy  per  man  per  day.] 

Food  prices  in  London — ^an  inquiry  into  present  conditions  as  affecting  the 
poorer  classes  of  workers,  J.  C.  Pringle  {London:  Charity  Organ.  Soc,  1913, 
pp.  36). — A  large  amount  of  statistical  data  is  summarized  and  discussed  with 
reference  to  the  kind  of  foods  purchased  and  the  prices  paid  by  families  of 
moderate  income.     A  number  of  family  budgets  are  included. 

The  pamphlet  as  a  whole  supplies  much  information  regarding  the  living 
conditions  of  the  poorer  families  of  the  working  class  in  London. 

[Luncheon  for  women  clerks  employed  in  the  Bank  of  England],  E.  M. 
Harvey  (In  Minutes  of  Evidence  taken  hefore  the  Royal  Commission  on  the 
Civil  Service,  Ajyril  10-25,  1913,  with  Appendices.  London:  Govt.,  1913,  p.  95). — 
A  brief  statement  regarding  the  improvement  in  health  which  has  followed 
the  serving  of  a  luncheon  free  of  cost  to  women  employees  in  the  Bank  of  Eng- 
land. Whereas  numerous  cases  of  neuritis  in  the  arm  or  some  other  form  of 
nerve  trouble  before  this  was  done  were  prevalent,  "  complaints  of  this  charac- 
ter are  now  very  rare." 


FOODS^ — HUMAN   NUTRITION.  167 

[Dietaries  and  accounts  for  Poor  Law  Unions,  England  and  Wales]  {Local 
Govt.  Bd.  [Ot.  Brit.],  Workhouse  Regulation  (Dietaries  and  Accts.)  Order,  1900, 
pp.  27;  Rpt.  Dept.  Com.  Local  Govt.  Bd.  [Gt.  Brit.]  Poor  Law  Orders,  1  {WIS), 
pp.  8,  15,  16,  37-Jf7,  83-88).— In  the  general  order  issued  to  the  Guardians  of 
the  Poor  of  the  several  Poor  Law  T'nions  in  England  and  Wales,  and  com- 
mented uiK)n  and  in  part  reprinted  by  the  committee  on  the  revision  of  Poor 
Law  Orders,  regulations  are  given  regarding  dietaries  and  accounts  and  rations 
are  outlined  in  detail.  Brief  instructions  are  appended  to  the  list  of  rations 
and  recipes  are  given  for  the  preparation  of  a  large  number  of  dishes.  Forms 
for  ration  accounting  are  also  included. 

Diet  social  service  in  dispensary  work,  F.  H.  Klaer  {Med.  Rec.  [N.  Y.],  8^ 
(1913),  No.  18,  pp.  792-795).— This  is  an  account  of  the  results  of  work  carried 
on  in  connection  with  the  Social  Service  of  the  Outpatient  Department  and  the 
Medical  Dispensary  of  the  Hospital  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  patients  or  families  visited  by  the  dietitian  fell  into  two  general  classes, 
viz,  individual  patients  suffering  with  various  digestive  disturbances  or  diseases 
requiring  special  diets,  and  families  requiring  a  readjustment  of  finances,  food, 
and  habits  of  eating,  because  of  debts,  malnutrition,  and  sickness. 

Often  individual  cases  became  family  cases  because  it  was  impossible  to 
correct  dietary  conditions  for  one  member  without  changing  those  of  the  whole 
household.  It  was  not  always  possible  to  obtain  satisfactory  cooperation,  but 
in  the  majority  of  cases  the  visitors  were  able  to  introduce  noteworthy  improve- 
ments in  the  health  and  also  in  the  financial  condition  of  the  family  by  teaching 
more  economical  ways  of  buying  and  utilizing  food  as  well  as  better  methods 
of  preparation,  and  thus  prevented  as  well  as  cured  many  unnecessary  cases  of 
malnutrition. 

A  food  clinic  {Jour.  Amer.  Med.  Assoc.,  61  {1913),  No.  16,  pp.  1462,  1463).-- 
A  summary  of  a  paper  by  W.  M.  Roach,  presented  at  the  Congress  on  School 
Hygiene,  held  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  in  August,  1913.  Some  account  is  given  of  the 
favorable  effects  of  feeding  school  children  in  Philadelphia. 

Report  to  the  local  government  board  on  bacterial  food  poisoning  and  food 
infections,  W.  G.  Savage  {Rpts.  Local  Govt.  Bd.  [Gt.  Brit.],  Pub.  Health  and 
Med.  Subjs.,  n.  ser.,  1913,  No.  77,  pp.  80,  pi.  i).— In  this  digest  of  data  the  author 
summarizes  and  discusses  information  regarding  the  different  kinds  of  food 
poisoning,  both  bacterial  and  that  attributed  to  ptomaines. 

According  to  the  report,  three  considerations  should  be  borne  in  mind, 
namely,  the  association  of  some  outbreaks  at  least  with  actual  disease  of  the 
animals  whose  flesh  was  eaten ;  the  probability  that  in  other  outbreaks  uncon- 
taminated  food  had  become  infected  from  the  tissues  or  intestinal  contents  of 
food  animals  in  which  bacterial  invasion  was  present,  as  may  happen  when  a 
slaughterhouse  is  used  as  a  place  for  the  preparation  of  sausages  and  similar 
meat  foods;  and  that  the  spreading  of  disease  by  bacterial  infection,  when 
present,  may  be  affected  by  lack  of  cleanliness  and  care  in  handling,  preparing, 
and  storing  foods. 

An  appendix  contains  a  list  of  British  and  continental  outbreaks  of  food 
poisoning,  recommendations  of  the  local  government  board  on  outbreaks,  and 
a  bibliography. 

The  relation  of  diets  and  of  castration  to  the  transmissible  tumors  of  rats 
and  mice,  J.  E.  Sweet,  Ellen  P.  Corson-White,  and  G.  J.  Saxon  {Jour.  Biol. 
Chem.,  15  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  181-191). — A  generous  and  an  insufficient  diet  were 
compared,  the  conclusion  being  that  both  susceptibility  to  transplantable  tumors 
and  the  rate  of  growth  of  transplanted  tumors  may  be  influenced  positively 
or  negatively  by  diet— the  rate  of  growth  being  slower  and  the  number  of 
retrogressions  being  higher  on  the  low  than  on  the  normal  diet. 


168  EXPERIMENT   STATION  EECORD. 

Mixed  diet  and  metabolism  {Med.  Rec.  [N.  Y.],  84  (1913),  No.  17,  pp.  759, 
700). — This  is  a  brief  discussion  of  the  physiological  necessity  of  a  varied  diet 
ns  regards  both  a  sufficient  supply  of  all  the  nutrients  and  a  variety  of  food 
material.  The  relations  of  a  too  simple  diet  to  such  diseases  as  diabetes  and 
irregular  gout  and  to  anaphylaxis  as  shown  by  anemia,  malnutrition,  asthenia, 
etc.,  are  also  indicated. 

The  mineral  content  of  the  daily  diet,  Hornemann  (Ztschr.  Hyg.  u.  Infek- 
iionskrank.,  75  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  553-568). — The  author  found  in  studies  with 
adult  men  that  the  amounts  of  calcium  and  iron  oxids  in  a  daily  diet  supply- 
ing 557  gm.  dry  matter  were  respectively  1.72  gm.  and  156  mg.  With  adult 
women  receiving  396  gm.  dry  matter,  the  corresponding  values  were  0.86  gm. 
and  91  mg.,  and  with  a  6-year-old  boy  receiving  325  gm.  dry  matter,  0.67  gm. 
and  57  mg.  He  is  of  the  opinion  that  the  amounts  of  calcium  and  iron  supplied 
by  the  diets  were  sufficient. 

The  normal  presence  of  boron  in  animals,  G.  Bertrand  and  H.  Agulhon 
(Compt.  Rend.  Acad.  Sci.  [Paris],  155  {1912),  No.  3,  pp.  248-251;  abs.  in  Jour. 
Chem.  Soc.  [London],  102  {1912),  No.  599,  II,  pp.  854,  855).— Using  a  method 
described  in  a  previous  article,**  the  authors  report  the  presence  of  small 
amounts  of  boron  in  the  organs  and  tissues  of  several  animals.  It  is  the  most 
easily  detected  in  the  hair,  horns,  bones,  liver,  and  muscles. 

The  presence  of  boron  in  animals,  G.  Bertrand  and  H.  Agulhon  {Compt. 
Rend.  Acad.  Sci.  [Paris],  156  {1913),  No.  9,  pp.  732-735;  ahs.  in  Jour. 
Chem.  Soc.  [London],  104  {1913),  No.  606,  I,  pp.  4^3,  424).— In  continuation  of 
the  work  reported  in  the  previous  article,  the  authors  report  finding  boron  in 
27  different  species  of  animals,  and  conclude  that  it  exists  normally  in  small 
amounts  in  the  bodies  of  all  animals,  being  more  common  in  the  species  of 
marine  origin. 

The  presence  of  boron  in  milk  and  eggs,  G.  Bertrand  and  H.  Agtjlhon 
{Compt.  Rend.  Acad.  Sci.  [Paris],  156  {1913),  No.  26,  pp.  2027-2029;  ahs.  in 
Jour.  Chem.  Soc.  [London],  104  {1913),  No.  610,  I,  p.  W).— The  presence  of 
0.08,  0.1,  and  0.2  mg.  of  boron  per  liter  of  human,  ass's,  and  cow's  milli,  respec- 
tively, and  of  1  mg.  per  kilogram  of  dried  material  from  fowl,  turkey,  and  goose 
eggs  is  reported. 

The  frequent  occurrence  of  this  element  in  animal  and  vegetable  products 
leads  the  authors  to  ask  the  question  whether  boron,  like  iron,  may  not  play 
an  indispensable  part,  possibly  catalytic,  in  the  living  cell. 

The  metabolism  after  meat  feeding*  of  dogs  in  which  pancreatic  external 
secretion  was  absent,  F.  G.  Benedict  and  J.  H.  Pratt  {Jour.  Biol.  Chem.,  15 
{1913),  No.  1,  pp.  1-35). — The  increase  in  the  total  metabolism  of  animals  and 
man  resulting  from  the  ingestion  of  food  of  various  kinds  has  often  been  ob- 
served, and,  as  the  authors  point  out,  there  have  been  two  distinct  theories  as 
to  the  reason.  One  assumes  that  the  increase  in  metabolism  is  mainly  due  to 
the  mechanical  processes  in  digestion,  and  the  other  that  the  increase  is  due  to 
the  specific  dynamic  action  of  foodstuffs,  that  is,  that  portion  of  the  heat  pro- 
duced which  appears  as  free  heat  and  does  not  benefit  the  cells.  The  one  attrib- 
utes the  increased  metabolism  mainly  to  mechanical  causes;  the  other,  to 
chemical  processes. 

Experiments  on  the  metabolism  of  nitrogen  and  on  carbon  dioxid  production 
are  reported,  the  results  showing,  according  to  the  authors,  "  that  there  is  no 
large  energy  transformation  incidental  to  segmentation,  peristalsis,  glandular 
activity  of  stomach,  liver,  and  intestine,  and  the  movement  of  the  unabsorbed 
food  through  the  intestinal  tract.     The  attempt  to  explain  the  increased  metabo- 

«Ann.  Chim.  Analyt,  15  (1910),  No.  2,  pp.  45-53;  Bui.  Soc.  Chim.  France,  4.  sen,  7 
(1910),  pp.  90-99. 


ANIMAL   PRODUCTIOISr.  169 

ligiii  following  the  ingestion  of  food  by  the  theory  that  the  increase  is  a  conse- 
qnence  of  such  movements  is,  therefore,  not  justifiable." 

Some  observations  on  metabolism  in  connection  with  an  experimental 
march,  C.  II.  Melville,  W.  W.  O.  Beveridge,  and  N.  D.  Walker  {Jour.  Roy. 
Army  Med.  Corps,  19  {1912),  No.  6,  pp.  661-673,  figs.  7).— Observations  were 
made  of  the  body  weight,  the  amount,  nitrogen  content,  and  energy  value  of  the 
food  consumed,  the  liquids  drunk,  and  the  nitrogen  eliminated  in  the  urine  and 
feces  in  the  case  of  3  men  taking  part  in  the  march.  From  a  study  of  the 
results  obtained  the  authors  deduct  the  following  practical  points : 

"  If  a  man  has  to  go  short  of  water  for  1  day  the  effect  on  the  water  available 
for  perspiration,  that  is,  for  temperature  regulation,  may  persist  even  in  a  well 
trained  man  for  about  48  hours."  Even  if  "  a  plentiful  supply  of  water  is  avail- 
able on  the  next  day  [it]  will  only  tend  to  increase  his  urinary  secretion,  not  to 
redress  at  once  the  disturbance  In  water  content  of  his  dehydrated  tissues."  A 
similar  effect  results  from  an  uneven  allowance  of  water.  "  It  is  extremely 
important,  therefore,  to  regulate  the  supply  not  only  from  day  to  day,  but  also 
in  the  course  of  every  day." 

The  water  supply  of  a  man  in  an  untrained  condition  needs  more  careful  regu- 
lation than  that  of  a  man  in  good  physical  condition. 

Report  on  two  experimental  marches  carried  out  for  the  purpose  of 
deciding-  a  scale  of  field  service  rations;  together  with  an.  account  of  some 
observations  on  nitrogen  balance,  etc.  {London:  Govt.,  1913,  pp.  64-\-i2'\,  pla. 
7). — This  blue  book  gives  full  data  regarding  an  earlier  experimental  march 
(E.  S.  R.,  25,  p.  266)  as  well  as  the  one  noted  above. 

ANIMAL  PRODUCTION. 

Commercial  feeding  stuffs,  W.  J.  Jones,  Jr.,  et  al.  {Indiana  St<i.  Bui.  169, 
pp.  71-326). — This  reports  analyses  of  the  following  feeds:  Wheat  bran,  mid- 
dhngs,  shorts,  low  grade  flours,  mixed  wheat  products,  rye  middlings,  buckwheat 
bran,  buckwheat  middlings,  buckwheat  mixed  feed,  cotton-seed  meal,  cotton-seed 
cake,  cotton-seed  hulls,  linseed  meal,  linseed  cake,  distillers'  dried  grains, 
brewers'  dried  grains,  gluten  meal,  gluten  feed,  corn  germ  meal,  hominy  feed, 
corn  meal,  com  bran,  dried  sugar  beet  pulp,  alfalfa  meal,  blood  meal,  beef 
scrap,  tankage,  proprietary  stock  and  molasses  feeds,  calf  meals,  poultry  feeds, 
and  condimental  stock  and  poultry  feeds. 

There  is  included  a  synopsis  of  the  Indiana  feeding  stuffs  law,  together  with 
a  classification  of  feeding  stuffs,  and  comments  on  the  various  feeds  and  their 
manufacture. 

Use  of  the  bitter  acorn  in  the  feeding  of  domestic  animals,  K.  Courbet 
{Bui.  Agr.  Alg^rie  et  Tunisie,  19  {1913),  No.  13,  pp.  273-279).— Bitter  acorns 
were  subjected  to  a  process  of  torrefaction  and  desiccation  and  thus  rendered 
available  as  a  palatable  and  nutritive  feed  for  domestic  animals.  The  compo- 
sition of  the  fresh  acorns  is  reported  as  follows:  Water  55.3,  protein  2.5,  fat 
3.9,  carbohydrates  34.8,  crude  fiber  4.4.  and  ash  1  p«r  cent ;  and  the  digestible 
nutrients  as  protein  2,  fat  3.9,  carbohydrates  31.3,  and  fiber  2.7  per  cent. 

Rations  for  farai  stock  {Bd.  Agr.  and  Fisfierics  [London],  Leaflet  79,  pp. 
23). — This  publication  contains  a  general  discussion  of  the  principles  of  nutri- 
tion and  the  compounding  of  rations.  Rations  applicable  to  British  conditions 
are  given  for  dairy  cows,  both  summer  and  winter  feeding;  for  fattening  cattle 
and  sheep:  for  calf  feeding;  and  for  ewes,  pigs,  work  horses,  and  mares  with 
foal. 

On  the  question  of  the  nitrogen  retention  from  the  feeding  of  urea,  E. 
Grafe  {Hoppe-Seyler's  Ztschr.  Physiol.  Chem.,  86  {1913),  No.  5,  pp.  347-355).— 


170  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECORD. 

This  is  a  continuation  of  work  previously  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  26,  p.  262).  In  the 
feeding  of  urea  to  dogs  and  swine,  the  results  indicated  that  although  there 
was  a  heavy  loss  of  nitrogen  there  was  some  nitrogen  retention  in  the  animal 
body. 

Nutrition  of  the  embryonic  chick,  I,  II,  III,  H.  W.  Bywaters  and  W.  B. 
Roue  (Jour.  Physiol.,  45  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  XL,  XLI ;  46  (1913),  Nos.  2,  pp.  XX, 
XXI ;  3,  pp.  XXXIII,  XXXIV). — Investigations  made  of  the  changes  occurring 
in  the  white  of  the  egg  during  incubation  indicate  that  the  percentage  of  water 
diminishes  at  a  regular  rate  during  the  earlier  period  of  incubation,  falling 
less  regularly  after  the  fifteenth  day.  There  was  less  absorption  of  the  protein 
than  of  the  water.  The  ratio  of  coagulable  to  uncoagulable  protein  remains 
practically  constant,  ranging  from  1 :  5.7  to  1 :  7.9.  The  presence  of  free  sugar 
usually  disappears  after  the  seventh  day,  whereas  in  infertile  eggs  it  slightly 
increases.  The  relation  between  the  uncoagulable  protein  in  egg  white  and  its 
combined  carbohydrate  after  different  periods  of  incubation  was  found  to  be 
practically  constant. 

The  average  daily  loss  in  weight  of  eggs  during  incubation  was  about  0.5  gm. 
It  was  fairly  constant  in  the  same  egg,  but  varied  greatly  in  different  eggs. 
"  In  the  case  of  sterile  eggs,  the  daily  loss  in  weight  for  the  same  egg  is  prac- 
tically constant  throughout  the  whole  period  of  incubation,  [but]  with  fertile 
eggs,  the  daily  loss  may  fall  slightly  until  about  the  middle  of  the  period  of 
incubation  and  then  it  begins  to  rise  until  at  the  end  it  may  be  half  as  much 
again  as  at  the  commencement  of  the  incubation."  It  is  deemed  possible  to 
ascertain  the  fertility  of  the  incubating  egg  by  studying  the  daily  loss  in  weight. 

It  is  shown  that  as  regards  the  assimilation  of  egg  white  the  ratio  of  the 
coagulable  to  the  uncoagulable  protein,  i.  e.,  of  albumin  to  ovomucoid,  remains 
practically  constant.  This  is  explained  on  the  assumption  that  "the  proteins 
of  egg  white  are  absorbed  at  the  same  relative  rate,  possibly  by  being  previ- 
ously converted  into  diffusable  substances  by  enzyms  secreted  by  the  embryo 
itself." 

A  respiration  apparatus  for  sheep  and  swine,  F.  Tangl  (Kis4rleP.  Kozlem., 
16  (1913),  No.  4,  pp.  467-481,  figs.  7). — A  report  of  the  construction  of  a  respira- 
tion apparatus  combining  the  principles  of  the  Pettenkofer-Voit,  Atwater-Bene- 
dict,  and  Tigerstedt  apparatus. 

Twenty- five  years  of  German  animal  production,  Hansen  (Illus.  Landw. 
Ztg.,  33  (1913),  No.  48,  pp.  ^42-^^4,  figs.  4). — ^A  resume  of  the  progress  of  animal 
breeding  and  production  in  Germany,  in  which  it  is  shown  that  there  has  been 
an  increase  in  the  number  of  horses  of  28.2  per  cent,  of  cattle  27.7  per  cent,  of 
mutton  sheep  137.7  per  cent,  and  of  goats  28.1  per  cent,  with  a  decrease  in  wool 
sheep  of  69.8  per  cent. 

Methods  of  cajttle  raising  and  management  under  modern  intensive  farm- 
ing (Arl).  Deut.  Oesell.  Ziichttingsk.,  1913,  No.  17,  pp.  70-93).— This  is  a  com- 
plete review  and  discussion  of  the  methods  of  cattle  raising  in  operation  in  the 
Province  of  Saxony  and  portions  of  Prussia  under  the  modern  intensive  farm- 
ing system.  The  use  of  home-grown  feeds  and  of  barn  feeding  are  emphasized. 
The  financial  cost,  yields,  and  profits  are  itemized  and  discussed  in  detail. 

Treatise  on  zootechny. — III,  The  bovine,  P.  Dechambre  (Trait6  de  Zoo- 
technie. — III,  Les  Bovins.  Paris,  1913,  pp.  581,  pi.  1,  figs.  90). — In  this  volume 
the  author  considers  in  detail  the  classification,  origin,  development,  and  breed 
characteristics  of  all  the  common  breeds  of  cattle  as  well  as  of  many  rare  and 
obsolete  breeds  of  Europe,  Asia,  and  South  America.  A  special  study  is  made  of 
the  conformation,  body  measurements,  and  ethnological  characters  of  these 
breeds.    There  is  also  included  a  discussion  of  the  production  of  beef  in  France, 


ANIMAL  PRODUCTION.  171 

Italy,  Argentina,  the  United  States,  and  other  countries.  The  feeding,  care,  and 
management  of  breeding  stoclv  are  treated  in  full,  together  with  a  study  of  the 
most  approved  methods  of  beef  production.  Formulas  and  methods  for  deter- 
mining, by  means  of  measurements  of  the  animal  on  foot,  the  dressing  per- 
centage and  net  weight  of  the  dressed  carcass  are  also  included. 

The  author  discusses  the  selection  of  dairy  cattle  under  the  heads  of  con- 
formation, quality,  mammary  system,  and  empirical  signs  or  marks.  Under  the 
latter,  he  treats  of  the  ini])ortance  of  the  escutcheon  as  an  index  to  milk  secre- 
tion, and  explains  the  various  forms  of  escutcheons  and  hair  swirls  as  described 
by  F.  Guenon. 

Breeding-  cattle  in  French  Guinea,  Aldige  {Rev.  G6n.  M6d.  Vet.,  22  (1913), 
No.  259-260,  jjp.  337-373,  figs.  5).— The  native  breeds  of  cattle  of  French  Guinea 
are  described  and  their  utility  value  as  beef  and  milk  producers  and  the  oppor- 
tunities for  improvement  through  the  introduction  of  the  zebu  are  discussed. 

On  the  breeds,  breeding",  and  utility  value  of  the  cattle  of  Dutch  East 
Africa,  G.  Lichtenheld  {Pflanzcr,  9  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  261-279) .—This  article 
treats  of  the  body  measurements,  breed  characteristics,  and  utility  value  of  the 
native  breeds  of  cattle  of  Dutch  East  Africa. 

The  Creole  cattle  of  Salta,  T.  R.  Garcia    {Bol.  Mm.  Agr.   [Buenos  Aires], 

15  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  675-6S2,  figs.  11). — The  author  describes  the  native  cattle 
of  Argentina,  commenting  on  their  utility  value  and  on  the  opportunity  for 
improvement  through  the  introduction  of  pure-bred  beef  sires.  The  three 
principal  types  of  native  cattle  are  Chaqueiios,  Serranos,  and  Fronterizos. 

On  beef  production  [in  Argentina],  E.  Lahitte  {Bol.  Min.  Agr.  [Buenos 
Aires'],  15  {1913),  No.  6,  pp.  683-689). — The  author  comments  on  the  extraor- 
dinary growth  and  demand  for  Argentina  meat  products,  and  states  that  the 
abnormal  demand  is  producing  a  spirit  of  speculation.  Statistical  reports  of 
exports  to  the  United  States  and  other  countries  are  presented. 

The  frozen  meat  industry  of  Argentina,  P.  Berg^s  {An.  Soc.  Rural  Argen- 
tina, 1913,  Juhj-Aug.,  pp.  247-291,  figs.  i6).— This  is  a  statistical  report  of  the 
frozen  meat  industry  of  Argentina  and  of  the  export  trade  with  foreign  coun- 
tries. The  industry  has  undergone  a  remarkable  development  and  growth 
in  the  past  few  years,  and  the  trade  now  reaches  throughout  America,  Europe, 
and  the  Orient.  The  relative  rank  of  the  various  meat-exporting  countries  is 
given,  showing  that  for  most  of  the  meat  products  Argentina  leads,  with  Aus- 
tralia and  New  Zealand  as  close  competitors. 

Foreign  meat  in  London,  C.  R.  Loop   {Daily  Cons,  and  Tirade  Rpts.  [U.  S.], 

16  {1913),  No.  246,  p.  379).— It  is  noted  that  almost  the  whole  of  the  foreign 
supply  of  beef  imported  into  the  United  Kingdom  is  now  derived  from  Ar- 
gentina and  Australia.  The  supply  from  the  United  States  diminished  from 
162.000,000  lbs.  in  1908  to  685,000  lbs.  in  1912.  The  average  retail  price  for 
beef  on  the  London  market  is  estimated  as  follows:  Sirloin,  19  cts.  per  pound; 
wing  rib,  18  cts.;  silver  side.  10  and  17  cts.;  and  steaks,  24  to  28  cts. 

The  shrinkage  in  weight  of  beef  cattle  in  transit,  W.  F.  Ward  and  J.  E. 
Downing  {U.  S.  Dept.  Agr.  Bui.  25,  pp.  78). — Shrinkage  weights  were  obtained 
on  cattle  shipped  from  various  points  in  the   Southwest  and  Northwest.     A 
general  summary  of  the  3  years'  work  is  shown  in  the  table  following. 
28054°— 14 6 


172 


EXPERIMENT   STATION    RECORD. 
Shrinkage  on  leef  cattle  in  transit. 


Class. 

Number 
of  cattle. 

Average 

weight  at 

origin. 

Average 
gross 

shrink- 
age. 

Average 

fill  at 
market. 

Average 
net 

shrink- 
age. 

Ratio  of 
shrinkage 

to  live 
weight  at 

origin. 

Range  steers  in  transit  less  than  36  hours. . 

197 
882 
169 
1,724 
1,551 
275 
177 

1,511 
872 
622 

988 
773 

772 

164 
1,853 
666 
169 
1,296 
1,009 
2,614 

Pounds. 

794 

1,186 

1,116 

838 

896 

1,034 

1,010 

700 
848 
954 
729 
1S5 
193 

1,303 

1,167 

1,108 

1,204 

1,074 

1,390 

Pounds.     Pounds. 

Pounds. 

29 
64 
61 
30 
31 
50 
40 

15 
54 
37 
51 

+  1 
+  5 

51 

48 

24 

43 

58 

75 

54 

Per  cent. 
3  65 

Range  steers  in  transit  36  to  72  hours 

Range  steers  in.  transit  over  72  hours 

Range  cows  in  transit  less  than  24  hours. . . 

Range  cows  in  transit  24  to  36  hours 

Range  cows  in  transit  36  to  72  hours 

Range  cows  in  transit  over  72  hom-s 

Mixed  range  cattle  in  transit  less  than  24 

89 
88 
60 
70 
96 
70 

37 
72 
76 
80 
6 
6 

67 

85 

76 

101 
72 

100 

25 
27 
30 
39 
46 
30 

22 

18 
39 
29 

7 
11 

16 

37 

52 

58 

14 

25 

5.40 
5.47 
3.58 
3.46 
4.84 
3.96 

2  14 

MLxed  range  cattle  in  transit  24  to  36  hours. 
MLxed  rangecattle  in  transit  36  to  72  hours. . 
MLxed  rangecattle  in  transit  over  72  hours. . 
Range  calves  in  transit  less  than  24  hours. . 

Range  calves  in  transit  over  24  hours 

Mixed  corn-fed  cattle  in  transit  less  than 
24  hours 

6.37 

3.88 

7.00 

+  .59 

-f-2.45 

3  91 

Mixed  corn-fed  cattle  in  transit  24  to  36 
hours 

4  11 

Mixed  silage-fed  cattle  ia  transit  less  than 
24  hours 

2.05 

Mixed  silage-fed  cattle  in  transit  24  to  36 
hours 

3.57 

Cottonseed-meal-fed  steers  in  transit  30  to 
48  hours 

5  40 

Beet-pulp-fed  cattle  in  transit  60  to  120 
hours 

5  40 

Beet-pulp-fed  cattle  in  transit  38  to  120 
hours .  . 





It  is  concluded  from  these  investigations  that  "  the  shrinkage  of  cattle  in 
transit  depended  very  materially  upon  (a)  the  conditions  existing  at  the  time 
of  shipping  and  upon  the  treatment  received  during  the  drive  to  the  loading 
pens;  (b)  the  length  of  time  the  cattle  were  held  without  feed  and  water  before 
being  loaded;  (c)  the  nature  of  the  fill  which  the  cattle  had  before  loading,  a 
great  loss  in  weight  being  experienced  with  succulent  grass,  beet  pulp,  or  silage; 
(d)  the  weather  conditions  at  the  time  of  loading  and  while  in  transit;  (e) 
the  character  of  the  run  to  market,  slow,  rough  runs  causing  a  greater  shrink- 
age;  (f)  the  kind  of  treatment  they  received  at  unloading  stations;  (g)  the 
time  of  arrival  at  market,  the  fill  being  small  if  they  arrived  just  before  being 
sold,  and  cattle  that  were  shipped  a  long  distance  and  arrived  at  market  during 
the  night  usually  not  filling  well ;  whereas  if  they  arrived  the  afternoon  before 
or  about  daylight  of  the  sale  day,  they  generally  took  a  good  fill;  and  (h)  the 
climatic  conditions  at  the  market. 

"An  exceedingly  large  fill  at  market  is  not  desired  as  it  will  detract  from  the 
selling  price.  The  shrinkage  on  calves  may  seem  small,  but  under  normal  con- 
ditions it  holds  about  the  same  proix)rtion  to  their  weight  as  is  found  with 
grown  cattle.  The  difference  between  the  shrinkage  of  cows  and  steers  is  not  as 
great  as  is  ordinarily  supposed.  Steers  will  usually  shrink  somewhat  less  than 
cows  of  the  same  weight.  The  shrinkage  during  the  first  24  hours  is  greater 
proportionately  than  for  any  succeeding  period  of  the  same  duration.  The 
shrinkage  of  cattle  was  found  to  vary  in  direct  proportion  to  their  live  weight 
when  conditions  were  the  same  and  all  other  factors  were  equal.  The  shrinkage 
of  range  cattle  in  transit  over  TO  hours  during  a  normal  year  is  from  5  to  6 
per  cent  of  their  live  weight.  If  they  are  in  transit  36  hours  or  less  the  shrink- 
age will  range  from  3  to  4  per  cent  of  their  live  weight.  The  shrinkage  of 
fed  cattle  does  not  differ  greatly  from  that  of  range  cattle  for  equal  periods 
of  time.     It  varied  from  about  8  per  cent  with  all  of  the   silage-fed  cattle 


ANIMAL   PRODUCTION.  173 

and  4.2  per  cent  with  the  corn-fed  cattle,  when  both  classes  of  these  animals 
were  in  transit  for  less  than  3G  hours,  to  5.4  per  cent  for  the  pulp-fed  cattle 
which  were  in  transit  from  60  to  120  hours.  Cattle  fed  on  silage  have  a  large 
grosB  shrinkage  but  usually  fill  so  well  at  the  market  that  the  net  shrinkage 
is  small.  Pulp-fed  cattle  shrink  more  in  transit  than  any  other  class  of  cattle, 
and  also  present  a  greater  net  shrinkage. 

"  The  shrinkage  on  cattle  is  proiwrtionately  smaller  for  each  12  hours  they 
are  in  transit  after  the  first  24-hour  period  is  passed.  For  a  long  journey  the 
common  method  of  unloading  for  feed,  water,  and  rest  is  to  be  preferred  to  the 
use  of  'feed  and  water'  cars.  Cattle  should  be  weighed  before  being  loaded 
wherever  practicable,  since  a  comparison  of  this  weight  with  the  sale  weight 
will  show  the  net  shrinkage.  Moreover  this  weight  at  point  of  origin  may  be 
of  material  benefit  to  the  shipper  in  case  of  a  wreck  or  a  very  poor  run  to 
market." 

Sheep  farming-  in  North  Am.erica,  J.  A.  Craig  (New  York,  1913,  pp.  XVIII + 
302,  pis.  25,  figs.  3). — The  chapters  included  in  this  book,  which  is  one  of  the 
Kural  Science  Series,  are  the  position  of  sheep  in  profitable  farming;  sheep 
farms  and  their  equipment ;  breeds  of  sheep ;  formation  and  improvement  of  the 
flock;  seasonal  management;  lambing;  fattening;  preparation  of  sheep  for 
show ;  and  diseases. 

Boulonnaise  breed  of  sheep,  J.  Teibondeau  (Jour.  Agr.  Prat.,  n.  ser.,  26 
{1913),  No.  32,  pp.  180,  181,  pi.  i).— This  is  a  brief  description  of  this  breed  of 
sheep  and  its  distribtion  throughout  France  and  portions  of  Europe.  Its  char- 
acteristics are  hardiness  and  rustling  and  pasturing  qualities,  and  its  improve- 
ment and  promotion  is  recommended. 

Fitting"  yearling"  wethers  and  lambs  for  exhibition,  G.  C.  Humphrey  and 
F.  Kleinheinz  (Wisconsin  Sta.  Bui.  232,  pp.  26,  figs.  12). — This  bulletin  is 
intended  as  a  practical  guide  in  the  selection,  fitting,  and  showing  of  yearling 
wethers  and  lambs  for  exhibition,  but  also  reports  experimental  work  in 
feeding. 

In  order  to  study  the  value  of  the  various  grain  rations  during  two  3-year 
fitting  periods  wethers  intended  for  exhibition  at  the  International  Stock  Expo- 
sition were  divided  each  year  into  4  lots  as  uniform  as  possible  with  reference 
to  breed,  size,  and  general  quality.  They  were  fed  alike  as  to  pasture,  hay, 
cabbage,  and  roots.  Grain  feeding  began  August  1  and  continued  to  the  latter 
part  of  November. 

The  results  of  these  feeding  operations  are  summarized  as  follows:  "The 
wethers  fed  peas,  oats,  and  bran  were  awarded  first  place  in  the  carcass  compe- 
tition between  the  various  lots  each  of  the  3  years  of  the  second  period,  and  were 
also  awarded  the  largest  number  of  individual  prizes  at  the  show.  Though 
peas  were  comparatively  expensive,  they  produced  firm  flesh  of  high  quality 
and  also  made  good  gains.  They  are  therefore  highly  recommended  for  show 
fitting  when  fed  in  combination  with  oats  and  bran.  Barley,  oats,  and  bran 
ranked  second  in  the  carcass  competition  between  the  lots,  and  also  in  number 
of  individual  prizes  awarded  in  the  open  classes.  Barley  and  oats  stood  third 
in  point  of  prizes  won  at  the  show  and  also  ranked  third  in  the  carcass  compe- 
tition. This  ration  produced  the  lowest  gains  of  any  fed  during  the  second 
period.  Corn,  oats,  and  bran,  and  corn  and  oats  produced  the  largest  and  most 
economical  gains,  but,  with  a  few  exceptions,  the  wethers  fed  this  ration  were 
inclined  to  be  soft  and  overdone.  Carcasses  from  the  lot  fed  corn,  oats,  and 
bran  were  never  awarded  prizes  in  the  regular  carcass  classes.  Whole  oats  fed 
alone  are  a  most  excellent  feed  for  sheep  which  are  well  advanced  in  flesh,  but 
as  a  rule,  for  sheep  being  fitted  for  fat  classes,  they  are  too  bulky  to  insure  the 
desired  finish." 


174  EXPERIMENT    STATIOX    EECOED. 

A  former  reference  lias  been  made  to  results  obtained  during  the  first  3-year 
period  (E.  S.  R.,  IS,  p.  263). 

Cassava  for  pigs,  J.  L.  Feateue  and  A.  M'olhant  (Miti.  Agr.  et  Trav.  Puh. 
[Belgium^,  Off.  Rural  Raps,  et  Communs.,  1913,  ^'o.  5,  pp.  87-118,  fig.  1). — Four 
pigs  2i  years  old  each  fed  a  daily  ration  of  2.02  kg.  of  cassava,  2.02  kg.  of  a 
mixture  of  bran  and  low-grade  flour,  1.6  kg.  of  mangels,  and  0.18  kg.  of  meat 
meal  for  77  days  made  a  daily  gain  per  head  of  0.53  kg.  (1.17  lbs.).  In  another 
test  5  pigs  each  fed  a  daily  ration  of  1.47  kg.  of  cassava,  1.47  kg.  of  the  bran- 
flour  mixture  and  4.99  kg.  of  skim  milk  for  58  days,  made  a  daily  gain  per  head 
of  0.67  kg.,  and  a  similar  lot  0.62  kg.  per  head.  Methods  and  results  of  analyses 
of  cassava  by  J.  Van  Buggenhout  et  al.  are  given. 

Trials  with  weig'hts  of  fattening*  swine  and  the  "  plucks "  from  these, 
E.  Holm  {Ber.  E.  Vet.  og  Lancl'bohdjskoles  Lai).  Landolcononi.  Forsog  [Copen- 
hagen'],  82  {1913),  pp.  32,  figs.  2). — ^The  average  slaughter  weight  of  400  swine 
at  3  Danish  slaughter  houses  was  70.8  kg.  (warm)  and  69.3  kg.  (cold),  and  of 
the  plucks  (internal  organs  and  offal)  4  kg.  (warm)  and  3.9  kg.  (cold). 

Treatise  on  zootechny. — II,  The  horse,  P.  Dechambre  (Traite  de  Zoo- 
technie. — //,  Les  Equides.  Paris,  1912,  pp.  494,  figs.  68). — The  first  part  of  this 
book  treats  of  the  zoological  classification,  body  conformation,  measurements, 
and  race  characteristics  of  domestic  animals.  The  author  draws  attention  to 
the  fact  that  races  or  breeds  are  characterized  by  their  rectilinear  outlines, 
especially  the  facial  profile;  that  variations  in  morphology  are  noted  In  the 
cephalic  and  body  form  and  in  the  external  features,  such  as  weight,  color, 
horns,  hair,  wool,  or  plumage;  and  that  in  general  there  is  a  harmony  or  coordi- 
nation of  parts. 

In  the  second  part  he  takes  up  a  study  of  the  breeds  of  horses,  classifying 
them  under  3  groups,  viz,  those  with  a  flat  frontal  or  profile,  those  of  concave 
frontal,  and  those  of  convex  profile.  These  groups  are  further  subdivided  and 
classified.  There  follows  a  discussion  of  the  origin,  development,  breed  charac- 
teristics, distribution,  and  utility  value  of  the  different  breeds  of  horses.  The 
breeds  included  in  this  study  are  those  of  Arabia  and  Asia,  Russia  and  Finland, 
Bohemia  and  Tunis,  the  Percheron,  the  Clydesdale,  the  ponies  of  England  and 
Europe,  the  Belgian,  the  Shire,  the  Suffolk,  and  a  number  of  the  rare  breeds  of 
Asia  and  Europe.  There  is  also  given  a  discussion  of  the  "demi-sang"  or 
grades  of  England  and  France,  among  which  are  included  the  army  remounts, 
the  hunters,  hackneys,  and  cobs,  the  Cleveland  Bay,  and  the  Irish  half-breed. 

The  author  also  discusses  the  various  breeds  and  types  of  mules  and  asses, 
both  in  Europe  and  in  Asia,  and  discusses  their  production  from  the  utility 
standpoint.  There  are  included  several  chapters  on  the  feeding,  care,  and  man- 
agement of  breeding  stock ;  and  a  discussion  of  the  problems  connected  with  the 
improvement  of  the  military  remount  service  and  the  government  stud. 

Did  the  horse  exist  in  America  at  the  time  of  the  discovery  of  the  New 
Continent?  E.  Teouessaet  (Rev.  G6n.  Sci.,  24  (1913),  No,  19,  pp.  725-729).— In 
answer  to  this  query  the  author  offers  as  proofs  of  the  early  existence  of  the 
American  horse  (1)  the  records  of  history  dating  back  to  the  Spanish  conquest 
of  Mexico,  at  which  time  native  horses  were  discovered  here;  (2)  evidences 
from  geology  and  paleontology  which  point  to  a  very  primitive  type  of  horse; 
and  (3)  the  physiography  of  the  country  and  the  character  of  American  ani- 
mals, which  indicate  that  America's  close  proximity  to  Asia  facilitated  the 
introduction  of  the  horse  from  that  continent. 

The  feeding  of  farm  horses  (Dept.  Agr.  N.  S.  Wales,  Farmers*  Bui.  64,  pp. 
26). — The  first  portion  of  this  publication  contains  general  Information  on 
horse  feeding,  condensed  from  Henry's  Feeds  and  Feeding  and  other  sources. 
Reports  are  then  given  from  the  i^rincipal  of  the  Hawkesbury  Agricultural  Col- 


DAIRY   FARMING DAIRYING.  175 

lege  and  the  managers  of  experiment  farms  tliroughout  the  State,  describing 
the  methods  of  horse  feeding  in  use  at  these  stations.  The  Information  given 
is  of  an  entirely  practical  nature,  outlining  the  rations  fed  and  the  methods  of 
care  and  management,  including  notes  on  the  treatment  of  horses  for  colic. 

Horse  feeding-  experiments  with  dried  beer  yeast,  O.  von  Czadek  (Ztschr. 
Landw.  Vcrfiuch.sw.  Ostcrr.,  16  (1913),  Xo.  0,  pp.  870-889) .—Th\s  product  proved 
to  be  a  palatable  laxative  feed,  and  especially  adaptable  as  a  supplement  to  oat 
feeding. 

Cotton-seed  meal  as  a  feed  for  laying"  hens,  J.  K.  Morrison  (Mississippi  Sta. 
Bui.  J 62,  pp.  11,  figs.  9). — This  bulletin  is  a  preliminary  report  of  experiments 
in  progress.  Results  of  0  months'  work  tend  to  show  "  that  cotton-seed  meal 
used  as  the  chief  source  of  protein  is  palatable  to  fowls,  and  that  when  fed 
judiciously  on  it  they  will  produce  eggs;  that  hens  fed  on  cotton-seed  meal  will 
produce  eggs  when  eggs  are  highest  in  price:  that  as  far  as  can  be  determined 
the  general  condition  of  the  cotton-seed  meal-fed  fowls  seems  just  as  good  as 
the  condition  of  those  fed  on  beef  scrap;  that  the  tendency  was  to  loose  flesh 
and  not  get  overfat,  although  the  fovN^ls  were  allowed  access  to  the  feed  at  all 
times;  and  that  there  is  a  good  margin  of  profit  from  hens  when  given  a 
properly  balanced  ration." 

Poultry  notes,  1911-1913,  R.  Pearl  {Maine  Sta.  Bui.  216,  pp.  14I-I68,  figs. 
9). — ^This  bulletin  includes  a  general  consideration  of  the  following  items:  The 
value,  method  of  preservation,  and  economical  use  of  hen  manure;  plans  for 
the  construction  of  a  concrete  manure  shed  costing  approximately  $185;  the 
value  and  method  of  construction  of  a  crematory  for  dead  poultry;  the  making 
of  an  improved  range  feed  trough ;  methods  for  the  protection  of  poultry  against 
hawks,  crows,  rats,  and  other  natural  enemies ;  and  the  value  and  method  of 
providing  green  feed  for  poultry. 

The  results  of  technical  studies  relating  to  the  formation  of  the  esf;  and 
previously  reported  from  another  source  (E.  S.  R.,  26,  p.  670)  are  given. 

Mardi  Gras  poultry  in  France,  E.  Brown  {Country  Gent.,  18  {1913),  No.  42, 
pp.  1543,  1544,  fi98.  3). — The  author  describes  the  preparation  of  fancy  poultry 
for  the  ]Mardi  Gras  festival  of  France.  The  Bresse  fowl  stands  in  highest 
favor,  being  a  light-boned  bird  with  excellent  fattening  qualities  and  of  a  deli- 
cate flavor.  La  Fleche  is  a  larger  and  somewhat  heavier  boned  breed,  but  car- 
ries abundant  meat,  which  is  of  a  fine  texture.  Du  Mans  stands  next  in  favor, 
being  fine  and  white  of  skin,  abundantly  fleshed,  and  of  excellent  quality.  The 
Creveceur  fowl  is  compact,  broad,  and  deep,  but  lacking  in  quality.  The  Courtes 
Pattes  fowl  is  a  delicacy,  largely  because  of  its  quality,  texture,  and  fine  flavor. 

Breeders'  and  cockers'  guide,  F.  R.  Glover  {Lisle,  N.  Y.,  1913,  pp.  109, 
figs.  7). — This  booklet  treats  of  the  breeding,  feeding,  care,  and  management  of 
the  breeds  of  poultry  used  for  fighting  and  pit  purposes. 

The  national  standard  squab  book,  E.  C.  Rice  {Boston,  1913,  4-  ^d.,  pp. 
4I6,  figs.  200). — This  is  a  practical  manual  giving  complete  directions  for  the 
installation  and  management  of  a  squab  plant. 

DAIRY  FARMING— DAIRYING. 

Some  practical  results  of  feeding"  experiments,  J.  B.  Lindsey  {Massaeliu- 
setts  Sta.  Rpt.  1912,  pt.  2,  pp.  56-64). — Dairy  cows  were  fed  a  ration  of  hay. 
bran,  gluten  feed,  and  raw  potatoes,  the  latter  being  fed  in  increasing  amounts 
of  from  10  to  50  lbs.  per  day.  The  addition  of  potatoes  in  2  out  of  3  cases 
not  only  checked  the  natural  shrinkage  in  milk  yield  but  actually  increased 
the  flow.  It  is  concluded  from  these  experiments  that  when  potatoes  are  cut 
and  fed  in  amounts  up  to  25  lbs.  per  head  daily  they  in  no  way  affect  the 


176  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

health  of  the  animal  or  the  yield  of  the  milk.  Foreign  observations  on  the 
feeding  of  potatoes  to  steers,  oxen,  milch  cows,  dry  cows,  sheep,  and  horses 
are  referred  to. 

The  use  of  molasses  and  molasses  feeds  for  farm  stocks  is  also  discussed. 

The  food  value  of  plain  and  molasses  beet  pulp,  J.  B.  Lindsey  (Massachu- 
setts 8ta.  Rpt.  1912,  i)ts.  1,  j)p.  129-140;  2,  pp.  64-66).— ^ix  cows  were  fed  by 
the  reversal  method  in  periods  lasting  5  weeks  on  a  basal  ration  of  hay,  bran, 
and  cotton-seed  ]ueal  to  which  was  added  4.3  lbs.  of  either  corn  meal  or  of  beet 
pulp  daily. 

The  herd  lost  in  live  weight  33  lbs.  on  the  corn  meal  ration  and  gained  37  lbs. 
on  the  beet  pulp  ration.  There  was  no  substantial  variation  in  the  yield  or 
average  composition  of  the  milk.  It  required  for  the  corn  meal  ration  112  lbs. 
dry  matter  to  produce  100  lbs.  of  milk,  and  20.51  lbs.  to  produce  1  I'b.  of  milk 
fat ;  for  the  beet  pulp  ration  110.72  lbs.  and  20.54  lbs.,  respectively. 

In  a  similar  experiment  to  the  above  molasses  beet  pulp  and  com  meal  were 
compared.  The  amounts  of  digestible  nutrients  in  each  ration  were  approxi- 
mately the  same.  The  herd  gains  were  similar.  There  was  no  wide  variation 
in  milk  yields  and  only  a  slight  advantage  in  the  production  of  milk  fat  with 
the  corn  meal  ration.  It  required  for  the  corn  meal  ration  104.4  lbs.  dry 
matter  to  produce  100  lbs.  of  milk  and  18.72  lbs.  to  produce  1  lb.  of  fat;  for 
the  molasses  beet  pulp  ration  108.1  and  19.87  lbs.,  resi>ectively. 

The  value  of  oats  for  milk  production,  J.  B.  Lindsey  (Massachusetts  Sta. 
Rpt.  1912,  pt^.  1,  pp.  141-153;  2,  pp.  52-55). — Three  experiments  were  con- 
ducted in  which  2  lots  of  2  cows  each  were  fed  for  alternate  periods  of  4  weeks 
each,  with  1  week  between  periods,  on  like  amounts  of  a  basal  ration  of  hay 
and  bran  to  which  w^as  added  a  like  amount  of  either  corn  meal  or  ground 
oats. 

The  average  gain  made  in  live  weight  with  both  systems  was  practically  the 
same,  and  the  yields  of  milk  and  of  milk  ingredients  were  nearly  identical. 
However,  it  is  believed  that  the  allowance  of  the  basal  ration  was  too  large, 
thus  furnishing  an  excess  of  nourishment  and  tending  to  invalidate  the  results 
of  the  exxieriment. 

The  feed  cost  of  milk  and  of  milk  fat  was  for  the  com  meal  ration  $1.40 
per  100  lbs.  of  milk  and  24.5  cts.  per  pound  of  fat ;  and  the  oat  ration  $1.46  per 
100  lbs.  of  milk  and  25.6  cts.  per  pound  of  fat.  "  While  oats  are  a  valuable  food, 
it  is  not  believed  they  can  usually  be  fed  economically  to  dairy  animals  in 
Massachusetts." 

Feeding  experiments  with  milch  cows,  A.  Carlier  (Min.  Agr.  ct  Trav.  Pub. 
[Belgium^,  Off.  Rural  Raps,  et  Comniuns.,  1913,  Xo.  5,  pp.  39-50). — This  gives 
detailed  data  concerning  2  experiments  conducted  in  1912  and  a  summary  of 
4  years'  experiments  in  which  comparisons  were  made  of  the  feeding  value  of 
cotton-seed  meal  and  coconut  meal.  On  the  whole,  it  was  found  that  cotton- 
seed meal  was  more  advantageous  from  the  standpoint  of  milk  production  but 
that  coconut  meal  apparently  produced  a  slightly  richer  milk  and  more  butter. 

Niger  cake  for  milch  cows,  E.  Warsage  (Min.  Agr.  et  Trav.  Pud.  [Belgium'], 
Off.  Rural  Raps,  et  Communs.,  1913,  No.  5,  pp.  51-54). — On  a  ration  of  hay, 
straw,  mangels,  bran,  and  wheat  2  cows  for  5  days  before  and  10  days  after  an 
experimental  period  of  30  days  gave  a  daily  average  per  cow  of  8.17  liters 
(about  8.6  qt.)  of  milk  testing  2.59  per  cent  of  fat.  During  the  30-day  period 
in  which  the  above  ration  was  supplemented  with  from  1  to  2  kg.  of  niger  cake 
the  average  milk  production  was  8.5  liters  testing  3.08  per  cent  fat.  The  cows 
gained  13  kg.  and  36  kg.,  respectively,  in  weight  during  the  30  days.  An  analy- 
sis of  the  niger  cake  is  given. 


I 


DAIRY  FARMING DAIRYING.  177 

Feeding-  experiments  with  hay  and  varying  amounts  of  protein  feeds  for 
the  dairy  cow,  J.  J.  Ott  Dp:  \'uii:s  {\'crsl(t(j  Ver.  Exphrit.  Proefzuivelbocrilerij 
Hoorn,  1912,  pp.  15-37). — In  these  experiments  the  protein-rich  feeds  proved 
more  expensive  without  yielding  an  appreciable  increase  of  milli;  over  the  pro- 
tein-poor feed,  and  resulted  in  a  lower  milk  fat  percentage. 

North  Carolina  dairy  herd  records,  W.  II.  Eaton  {Bui.  N.  C.  Dcpt.  Agr., 
34  (1913),  ^o.  5,  pp.  30,  figs.  5). — Yearly  tests  of  14  North  Carolina  dairy  herds, 
comprising  in  all  144  cows,  are  reported. 

Comparing  the  economy  of  production  as  between  large  and  moderate  pro- 
ducers, it  was  found  that  the  cows  averaging  374  lbs.  of  milk  fat  per  annum 
gave  annual  profits  of  $68.71  per  cow,  and  produced  milk  fat  at  a  cost  of  17 
cts.  per  ix)und,  while  cows  averaging  165  lbs.  of  milk  fat  gave  profits  of  $19.85, 
and  the  milk  fat  cost  25  cts.  per  pound. 

Report  of  the  Richmond-Lewiston  Cow  Testing"  Association,  \\.  E.  Car- 
boll  (Utah  Sta.  Bid.  127,  pp.  193-2^2,  figs.  S).— During  a  2  years'  test,  involving 
26  herds,  the  average  yearly  milk  yield  of  the  highest  herd  was  9,085  lbs.,  and 
the  lowest  4.916  lbs. ;  the  corresponding  average  yields  of  milk  fat  were  ooO.l 
and  197  lbs.  During  this  period  the  average  cost  of  feed  for  the  highest  pro- 
ducing herd  was  $44.19  per  year ;  for  the  lowest  $34.21,  while  the  profit  realized 
from  the  former  w^ns  $69.96,  and  the  latter  $33.61.  A  wide  variation  was  found 
in  the  yield  of  milk  fat  and  net  returns  between  cows  in  the  same  herd.  The 
difference  in  milk-fat  between  the  most  and  least  profitable  cow  in  each  herd 
ranged  from  40.07  to  324.7  lbs. 

In  studying  the  effect  of  length  of  lactation  period  upon  total  milk-fat  yield 
it  was  found  that  beginning  with  a  dry  period  of  2  months  the  yield  gradually 
decreased  from  272.7  to  121.7  lbs.  when  the  cows  were  dry  6  months  or  over 
during  the  year.  No  correlation  was  noted  between  the  amount  of  fat  pro- 
duced the  first  month  and  the  annual  record.  Dairy-bred  cows  led  the  scrubs 
in  yearly  production  and  in  amount  of  fat  given  the  first  month  of  lactation 
and  showed  a  decided  tendency  toward  a  longer  lactation  period.  The  data 
indicated  that  a  cow  for  highest  production  should  be  dry  longer  than  one 
month,  but  that  a  rest  longer  than  2  months  adds  nothing  to  her  powers  of  pro- 
duction. Lactation  periods  of  various  lengths  from  7  to  18.5  months,  provided 
they  are  preceded  and  followed  by  normal  dry  periods  in  all  cases,  seemed  to 
yield  the  same  fat  and  profit  in  any  given  length  of  time. 

Cows  freshening  in  the  fall  produced  on  the  average  45.1  lbs.  more  fat  and 
returned  $9.43  more  profit  above  cost  of  feed  during  the  next  12  months  than 
cows  freshening  in  the  spring.  The  cost  of  feed  was  $5.33  more  per  head  for 
the  cows  calving  in  the  fall. 

The  highest  producers  were  the  most  profitable.  There  was  a  uniform  de- 
crease in  net  returns  with  a  decreasing  milk-fat  production. 

Dairy  industry  in  northern  Europe,  G.  Guittonneau  (Ann.  Inst.  Nat. 
Agron.,  2.  ser.,  12  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  41-178,  figs.  55).— Part  1  of  this  report  gives 
the  results  of  a  study  of  the  dairy  industry  in  north  Germany.  Denmark,  the 
Netherlands,  and  Sweden.  In  a  study  of  the  milk  supply  of  large  cities  the 
author  deals  especially  with  Copenhagen  and  Stockholm.  In  a  chapter  on  the 
manufacture  of  butter  and  cheese  descriptions  are  given  of  a  number  of 
creameries  and  of  the  newer  forms  of  creamery  equipment  and  machinery. 
Notes  are  also  given  on  the  manufacture  of  casein,  milk  sugar,  and  powdered 
milk. 

Part  2  deals  with  the  organization  of  the  export  trade  in  milk  products  in 
the  Netherlands,  Denmark,  and  Sweden. 

Report  of  the  sanitary  inspector  of  the  State  of  Idaho,  1911—12,  J.  H. 
Wallis   {Bien.  Rpt.  Idaho  Dairy,  Food  and  Sanit.  Insp.  and  State  Chem.,  5 


178  EXPERIMENT    STATION    RECORD. 

{1911-12),  pp.  19-32,  129-153,  pis.  4). — This  is  a  report  on  the  analysis  and 
condition  of  samples  of  commercial  butter,  cream,  milk,  ice  cream,  and  con- 
densed milk.  There  is  also  included  a  statistical  report  on  the  number  of  cows 
milked,  the  average  yield,  grade  of  stock,  stock  water  supply,  and  the  scoring 
of  a  number  of  Idaho  dairy  farms. 

Report  of  the  feed  and  dairy  section,  P.  H.  Smith  {Massachusetts  Sta. 
Rpt.  1912,  in.  1,  pp.  ii8-i28).— This  includes  the  text  of  an  act  to  regulate  the 
use  of  utensils  for  testing  the  composition  or  value  of  milk  and  cream ;  also  a 
summary  of  inspection  work  with  glassware,  etc. 

The  ductal  system  of  the  milk  glands  of  the  bovine,  O.  Wirz  {Arcli.  Wiss. 
iL  Pralzt.  TierheUk.,  39  {1913),  No.  4-5,  pp.  375-421,  figs.  7).— This  is  an  elab- 
orate treatise  on  the  anatomy  of  the  milk  glands  and  the  nature  of  milk  secre- 
tion in  the  bovine,  dealing  with  the  constitution  and  function  of  the  alveoli, 
the  relation  of  milk  secretion  and  the  blood  streams,  the  ductal  system  and  its 
functions,  the  occurrence  of  leucocytes,  the  consistency  of  the  udder,  and  the 
size  and  nature  of  the  milk  cistern.    A  bibliography  of  25  references  is  appended. 

[Factors  affecting*  the  composition  of  milk],  J.  Aueousseau  and  L.  J. 
PoNsCxVRME  {Ann,.  Ecole  Nat.  Agr.  Grignon,  3  {1912),  pp.  73-106). — This  is  a 
series  of  papers  on  the  composition  of  milk  from  the  standpoint  of  milk  in- 
spection, as  follows : 

Influence  of  feeding  stuffs  on  the  composition  of  milk  (pp.  73-81).  Two  cows 
on  pasture  supplemented  with  hay.  bran,  mangels,  and  linseed  cake,  with  straw 
ad  libitum,  for  5  days  gave  a  daily  average  of  15  liters  (about  15.9  qt.)  of  milk 
each,  containing  4.43  per  cent  milk  fat  and  9.03  pei'  cent  solids-not-fat.  The 
supplemental  feeds  were  then  withheld  and  the  cows  had  the  run  of  pasture 
with  straw  ad  libitum  for  6  days,  during  which  their  average  milk  production 
was  18.6  liters  each,  containing  3.53  per  cent  fat  and  8.74  per  cent  solids-not-fat. 
These  results  were  confirmed  in  a  test  with  4  cows  the  following  year.  In 
another  test  with  4  cows  for  3  days  on  a  ration  of  dry  fodders,  bran,  and  scant 
pasture,  the  average  daily  milk  yield  per  cow  was  10.37  kg.  with  an  average 
composition  of  4.02  per  cent  milk  fat  and  (the  first  and  third  days  only)  9.13 
per  cent  solids-not-fat.  These  cows  were  then  fed  a  ration  of  turnips  with  oat 
straw  ad  libitum  for  6  days,  during  which  their  average  milk  production  was 
12.35  kg.  each  with  an  average  composition  of  3.5  per  cent  milk  fat  and  8.77  per 
cent  solids-not-fat. 

Composition  of  first  and  last  draicn  milk  (pp.  87-90).  Analyses  are  reported 
of  the  first  and  last  portions  of  milk  drawn  into  separate  receptacles.  Of  the 
first  half  of  2  milkings  the  fat  content  was  1.51  per  cent,  the  solids-not-fat 
9.45  per  cent.  The  correspondmg  percentages  for  the  last  half  of  the  2  milk- 
ings were  4.86  and  9.04. 

Influence  of  spontaneous  creaming  on  the  composition  of  milk  (pp.  91-96). 
In  a  test  with  5  liters  of  fresh  milk  testing  3.9  per  cent  fat  and  9.08  per  cent 
solids-not-fat,  a  sample  of  1  liter  poured  off  at  the  end  of  li  hours  tested  4.5 
per  cent  fat  and  8.78  per  cent  solids-not-fat.  A  second  liter  poured  off  at  the 
end  of  2^  hours  tested  3.8  per  cent  fat  and  9.19  per  cent  solids-not-fat.  Two 
liters  poured  off  at  the  end  of  3*  hours  tested  4.35  per  cent  fat  and  8.87  per 
cent  solids-not-fat.  The  remaining  milk  tested  2.5  per  cent  fat  and  9.65  per 
cent  solids-not-fat.  In  another  test  the  milk  remaining  after  the  withdrawal 
of  the  third  sample  tested  2.2  per  cent  less  fat  than  the  original  milk.  This 
milk,  after  being  subjected  to  these  2  tests,  was  heated  to  30°  C.  and  the  test 
repeated.  After  the  withdrawal  of  the  third  sample  the  remaining  milk  tested 
only  0.4  per  cent  less  in  fat  than  the  original  milk. 

Influence  of  potassium  tromid  on  the  composition  of  milk  (pp.  97-106). 
Doses  of  20,  25,  and  30  gm.  of  potassium  bromid  fed  to  cows  had  no  appreciable 


DAIRY   FARMING DAIRYING.  179 

effect  on  the  quantity  or  fat  content  of  tlie  milk.  Tlie  bromid  was  found  in 
the  millv  14  hours  after  ingestion  and  for  more  than  2  days  after  the  last  dose. 
In  another  test  with  2  cows  the  ingestion  of  GO  gm.  of  potassium  bromid  was 
followed  by  diminished  milk  production  and  a  reduction  of  fat  content.  This 
reaction  was  rapid,  in  no  case  persisting  for  more  than  36  hours  after  the  dose- 
After  the  effects  of  the  bromid  had  passed  off  the  fat  content  of  the  milk  rose 
rapidly  above  the  normal,  indicating  that  potassium  bromid  has  a  restraining 
effect  on  fat  secretion.  Complete  analyses  are  given  of  these  milks  before  and 
after  the  ingestion  of  bromid. 

The  viscosity  of  cream,  F.  K.  M.  Dumaresq  (Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  Victoria,  n. 
ser.,  25  {1913),  No.  2,  pp.  307-322,  figs.  5). — Results  of  experiments  testing  the 
viscosity  of  cream  under  different  conditions  are  summarized  as  follows: 

"(1)  The  main  factors  instrumental  in  varying  the  viscosity  of  cream  are 
acidity,  temperature,  and  fat  content,  and  of  these  three  the  first  holds  the  most 
important  place.  (2)  An  increase  in  acidity  produces  very  little  effect  on  vis- 
cosity of  cream,  up  to  the  *  critical  point,'  at  which  a  sudden  sharp  rise  in 
viscosity  occurs.  (3)  The  change  in  viscosity  of  separated  milk  at  the  degree 
of  acidity  corresponding  to  the  *  critical  acidity '  of  cream  is  very  slight,  i.  e., 
for  separated  milk  there  is  no  critical  acidity,  proving  that  this  is  a  property 
of  the  fat  globule,  or  rather  of  its  envelope.  (4)  An  increase  in  temperature 
of  cream  diminishes  its  viscosity,  at  first  rapidly,  afterwards  at  a  slower  rate. 
(5)  The  viscosity  of  cream  is  a  quadratic  function  of  the  fat  content,  if  the 
other  factors  remain  constant." 

On  the  influence  of  different  factory  methods  on  the  water  content  of 
the  curd  of  Edam  cheese,  W.  Van  Dam  (Vcrslag  Ver.  Exploit.  Froefzuivel- 
hoerderij  Hoorn,  1912,  pp.  8/^-91). — In  these  tests  the  moisture  content  ranged 
from  46.8  to  52  per  cent.  Poorly  coagulated  curd  tested  higher  than  normal 
curd.  The  addition  of  calcium  chlorid  increased  the  moisture  content,  whereas 
longer  standing  reduced  it.  Working  the  curd  at  a  high  temperature,  29°  C. 
(80.6°  F.),  resulted  in  a  higher  moisture  test  than  working  at  2G.G°.  A  low 
heating  temperature,  33.5°,  was  also  conducive  to  a  higher  moisture  test. 

On  the  faulty  "  Knijpers  "  in  Edam  cheese,  F.  W.  J.  Boekhout  ( Verslag 
Ver.  Exploit.  Proefzuivelboerderij  Hoorn,  1912,  pp.  92-102). — The  diseased 
condition  sometimes  found  in  Edam  cheese  affected  with  cracks  or  faulty  for- 
mation is  known  as  "  Knijpers."  The  cracks  or  rents  occur  as  the  result  of  the 
formation  of  gases  due  to  a  bacterium  which  has  been  isolated.  As  a  preven- 
tive for  the  occurrence  of  this  gas  the  addition  to  the  cheese  of  a  small  quantity 
of  potassium  nitrate  is  suggested. 

Wensleydale  cheese.  Miss  G.  N.  Davies  {Jour.  Agr.  [Neto  Zeal.],  7  {1913), 
No.  2,  pp.  lJf7-lJf9). — Directions  are  given  for  the  manufacture  of  Wensleydale 
cheese,  which  is  described  as  a  very  mellow,  rich,  finely  flavored,  and  blue 
molded  cheese,  resembling  the  Stilton  variety. 

Some  investigations  of  parchment  paper,  S.  Hals  and  S.  Heggenhatjgen 
(Norsk  Landmandshlad,  32  {1913),  No.  31,  pp.  369-37 1) .—The  results  of 
chemical  and  physical  examinations  of  a  dozen  samples  of  parchment  paper  used 
for  dairy  purposes  are  given  and  discussed.  The  determinations  included  color, 
smoothness  of  surface,  weight  per  square  meter,  ash  in  paper  and  in  water- 
soluble  substances,  total  water-soluble  substances,  sugar,  boric  acid,  magnesium 
chlorid,  and  moisture.  Seven  of  the  samples  contained  from  14.2  to  26  per  cent 
of  water-soluble  substances,  and  4  contained  from  13.2  to  14.5  per  cent  of  reduc- 
ing sugars. 


180  EXPERIMENT   STATION   RECORD. 

VETEEINARY  MEDICINE. 

Report  of  the  civil  veterinary  department,  Eastern  Bengal  and  Assam, 
for  the  year  1910-11,  W.  Harris  {Rpt.  Civ.  Yet.  Dept.  East.  Bengal  arid 
Assam,  1910-11,  pp.  2+28+2). — This  report  includes  an  account  of  the  occur- 
rence of  the  more  important  diseases  of  animals,  preventive  inoculations,  breed- 
ing operations,  etc. 

S-eport  of  the  civil  veterinary  department,  Assam,  for  the  year  1912—13, 
S.  G.  M.  HicKEY  {Rpt.  Civ.  Yet.  Dept.  Assam,  1912-13,  pp.  3+23+1).— A  report 
similar  to   the  above. 

The  diagnosis  of  newly  lactating*  animals  according  to  Schern's  method, 
E.  Weber  {Ztschr.  Tiermed.,  17  (1913),  No,  5,  pp.  205-209) .—Following  studies 
of  Schern's  method  (E.  S.  II.,  21,  p.  614)  the  author  states  that  if  an  initial 
milk  decolorizes  the  formaldehyde  methylene  blue  solution  ( Schardinger's  re- 
agent) within  10  to  12  minutes,  it  may  be  concluded  that  it  comes  from  an 
animal  in  an  advanced  state  of  lactation.  If  the  reagent  is  not  decolorized, 
however,  or  if  the  milk  contains  strippings,  no  conclusion  can  be  drawn. 

The  use  of  pituitary  extract  in  bovine  and  equine  obstetrics,  H.  Schmidt 
and  M.  Kopp  (Ahs.  in  Yet.  Rec.,  26  {1913),  No.  1316,  pp.  199,  200).— This  is  a 
report  of  six  cases  in  which  very  satisfactory  results  were  obtained. 

Serum-therapy  in  practice,  A.  R.  Menary  (Amer.  Yet.  Rev.,  43  (1913), 
No.  3,  pp.  284-286). — This  details  the  author's  experiences  in  tuberculin  testing 
and  with  antistrangles  vaccine,  canine  distemper  bacterin,  blackleg  vaccine, 
polyvalent  bacterins,  and  hog  cholera  vaccine. 

Natural  variation  of  Bacillus  acidi  lactici  with  respect  to  the  production 
of  gas  from  carbohydrates,  J.  A.  Arkweight  (Jour.  Hyg.  [Cambridge],  13 
(1913),  No.  1,  pp.  68-86). — "A  bacillus  belonging  to  the  B.  acidi  lactici  group 
has  been  repeatedly  isolated  during  11  months  from  the  urine  of  one  patient, 
and  no  other  Gram-negative  bacillus  has  been  found  in  the  same  urine  during 
this  period.  The  bacillus  has  occurred  in  2  varieties  which  differed  as  regards 
gas  formation  only.  Variety  I  formed  gas  from  sugars  and  alcohols,  and 
Variety  II  formed  acid  and  no  gas  from  the  same  sugars  and  alcohols.  The  2 
varieties  gave  identical  serum  reactions  both  as  regards  agglutination  and  ab- 
sorption of  agglutinins  with  specific  sera  prepared  from  rabbits  immunized  with 
the  respective  varieties.  Intermediate  varieties  as  regards  gas  production  also 
occurred,  but  were  not  constant  when  subcultured.  Varieties  I  and  II  remained 
constant  in  their  characters  after  4  months'  subculture  on  broth  and  agar. 
Variety  II,  which  at  first  did  not  produce  gas  from  sugars,  was  induced  to  do 
so  by  first  growing  in  a  solution  of  sodium  formate  in  broth." 

The  action  of  the  protein  poison  on  dogs:  A  study  in  anaphylaxis,  C.  W. 
Edmunds  (Ztschr.  Immunitatsf.  u.  Expt.  Ther.,  I,  Orig.,  17  (1913),  No.  2, 
pp.  105-134,  figs.  4)' — Tbis  article  indicates  that  the  symptoms  produced  by  the 
injection  of  the  poisonous  portion  of  the  protein  molecule  are  practically  the 
same  as  those  which  are  noted  in  acute  anaphylaxis,  with  the  exception  that 
in  the  last-named  case  the  blood  loses  its  coagulating  power. 

About  the  specificity  and  the  diagnostic  value  of  the  Ascoli  thermo- 
precipitin  reaction  for  detecting  hematic  carbunculosis  and  erysipelas,  G. 
FiNzi  (CentU.  Balct.  [etc.},  1.  Aht.,  Orig.,  68  (1913),  No.  5-6,  pp.  556-562).— 
The  author  concludes  that  the  thermoprecipitin  reaction  has  no  specific  value 
for  the  diagnosis  of  either  hematic  carbunculosis  (anthrax)  or  erysipelas.  Ex- 
tracts of  the  organs  of  animals  affected  with  carbunculosis  give  a  zonal  reac- 
tion with  a  specific  erysipelas  serum,  and  derivatives  of  the  Bacillus  suipestifer 
and  the  products  of  the  Preisz-Nocard  bacillus  also  show  a  specific  reaction. 
Sera  from  sound  horses,  heated  from  6  to  12  to  48  hours  at  from  55  to  56°  C, 


VETERINARY   MEDICINE.  181 

react  with  the  organ  extracts  from  animals  affected  with  anthrax,  as  do  also 
normal  sera  of  bovines,  rabbits,  and  griiinea  pigs.  Egg  white  behaves  toward 
the  derivatives  in  the  same  way. 

A  specific  reaction  can  be  obtained  with  extracts  of  the  epiploon,  heart,  liver, 
or  spleen  of  guinea  pigs  affected  with  carbunculosis.  The  extracts  of  the 
epiploon  were  more  active  than  those  of  the  spleen. 

Thermoprecipitation  in  anthrax,  Z.  Szymanowski  and  J.  Zagaja  {Ztschr. 
Infektionskrank.  u.  II yg.  Ilaustiere,  12  (1912),  No.  3,  pp.  256-265;  abs.  in 
Ztschr.  Immunitatsf.  u.  Expt.  Ther.,  II,  Ref.,  6  {1913),  No.  8,  p.  719).— A  group 
of  animals  is  described  in  which  69  were  suspected  of  having  anthrax.  Of 
these,  33  gave  a  positive  and  22  a  negative  precipitin  test.  These  findings  were 
verified  by  the  bacteriological  examination.  In  11  cases  the  thermoprecipitin 
reaction  showed  positive  when  the  bacteriological  test  showed  negative,  but  in 
only  3  cases  did  the  thermoprecipitin  test  show  negative  when  positive  results 
were  found  bacteriologically. 

Anthrax  vaccination,  its  use  and  abuse,  J.  A.  Goodwin  (Amer.  Vet.  Rev., 
43  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  267-275)  .—This  discusses  the  reasons  for  failure  in 
anthrax  vaccination,  the  kinds  of  animals  to  vaccinate,  points  to  be  considered 
in  immunizing  animals,  impotency  of  some  vaccines,  the  advisability  of  hyper- 
immunizing  animals,  abuse  of  anthrax  vaccination,  and  the  promiscuous  distri- 
bution of  vaccines  and  other  biological  products  by  unreliable  parties. 

Feeding"  experiments  with  the  vii-us  of  infectious  bulbar  paralysis,  S.  voN 
Ratz  (Ztschr.  Infektionskrank.  u.  Ilyg.  Haustiere,  13  (1913),  No.  1-2,  pp. 
1-7). — The  experiments  showed  that  the  virus  of  this  disease  may  be  ingested 
by  mice  and  Carnivora  in  infected  food  and  the  disease  produced  in  this  v/ay. 
Five  of  11  cats  and  dogs  fed  upon  virulent  material  died. 

The  relationship  between  the  paratyphoid  infections  in  man  and  in 
animals,  D.  A.  de  Jong  (Rev.  G4n.  MM.  V^t.,  22  (1913),  No.  255-256,  pp.  117- 
123;  abs.  in  Jour.  Compar.  Path,  and  Ther.,  26  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  266-26S) .—The 
author  concludes  that  "  bacterial  diseases  of  animals  slaughtered  for  meat  can 
only  be  considered  as  the  cause  of  meat  poisoning  in  very  exceptional  cases. 
The  organisms  in  question  occur  in  nature  as  saprophytes  and  are  to  some  extent 
excreted  by  diseased  or  healthy  men  and  animals  (carriei*s).  They  can  be 
found  normally  in  healthy  men  and  animals.  In  such  cases  they  may  be  the 
cause  of  secondary  infections.  They  can  infect  the  carcasses  or  animal  prod- 
ucts of  even  healthy  animals,  but  more  particularly  the  carcasses  and  products 
of  diseased  animals,  because  these  form  a  particularly  favorable  culture  medium 
for  the  organisms." 

Some  peculiar  and  probably  specific  bodies  in  the  erythrocytes  in  rinder- 
pest and  another  allied  disease,  W.  L.  Braddon  et  al.  (Parasitology,  6  (1913), 
No.  3,  pp.  265-275,  pi.  1). — The  bodies  here  described  have  been  invariably 
found  by  the  author  in  all  cases  of  typical  acute  i-inderpest  during  the  febrile 
stages  and  in  the  great  majority  of  the  cases  for  long  periods  up  to  S  months 
after  recovery  has  taken  place. 

"The  occurrence  of  a  body  of  special,  and  within  certain  limits,  uniform 
mon^hology  has  been  demonstrated  in  the  red  corpuscles  of  animals  affected 
with  rinderpest.  The  movements  of  the  body,  the  evidence  of  its  growth  pari 
passu  with  the  development  of  the  disease,  and  above  all  its  reproduction  in 
animals  in  which  it  was  not  previously  present  on  the  inoculation  of  material 
containing  it,  are  evidence  of  its  being  a  living  and  independent  organism.  Its 
detected  presence  (so  far)  only  in  animals  which  at  the  time  have,  or  which 
probably  have  had,  rinderpest  recently,  and  its  entire  absence  from  animals 
highly  susceptible  to  the  disease,  but  known  not  to  have  had  it  or  to  have  been 
exposed  to  infection,  affords  a  presumption  that  the  body  is  si^ecifically  related 


182  EXPERIMENT  STATION   EECOED. 

to  the  disorder,  or  in  other  words  represents  a  stage  in  the  life  history  of  the 
specific  infective  agent;  or,  it  may  be,  a  culture  form  .  .  .  The  specific  body 
resembles  no  parasite  of  which  the  life  history  is  so  far  known  .  .  . 

"  The  second  body  described  affords  evidence  of  the  existence  of  a  second 
specific  complaint  which  may  be  and  probably  has  been  in  the  past  confused 
with  true  rinderpest.  It  would  be  important  to  determine  if  animals  affected 
by  the  second  complaint  when  they  have  recovered  are  still  susceptible  to  true 
rinderpest.     The  second  body  also  is  a  new  form." 

About  a  supposed  neutralization  of  the  activity  of  tetanus  toxin  by  neurin 
or  betain,  V.  Adsersen  (Ztschr.  Imminiitdtsf.  u.  Expt.  Ther.,  I,  Orig.,  17  {1913), 
No.  2,  PI).  135-140). — Either  neurin  or  betain  hydrochlorid  is  capable  of  neutral- 
izing tetanus  toxin,  but  this  is  not  due  to  any  specific  property  of  the  two  sub- 
stances but  rather  to  the  inhibition  of  an  acid  or  an  alkali.  If  an  acid  or  an 
alkali  is  added  to  tetanus  toxin,  no  toxic  results  are  produced. 

On  "  tick  paralysis  "  in  sheep  and  man  following  bites  of  Dermacentor 
venustus,  with  notes  on  the  biolog-y  of  the  tick,  S.  Hadwen  (Parasitology, 
6  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  283-297,  pis.  2).— '"Tick  paralysis'  occurs  in  British 
Columbia  and  affects  man,  sheep,  and  probably  other  animals.  The  disease 
is  caused  by  the  bites  of  D.  venustus.  It  is  usually  of  short  duration,  is  benign 
in  character,  but  occasionally  it  persists  for  long  periods,  and  may  terminate 
fatally.  From  an  economic  point  of  view  the  disease  is  of  some  importance  to 
the  sheep  industry.  The  causative  agent  has  not  been  discovered,  and  the 
disease  has  not  been  reproduced  by  inoculation.  The  most  likely  hypothesis 
is  that  the  tick  injects  a  toxin  which  gives  rise  to  symptoms  appearing  coin- 
cidentally  with  the  complete  engorgement  of  the  tick.  In  three  consecutive  cases, 
experimentally  produced  by  me  in  lambs,  paralysis  occurred  6  to  7  days  after 
the  ticks  were  put  on.  In  no  case  did  I  fail  to  produce  paralysis  through  the 
agency  of  the  tick  bites.  It  has  been  proved  that  D.  venustus  usually  bites 
sheep  along  the  backbone;  possibly  the  point  of  attachment  may  have  some 
bearing  on  the  symptoms  or  severity  of  the  case." 

Experimental  "  tick  paralysis  "  in  the  dog-,  S.  Hadwen  and  G.  H.  F.  Nut- 
tall  {ParasitUogy,  6  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  298-301) .—This  is  a  report  of  experi- 
ments in  which  "tick  paralysis"  was  experimentally  produced  in  a  dog  at 
Cambridge  through  the  application  of  a  single  Dermacentor  venustus  female 
from  Canada.  The  disease  is  said  to  be  the  same  as  that  observed  in  sheep 
and  described  in  the  paper  above  noted.  The  examination  of  the  dog's  blood 
proved  negative. 

The  chemistry  of  tuberculin,  G.  Lockemann  {Hoppe-Seyler's  Ztschr. 
Physiol.  Ghent:,  73  {1911),  No.  5,  pp.  389-397;  ahs.  in  CentU.  Bakt.  [etc.'\,  1. 
AU.,  Ref.,  52  {1912),  No.  1-2,  pp.  37). — If  tubercle  bacilli  are  grown  in  a  medium 
containing  asparagin  as  the  only  source  of  nitrogen,  protein-like  substances 
are  developed  in  the  culture  medium  which  are  supposed  to  originate  from  the 
tubercle  bacillus ;  consequently  the  author  believes  that  the  metabolic  products 
elaborated  by  the  tubercle  bacillus  are  somewhat  dependent  upon  the  make-up 
of  the  medium  in  which  they  are  cultivated. 

Contribution  to  the  chemistry  of  the  tubercle  bacillus. — A  preliminary 
report,  E.  Lowenstein  {GentU.  Bakt.  [etc.},  1.  AM.,  Orig.,  68  {1913),  No.  7, 
pp.  591-593). — ^As  an  initial  step  in  determining  whether  the  composition  of 
tuberculin  wag  dependent  upon  the  nutrient  solution  used  for  cultivating  the 
tubercle  bacillus,  an  attempt  was  made  to  find  a  simpler  nutrient  solution  than 
has  heretofore  been  used  for  preparing  tuberculin.  A  nutrient  solution  com- 
posed of  ammonium  phosphate,  glycerin,  and  distilled  water  was  prepared  and 
inoculated  with  the  tubercle  bacillus.  Some  controls  received  an  addition  of 
0.4  per  cent  of  either  sodium  chlorid,  potassium  chlorid,  or  potassium  sulphate. 


VETERINARY   MEDICINE.  183 

The  greatest  growth  was  noted  in  the  ammonium  phosphate  flask.  The  flask 
containing  the  sodium  chlorid  in  addition  showed  a  lesser  growth,  but  it  was 
greater  than  the  flask  containing  potassium  chlorid;  consequently  the  presence 
of  potassium,  sodium,  chlorin,  or  sulphur  is  deemed  unnecessary  for  the  growth 
of  the  tubercle  bacillus.  The  synthetic  tuberculin  so  obtained  was  found  to  be 
as  active  as  that  prepared  in  an  asparagin  medium. 

Experiments  in  regard  to  the  inhalation  of  tuberculous  material  from 
man  by  the  cat,  P.  Ciiausse  {Compt.  Rend.  Soc.  Biol.  lPa)is],  12  {1912), 
Xo.  2,  pp.  50-52;  abs.  in  CentU.  BaJct.  [etc.],  1.  Abt.,  Ref.,  52  {1912),  No.  U, 
p.  426)- — The  inhalation  tests,  which  are  a  continuation  of  those  previously 
reported  (E.  S.  R.,  26,  p.  179;  29,  p.  ITS),  were  conducted  in  a  small  specially 
constructed  chamber,  with  cats  of  various  ages  kept  side  by  side  with  guinea 
pigs  and  dogs.  Out  of  14  cats  only  4  became  infected.  The  tubercular  changes 
produced  were  in  most  instances  only  slight  but  in  others  quite  extensive. 
According  to  this  there  soems  to  be  a  great  difference  in  regard  to  the  recep- 
tivity of  cats  to  this  disease. 

Two  cases  of  spontaneous  tuberculosis  in  the  rabbit  caused  by  the  avian 
tubercle  bacillus,  L.  Codbett  {Jour.  Compar.  Path,  and  Titer.,  26  {1913),  No.  1, 
pp.  33-JfO,  figs.  4). — "As  tuberculosis  caused  by  one  or  the  other  type  of  mam- 
malian tubercle  bacilli  is  not  confined  entirely  to  mammals,  but  may  occur  in 
the  parrot,  the  raven  (Rabinowitsch),  and  probably  also  in  the  canary  and 
sparrow,  so  tuberculosis  caused  by  the  avian  tubercle  bacillus  is  not  limited  to 
birds,  but  may  sometimes  be  found  in  the  pig,  the  mouse,  and  perhaps  in  man 
and  the  ape  also." 

In  this  paper  two  cases  of  natural  infection  of  rabbits,  which  were  kept  in  the 
same  yard  with  a  number  of  guinea  pigs  and  tubercular  fowls,  are  described. 
Cultural  investigations  and  the  results  of  autopsies  are  included. 

Subcutaneous  tuberculosis  in  bovines,  C.  Perard  and  G.  Ramon  {BuI.  Soc. 
Cent.  Al^d.  V4t.,  90  {1913),  No.  8,  pp.  167-174).— Under  the  name  "  subcutaneous 
tuberculosis  "  the  authors  designate  not  only  the  disease  caused  by  hypodermic 
Injections  but  also  the  condition  which  is  produced  by  the  process  of  extension 
whereby  the  organisms  enter  the  superficial  fibers  of  the  muscles.  The  lesions 
in  this  area  were  found  to  differ  markedly  in  their  macroscopic  aspects  from 
those  usually  noted  in  classical  tuberculosis.  They  resemble  somewhat  the 
metastases  which  occur  in  cancer,  and  those  in  sporotrichoses  or  blastomycoses. 
The  diagnosis  on  the  cadaver  is  rather  diflicult. 

The  findings  with  some  cnses  of  this  variety  of  tuberculosis  are  given. 

Investigations  in  regard  to  the  specific  action  of  tuberculosis  serum  by 
mixing  tuberculin  and  tuberculosis  serum,  A.  Sata  {Zi^clir.  Immunitatsf.  u. 
Expt.  Ther.,  I,  Orig.,  17  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  84-98,  pi.  1).—By  simply  mixing  old 
tuberculin  or  powdered  tubercle  bacilli  with  tuberculosis  serum  under  certain 
quantitative  and  other  conditions  and  at  a  temperature  of  38°  C,  it  is  possible 
to  produce  a  poison  in  vitro  which,  with  sound  guinea  pigs,  will  give  the  char- 
acteristic tuberculin  reactions.  The  reactions  so  produced  are  characterized  by 
a  rise  in  temperature,  resulting  in  the  classical  anai)hylactic  death. 

By  keeping  the  toxin  for  several  days  in  the  incubator,  its  toxicity  is 
destroyed,  and  consequently  it  will  not  be  lethal  for  guinea  pigs  and  will  not 
yield  the  typical  reactions  on  injection.  In  this  case  there  jirobably  occurs  the 
scission  of  the  toxic  substance,  which  is  supposed  to  go  on  in  two  plinses. 

Passive  transference  of  tuberculin  sensitiveness  by  tuberculosis  serum, 
and  the  valuation  of  the  serum  by  this  method,  A.  Sata  {Ztschr. 
Immnnitdtsf.  it.  Expt.  Ther.,  I,  Orig.,  17  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  62-75,  figs.  5).— It  is 
possible  to  produce  a  hypersensitiveness  in  guinea  pigs  by  treating  them  with 
tuberculosis  serum.     The  passive  immunity  so  produced  is  not  only  character- 


184  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECOED. 

ized  by  a  typical  rise  in  temperature  wlien  injecting  tuberculin,  but  it  is  also 
possible  to  produce  lethal  results  by  the  injection  of  the  tuberculin.  This 
process  affords  a  measure  of  the  activity  of  the  tuberculosis  serum. 

Investigations  in  regard  to  the  specific  action  of  tuberculosis  serum  with 
anaphylatoxin  tests,  A.  Sata  (Ztschr.  Immunitdtsf.  u.  Expt.  Ther.,  I,  Orig., 
11  {1913),  Ao.  1,  2)p.  75-83). — Anaphylatoxin  (used  in  Friedberger's  sense)  can 
be  prepared  from  tubercle  bacilli  either  by  treatment  with  complement  or  by 
pretreatment  with  normal  horse  serum  or  immune  serum.  A  further  cleavage 
of  anaphylatoxin  into  lower  nontoxic  products  can  be  made  if  the  conditions 
of  the  experiments  are  modified. 

In  regard  to  the  value  of  the  urochromogen  reaction  as  an  indicator  for 
tuberculin  treatment,  M.  Weisz  (Wiener  Klin.  Wchnschr.,  25  {1912),  No.  28, 
p.  1094;  «&«.  "^''^  Ztschr.  Immunitdtsf.  u.  Expt.  Ther.,  II,  Ref.,  6  {1912),  No.  2, 
p.  448). — The  detection  of  urochromogen  in  urine  with  Ehrlich's  diazo  reaction 
or  with  Weisz'  permanganate  reaction  leads  to  the  conclusion  that  the  disease 
is  in  progress.  In  this  stage  treatment  with  tuberculin  is  useless  and  in  fact 
its  use  is  contraindicated. 

About  the  use  of  the  precipitation  method  for  diagnosing  contagious 
abortion,  S.  Szymanowski  {Arh.  K.  Gsndhtsamt.,  43  {1912),  No,  1,  pp.  145- 
154). — It  is  shown  that  with  a  phenol-sodium  chlorid  extract  of  abortion 
bacilli  immune  sera  of  high  potency  can  be  prepared.  The  sera  from  naturally 
infected  animals  seem  to  give  variable  results,  some  giving  weak  reactions  and 
others  no  reaction  at  all. 

In  a  series  of  tests  with  sera  from  a  number  of  bovines  which  were  appar- 
ently sound,  a  precipitation  was  obtained  with  the  phenol-sodium  chlorid 
precipitant;  consequently  the  precipitation  test  conducted  with  this  reagent 
can  not  be  relied  upon. 

Infectious  abortion  in  cattle,  and  its  control  by  means  of  vaccination, 
O.  ScHEEiBER  (Deut.  Tierdrztl.  Wchnschr.,  21  {1913),  No.  3,  pp.  33-35;  ahs.  in 
Jour.  Compar.  Path,  and  Ther.,  26  {1913),  No.  1,  pp.  54,  55). — This  is  a  com- 
plete report  of  the  work  previously  noted  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  380).  Forty-three 
of  56  fetuses  examined  came  from  19  farms  where  abortin  was  administered  to 
the  animals,  and  in  most  of  the  fetuses  bacteria  in  addition  to  the  Bacillus 
ahortus  were  noted. 

Methylene  blue,  a  remedy  for  infectious  abortion,  F.  A.  Rich  {Vermont 
Sta.  Bui.  174,  PP-  315-323). — This  is  a  preliminary  report  of  investigations  by 
the  author  extending  over  a  period  of  15  years  in  the  course  of  which  various 
preventive  and  remedial  agents  were  tested.  In  its  action  on  Bacillus  alyortus 
the  author  found  methylene  blue  (medicinal  grade)  to  be  from  twenty  to  fifty 
times  more  effective  than  carbolic  acid.  It  has  proved  almost  uniformly  success- 
ful, is  readily  administered,  and  is  apparently  free  from  danger  to  man  or  beast. 

In  laboratory  tests  of  the  effect  of  methylene  blue  on  the  abortion  bacillus  no 
growth  resulted  where  methylene  blue  was  used  at  strengths  of  1 : 1,000  for 
1  to  3  minutes ;  1 :  2,000  for  1  to  5  minutes ;  1 :  4,000  for  4  to  8  minutes ;  1 :  5,000 
for  30  minutes;  1:6,000  for  1  hour;  1:8,000  for  2  hours;  and  1:10,000  for 
3  hours. 

In  his  experiments  the  author  made  use  of  4  herds.  Of  30  cows  in  the  first 
herd,  all  of  which  reacted  to  both  the  agglutination  and  the  complement  fixation 
tests,  one-half  received  *  oz.  of  methylene  blue  daily  on  grain  or  silage  for  a 
period  of  30  days,  while  to  the  other  half  it  was  administered  in  gelatin  capsules 
for  a  period  of  6  or  7  days,  the  dosage  being  repeated  after  a  period  of  4  weeks. 
In  one  animal  the  disease  appeared  to  have  progressed  too  far  for  favorable 
issue  as  abortion  took  place  on  the  second  day  of  the  treatment.  At  the  time 
of  writing  14  of  the  treated  cows  had  calved  at  full  term  and  the  remaining  15 


VETEEINARY  MEDICINE.  185 

were  still  under  treatiueuL  and  obsorvation.  In  the  second  herd  each  of  31 
animals  reacting  to  the  agglutination  test  was  given  1/2  oz.  of  methylene  blue 
on  feed  daily  for  30  consecutive  days  and  all  calved  normally.  In  the  third  herd 
23  cows  which  reacte<l  to  the  agglutination  test  received  10  gm.  of  methylene 
blue  on  silage  night  and  morning  for  6  consecutive  days  and  after  4  weeks' 
interval  the  treatment  was  repeated,  the  methylene  blue  being  given  in  gelatin 
capsules.  At  the  time  of  writing  none  of  the  23  animals  treated  had  aborted, 
and  8  had  calved  normally  at  full  term.  In  the  fourth  herd  9  animals,  all  but 
one  of  which  gave  positive  agglutination  tests  up  to  1  to  50,  were  given  ^  oz. 
of  methylene  blue  in  gelatin  capsules  once  a  day  for  6  days,  followed  by  an 
interval  of  4  weeks,  as  in  herd  No.  3.  At  the  time  of  writing  3  of  the  9  cows 
had  calved  at  full  term  and  no  case  of  abortion  had  occurred  in  the  herd  since 
the  beginning  of  the  treatment. 

Generalized  mycosis  in  the  bovine,  P.  Langrand  (Hyg.  Yiande  et  Lait,  7 
{1913),  xTo.  .9,  PI).  425-433,  figs.  4;  «&«•  «»  T'cf.  Rec,  26  (1013),  No.  1319,  pp. 
246,  247). — The  author  reports  upon  a  case  of  this  disease  in  a  cow,  including 
post-mortem  and  microscopic  findings. 

The  keeping-  quality  of  antihog-  cholera  serum,  S.  Barok  (Allatorvosi 
Lapok,  35  (1912),  No.  48,  pp.  569,  570;  ahs.  in  Berlin.  TieriirzU.  Wchnschr., 
29  (1913),  No.  13,  p.  241). — Hutyra's  serum  was  obtained  1  year  after  manu- 
facture. In  the  cases  where  it  was  used,  it  had  not  only  protective  power  but 
decided  curative  properties.  Pigs  having  a  temperature  of  41.6°  C,  bloody 
feces,  vomiting,  and  nosebleed  were  cured  by  this  serum. 

A  disease  (salmonellosis  porcina)  in  pigs,  J.  Lignieres  (Rev.  Zootec.  4 
(1913),  No.  45,  pp.  503-514). — In  Argentina  there  is  a  disease  prevalent  among 
pigs  which  resembles  hog  cholera  somewhat,  and  attacks  principally  the 
younger  animals.  It  is  characterized  especially  by  the  production  of  necrotic 
lesions  in  the  intestinal  mucosa,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  ileocecal  valve,  and  in 
the  large  intestines.  Caseation  is  also  noted  in  the  mesentery.  It  is  supposed 
to  be  caused  by  an  ultra  microscopic  organism. 

Inoculation  and  cohabitation  tests,  with  a  discussion  of  the  prophylaxis  and 
serum-therapy,  are  included. 

An  enzootic  among  young  pigs  caused  by  a  variety  of  the  Streptococcus 
pyogenes,  Rievel  (Deut.  Tiemrztl.  Wchnschr.,  21  (1913),  No.  12,  p.  179;  abs.  in 
Vet.  Rec,  26  (1913),  No.  1318,  pp.  230,  g5i).— Numerous  cases  of  sickness,  which 
appeared  among  young  pigs  confined  in  exposed  pens  and  resulted  in  a  mor- 
tality of  50  per  cent,  were  found  to  be  due  to  a  variety  of  S.  pyogenes. 

Injury  to  fetlock  with  purulent  infection — autotherapy,  J.  MacDonald 
{Amer.  Vet.  Rev.,  43  (1913),  No.  3,  p.  300).— A  description  of  a  case  in  a  coach- 
ing horse  from  London,  which  was  successfully  treated  by  autotherapy. 

Fistulous  withers,  and  synovitis  of  the  coronary  joint — autotherapy,  R.  S. 
MacKeller  (Amer.  Vet.  Rev.,  43  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  300.  301).— X  description  of 
cases  successfully  treated  by  the  method. 

Contribution  to  the  knowledge  of  virus  carriers  of  influenza  of  the  horse, 
A.  M.  Bergman  (Ztschr.  Infektionskrank.  u.  Hyg.  Haustiere,  13  (1913),  No. 
3-4,  pp.  161-174,  figs.  4)- — ^The  author  reports  having  found  an  apparently 
healthy  stallion,  21  years  old,  which  transmitted  influenza  to  all  of  the  mares 
covered  during  the  last  6^  years  of  his  life.  The  incubation  period  of  the  dis- 
ease in  these  mares  was  from  4  to  6  days.  No  other  changes  than  the  catarrh 
of  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  seminal  vesicles  of  this  animal  were  detected. 
Three  horses  injected  subcutaneously  with  the  contents  of  the  seminal  vesicles 
became  infected.  This  stallion  is  said  to  have  always  transmitted  the  typical 
catarrhal  and  never  the  pectoral  form.  Three  horses  that  were  subcutaneously 
injected  with  prostate  secretion,  the  contents  of  the  seminal  vesicles,  and  of 


186  EXPERIMENT    STATION   EECOED. 

the  ampulla  of  the  vas  deferens,  respectively,  showed  symptoms  of  influenza 
within  3  to  5  days  thereafter.  The  fact  that  no  micro-organisms  of  etiologic 
importance  could  be  demonstrated  therein  microscopically  or  culturally  leads 
the  author  to  conclude  that  the  virus  is  ultravisible.  He  considers  catarrhal 
influenza  (Rotlaufseuche,  influenza  erysipelatosa)  and  pectoral  influenza  or 
contagious  pleuropneumonia  (Brustseuche)  to  be  two  independent  diseases. 

The  etiolog-y  and  therapy  of  typhoid  fever  or  influenza  in  the  horse 
(Pferdestaupe),  B.  Bemelmans  (Centbl.  Bakt.  [etc.'],  1.  AU.,  Orig.,  68  (1913), 
No.  1,  pp.  S-28,  fig.  1). — Investigations  extending  over  a  period  of  5  years  lead 
the  author  to  distinguish  between  catarrhal  influenza  or  typhoid  fever  (Pferde- 
staupe) and  contagious  pleuro-pneumonia  (Brustseuche)  of  the  horse,  which 
he  considers  to  be  two  independent  affections. 

He  concludes  that  the  influenza  (Pferdestaupe)  virus  is  ultravisible,  as  re- 
ported by  Basset  (E.  S.  R.,  28,  p.  184),  since  the  affection  can  be  transmitted 
by  the  porcelain  filter  filtrate  from  blood  obtained  from  horses  naturally  or 
artificially  infected.  The  virus  may  remain  virulent  for  a  long  time,  even 
for  3  years,  in  the  seminal  vesicles  of  a  healthy  stallion  which  may  infect  mares 
at  the  time  of  service.  Such  mares  act  as  a  source  of  infection  to  other  horses 
in  the  stable.  The  infection  is  not  transmitted  to  any  distance  by  interme- 
diary carriers.  The  period  of  incubation  in  artificially  infected  animals  is  from 
3  to  5  days.  In  blood  kept  at  room  temperature  the  virus  loses  its  virulence 
in  3  mouths.  The  course  of  influenza  is  benign,  save  in  colts  and  pregnant 
mares,  and  under  normal  conditions  recovery  takes  place  in  from  10  to  12 
days.  The  author  considers  it  desirable  that  horses  at  remount  stations  be 
artifically  infected  with  the  influenza  virus  and  that  this  be  done  as  soon  as 
possible  after  their  arrival  at  the  station. 

Influenza  among-  remounts  and  its  treatment  with  salvarsan,  Jageb 
(Ztschr.  VeteriivdrJc.,  25  {1913),  No.  7,  pp.  289-299;  ahs.  in  Vet.  Jour.,  69 
(1913),  No.  460,  pp.  470,  4'^1)- — This  paper  is  based  upon  studies  of  a  large 
number  of  cases  of  the  disease.  The  treatment  with  salvarsan  consisted  in 
the  injection  of  3  gm.  dissolved  in  150  cc.  of  a  0.9  salt  solution  into  the  jugular 
vein,  one  dose  being  sufficient. 

The  author  finds  that  "  salvarsan  causes  a  quick  decline  of  fever  and  a  short- 
ening of  the  whole  fever  period,  a  slow  favorable  infiuence  on  the  activity  of 
the  heart,  a  limiting  and  retarding  of  the  pneumonia,  a  beneficial  effect  on 
the  appetite  and  general  condition — loss  of  weight  seldom  occurred,  a  shorten- 
ing of  convalescence,  no  checking  or  avoidance  of  dreaded  subsequent  effects — 
tendonitis,  roaring,  etc.,  scarcely  any  arrest  or  stoppage  of  the  source  of  infec- 
tion, and  scarcely  any  shortening  of  the  duration  of  the  illness." 

A  note  upon  strang-les  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  W.  H.  Boynton  (Philip- 
pine Jour.  ScL,  Sect.  B,  8  (1913),  No.  3,  pp.  237-240) .—"  From  the  results 
derived  from  the  cultures  and  from  microscopic  examinations  of  the  purulent 
discharges,  it  is  evident  that  streptococcic  infection  exists  In  horses  in  the 
Philippine  Islands. 

"  Since  bouillon  cultures  had  no  effect  on  rabbits  and  guinea  pigs  when  inocu- 
lated subcutaneously,  and  did  have  decided  effect  upon  a  horse,  it  proves  con- 
clusively that  the  organism  isolated  was  Btreptococcus  equi.  No  white  mice 
w^ere  on  hand,  so  the  virulence  of  the  culture  could  not  be  tested  on  them. 

"From  the  information  gained  through  inquii-y  it  is  very  evident  that 
strangles  is  a  widesi^read  disease  among  horses  in  the  Islands,  an  interesting 
fact  in  view  of  the  reputed  rarity  of  streptococcic  infections  in  man." 

Protective  substances  of  fowl  cholera  immune  serum,  E.  Weil  (Arch.  Hyg., 
76  (1912),  No.  S,  pp.  343-400 ;  ahs.  in  Ztschr.  Immunitdtsf.  u.  Expt.  Ther.,  II, 
Bef.,  6  (1912),  No.  12,  p.  911). — The  immunizing  power  of  immune  serum  which 


RURAL  ENGINEERING.  187 

was  first  brought  into  contact  with  killed  fowl  cholera  bacteria  was  lowered  or 
entirely  destroyed  when  injected  into  animals  which  received  simultaneously 
intraperitoneal  or  subcutaneous  injections  of  the  bacteria.  If  the  immuniza- 
tion is  made  18  hours  before  the  infection,  the  weakening  effect  is  not  noted. 
If  the  animal  is  infected  peritoneally  and  inmiunized  at  the  same  time,  but 
with  a  dose  selected  to  kill  after  18  to  20  instead  of  12  hours,  the  immunizing 
power  of  the  serum  is  not  affected. 

The  rapid  cure  of  polyneuritis  gallinarum  by  intramuscular  injection  of 
a  substance  isolated  from  rice — note  on  the  pathology  of  the  disease,  O. 
Wellman,  a.  C.  Eustis,  and  L.  C.  Scott  (Amer.  Jour.  Trap.  Diseases  and 
Prev.  Med.,  1  {WIS),  No.  4,  pp.  295-299) .—The  investigations  of  which  the 
preliminary  report  is  here  given  were  carried  on  along  lines  similar  to  those 
indicated  by  Funk  (E.  S.  R.,-27,  p.  868)  and  others. 

Healthy  chickens  were  fed  on  diets  of  polished  rice,  grits,  and  sago,  and  in 
the  interval  before  the  symptoms  of  polyneuritis  should  show  themselves,  intra- 
muscular injections  were  made  of  extracts  of  rice  polish  prepared  by  the  same 
method  as  that  used  by  Funk,  save  that  after  concentrating  "  and  neutralizing 
with  NaOH,  Ba(0H)2  w'as  added  and  the  barium  soaps  together  with  the  preci- 
pitated phytin  filtered  off.  Barium  was  eliminated  with  carbon  dioxid  and 
sulphuric  acid,  following  which  came  the  precipitation  with  phosphotungstic 
acid,  its  decomposition  with  baryta,  and  concentration  of  the  filtrate  in  vacuo  at 
from  50  to  56°  C." 

The  authors  feel  justified  in  drawing  the  following  provisional  conclusions 
from  the  investigations  as  thus  far  conducted:  "The  curative  substance  acts 
independently  of  the  liver  or  alimentary  tract,  and  it  is  readily  absorbed  from 
intramuscular  injections.  Degeneration  of  the  nerves  is  confined  principally 
to  disturbance  in  the  myelin  sheath  of  the  fibers.  Neither  the  sensory  nor  motor 
tracts  of  the  cord,  medulla,  or  brain  undergo  any  observable  changes.  There  is 
a  possibility  that  the  cause  of  convulsions  may  lie  in  spinal  irritation  caused  by 
subdural  hematomas  due  probably  to  increased  permeability  of  the  vessel  walls." 

RURAL  ENGINEERING. 

Irrig-ation  branch  (Rev.  Rpt.  Bihar  and  Orissa  [India],  Irrig.  Branchy 
1911-12,  pp.  //-f 9+24+28+5+2). —The  transactions  of  the  irrigation  depart- 
ment of  the  Government  of  Bihar  and  Orissa  for  the  year  1911-12  are  given  in 
so  far  as  they  relate  to  works  of  irrigation  and  navigation. 

Irrigation  of  Santa  Cruz  Valley,  M.  C.  Hinderlider  {Engin.  Rec,  68  (1913), 
Nos.  8,  pp.  200,  201,  figs.  3;  9,  pp.  242,  243,  figs.  8).— This  article  describes  a 
system  for  recovering  underground  water  in  Arizona  by  means  of  deep  wells 
and  pumping  stations.  Since  the  water-bearing  formation  underlying  the  im- 
pervious subformation  beneath  the  valley  is  comparatively  shallow  it  was  nec- 
essary to  develop  unusual  and  novel  features,  the  most  important  of  which  is  a 
recovery  system  consisting  of  19  wells  drilled  to  depths  ranging  from  45  to  150 
ft.  in  a  straight  line  across  the  narrow  part  of  the  valley  to  intercept  the  under- 
ground waters,  together  wath  the  necessary  pumping  equipment.  These  wells 
are  connected  by  means  of  a  gravity  conduit  of  reinforced  concrete  4,740  ft.  in 
length,  located  and  built  from  5  to  12  ft.  below  the  water  plane  of  the  valley. 

The  distributing  system  consists  of  a  reinforced  concrete  pipe  line  48  in.  in 
diameter  and  1,500  ft.  in  length,  forming  the  outlet  from  the  recovery  system ; 
a  48  in.  concrete  siphon  under  the  Santa  Cruz  River;  about  7  miles  of  earth 
canal,  some  of  which  is  lined  with  concrete;  and  21  miles  of  laterals. 

Pressure  pipes  for  the  conveyance  of  water  and  for  inverted  siphons, 
B.  A.  Etcheverry  (Jour.  Electricity,  30  (1913),  Nos.  21,  pp.  41 4,  415,  figs.  2;  22, 
28054°— 14 7 


188  EXPEKIMENT   STATION   EECOKD. 

pp.  494,  495,  figs.  4). — The  mathematical  analyses  given  of  tne  design  of  sheet 
steel  and  wooden  stave  pressure  pipes  include  the  derivation  of  formulas  for 
thickness  of  steel  pipe,  size  and  spacing  of  bands,  and  size  of  staves  for  wooden 
stave  pipe.  Wooden  stave  pipe  are  claimed  to  be  cheaper  than  steel  pipe,  not 
subject  to  corrosion,  to  have  a  greater  carrying  capacity  than  a  riveted  steel 
pipe  of  the  same  diameter,  if  kept  saturated  to  be  of  probably  greater  dura- 
bility, and  to  be  unaffected  by  heat  or  cold.  Its  disadvantages  are  that  it  must 
be  kept  saturated  continually  and  is  liable  to  destruction  by  fire. 

Methods  of  constructing  reinforced  concrete  pressure  pipe  are  described. 

The  economics  of  pipe  line  diameters  {Engin.  and  Contract.,  40  {1913), 
No.  9,  pp.  237-240,  figs.  8). — In  a  paper  taken  from  the  proceedings  of  the 
Pacific  Northw^est  Society  of  Engineers  C.  W.  Harris  analyzes,  mathematically 
and  graphically,  methods  for  determining  economical  pipe  line  construction  for 
power  development,  water  supply,  and  irrigation,  considering  first  the  smallest 
pipe  which  will  deliver  a  given  amount  of  power ;  second,  the  smallest  allowable 
diameter  without  exceeding  allowable  velocities;  and  third,  economical  diame- 
ter considering  the  value  of  the  water  right. 

The  following  points  are  summarized  as  solutions  to  these  considerations : 

When  the  water  consumed  has  no  value  it  is  allowable  to  use  the  smallest 
possible  pipe  line  for  power  which,  with  a  friction  loss  of  one-third  of  the  total 
head,  will  deliver  a  quantity  of  water  sufficient  to  produce  the  required  power 
with  the  other  two-thirds  of  the  total  head. 

If  a  pipe  line  is  subjected  to  a  varying  head  throughout  its  length,  but  the 
cost  for  any  particular  diameter  remains  constant  for  those  various  heads,  the 
diameter  should  also  remain  constant  throughout;  but  if  the  cost  of  the  pipe 
is  dilferent  for  the  different  heads  the  diameter  should  be  smaller  for  the  larger 
head.  The  correct  diameter  under  any  particular  head  is  that  which  will  make 
n/5  of  the  cost  of  the  pipe  for  a  given  length  equal  to  the  capitalized  value 
of  the  power  consumed  by  friction  in  that  same  length,  n  being  2  for  steel  pipe 
and  1.5  for  wooden  stave  pipe,  and  for  any  pipe  taking  the  index  of  d  in  the  ex- 
pression. Cost  =  M"-,  in  which  k  is  a  constant  depending  on  the  cost  of  steel 
per  pound,  interest,  depreciation,  etc.  With  this  diameter  determined  under 
one  head  the  diameter  of  the  same  pipe  under  any  other  head  should  vary 
inversely  as  the  seventh  root  of  the  head  if  the  pipe  is  a  high-pressure  steel 
pipe,  or  as  the  ninth  root  of  the  head  if  the  pipe  is  wood  stave.  If  the  quantity 
to  be  delivered  is  fixed,  and  the  available  friction  loss  is  also  fixed,  as  is  the 
case  with  a  pipe  line  connecting  two  reservoirs  of  fixed  elevations,  the  diameter 
of  the  pipe  line  should  vary  throughout  the  length  thereof  according  to  the 
laws  expressed*  above,  the  head  to  which  the  pipe  is  subjected  being  the  static 
head  for  which  the  pipe  is  designed. 

Light-iron  irrig'ation  flume  (Engin.  Rec,  68  (1913),  No.  6,  p.  153,  figs.  3). — 
This  article  notes  the  use  of  light  semicircular  ingot-iron  smooth  flumes 
installed  on  a  light  wooden  substructure  on  the  Pala  Indian  Reservation  in 
California.  The  sections  vary  from  12.5  to  15  in.  in  radius.  After  comple- 
tion carrying-capacity  tests  gave  a  value  for  the  coefficient  of  roughness  in 
Kutter's  formula  of  0.010  for  a  30  in.  diameter  flume.  The  total  cost,  including 
substructure,  was  $2.61  per  lineal  foot. 

Heavy  oil  as  fuel  for  internal  combustion  engines,  I.  C.  Allen  (U.  8. 
Dept.  Int.,  Bur.  Mines  Tech.  Paper  37,  pp.  36;  Sci.  Amer.  Sup.,  76  (1913),  No. 
1977,  i)p.  326,  327;  Indus.  Engin.  and  Engin.  Digest,  13  {1913),  No.  9,  pp.  392- 
395). — ^A  review  of  heavy  fuel  oils  available  for  use  in  internal  combustion 
engines  is  followed  by  a  discussion  of  heavy  oil  engines,  including  the  Diesel 
and  semi-Diesel  types  and  a  summary  of  the  requirements  of  heavy  oil  engines 


BURAL  ENGINEERING.  189 

relating  to  ease  of  starting,  steady  and  efficient  operation  at  all  loads,  complete 
combustion,  simplicity  in  regulation,  and  low  first  cost. 

The  fuel  economy  of  heavy  oil  engines  is  briefly  summarized  as  follows: 
Approximately  0.4  lb.  of  oil  is  consumed  per  horsepower  hour,  whereas  for  a 
steam  engine  of  the  best  triple  expansion  tyi^e  from  1.1  to  1.8  lbs.  of  fuel  are 
necessary,  thus  giving  an  economy  ratio  of  approximately  1 : 3  in  favor  of  the 
oil  engine. 

Fuels  that  may  be  successfully  used  in  heavy  oil  engines  are  enumerated  as 
follows:  Petroleum  products,  "Steinkohle"  oil  products,  bituminous  oils,  lignite 
products,  turf  oils,  shale  oils,  vegetable  oils,  animal  oils,  alcohols,  and  wood 
oils. 

Specifications  for  fuels  and  lubricants  for  heavy  oil  engines  are  summarized 
'as  follows:  The  oil  should  be  mobile  at  0°  C.  Sluggish  oils  should  be  heated 
before  being  introduced  into  the  engine,  and  oil  should  contain  not  more  than 
0.4  per  cent  of  material  insoluble  in  xjieue.  The  residue  on  coking  should  not 
be  greater  than  3  per  cent  and  there  should  not  be  more  than  a  trace  of  free 
carbon  in  the  oil.  At  least  80  per  cent  of  the  oil  should  distill  over  at  350° 
and  heavy  oils  and  residues  should  properly  be  distilled  before  using.  The 
flash  point  should  be  between  60  and  100°.  A  heavy  oil  containing  no  material 
having  a  low  flash  point  should  be  enlivened  by  the  addition  of  about  2  per 
cent  of  a  "  gas  oil,"  the  flash  point  being  60  to  100°  or  less.  The  specific  gravity 
should  not  be  greater  than  0.920.  The  heating  value  should  be  not  less  than 
9,000  calories,  the  hydrogen  content  not  less  than  10  i^er  cent,  and  the  sulphur 
content  not  more  than  0.75  per  cent.  The  oil  should  contain  no  free  ammonia, 
alkali,  or  mineral  acids,  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent  of  noncombustible  mineral 
matter,  and  not  more  than  1  per  cent  of  water.  The  resin  content  should  be 
low,  the  parafiin  content  not  more  than  15  per  cent,  the  creosote  content  not 
more  than  12  per  cent,  and  the  asphaltum  content  sufficiently  low  to  allow 
the  fluid  to  flow.     Fine  atomization  is  essential. 

The  viscosity  of  lubricants  should  be  between  9  and  10°  Engler  at  50°.  The 
lubricants  should  be  liquid  at  — 5°  and  should  not  freeze  solid  above  — 10°. 
The  flash  point  should,  be  between  220  to  240°  in  a  Pensky-Martens  closed 
tester.  The  lubricant  should  lose  not  more  than  10  per  cent  by  carbonization 
when  agitated  with  concentrated  sulphuric  acid,  should  dissolve  completely 
and  clearly  in  benzene,  and  should  be  free  from  acids  and  alkali.  Animal  and 
vegetable  oils  should  not  be  used. 

It  is  stated  in  conclusion  that  the  heavy  oil  engine  can  not  yet  be  considered 
as  fully  developed,  but  the  fact  that  petroleum  containing  as  high  as  20  per 
cent  asphaltum  as  well  as  oils  from  tars  have  been  successfully  used  is  most 
encouraging  for  its  future. 

Naphthalin  for  gas  engines  (Gas  Engine,  15  (1913),  No.  8,  pp.  455,  456). — 
Attention  is  called  to  the  use  of  naphthalin  in  internal-combustion  engines.  It 
is  stated  that  this  material  consists  of  approximately  94  per  cent  carbon  and 
6  per  cent  hydrogen,  melts  at  174°  F.,  boils  at  424°,  and  has  a  speciflc  gravity 
of  1.15. 

Carbureters  adapted  to  the  use  of  naphthalin  are  (1)  those  which  melt  and 
vaporize  the  naphthalin  itself,  and  (2)  those  which  vaporize  a  solution  of  the 
substance  in  some  volatile  liquid.  Ether  is  the  best  solvent,  but  its  cost  is 
prohibitive.  Benzine  dissolves  from  30  to  40  per  cent  at  atmospheric  tempera- 
ture, and  alcohol  may  be  also  used,  although  in  every  case  a  heated  carbureter  is 
necessary. 

The  advantages  claimed  for  naphthalin  are  as  follows:  It  is  not  readily  in- 
flammable ;  for  a  given  amount  of  work  it  occupies  smaller  space  than  gasoline ; 


190  EXPERIMENT   STATION   EECOED. 

it  solidifies  in  cold  air,  tlius  minimizing  the  possibility  of  leakage;  and  it  lias 
a  definite  composition. 

In  French  tests  of  this  fuel  a  4-cylinder  motor  with  a  135-mm.  bore  and  a 
145-mm.  stroke  developed  35  b.  h.  p.  at  888  r.  p.  m.  at  a  cost  per  brake  horse- 
power hour  of  about  ^  ct,  and  a  2-cylinder  motor  with  an  88-mm.  bore  and 
140-mm.  stroke  developed  8  h.  p.  at  1,100  r.  p.  m.  at  a  cost  per  brake  horsepower 
hour  of  about  ^  ct. 

The  naphthalin  motor,  O.  H.  Haenssgen  (Oas  Engine,  15  {1913),  ISlo.  10, 
pp.  537-542,  figs.  6). — The  mechanical  details  and  operation  of  several  makes  of 
both  2-  and  4-cycle  motors  operating  on  naphthalin  fuel  are  described.  All  of 
these  require  a  light  liquid  fuel  for  starting  and  stopi3ing  and  for  generating 
heat,  either  in  the  exhaust  or  in  the  cooling  water,  sufficient  to  melt  the 
naphthalin. 

Connecting  electric  motors  for  direct  drive,  C.  B.  Mills  (Brick  and  Clay 
Rec,  43  (1913),  No.  5,  pp.  468-470,  figs.  2).— This  article  takes  up  the  purely 
mechanical  considerations  in  the  application  of  electric  motors  to  machinery  and 
deals  with  the  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  several  styles  of  connection 
between  motor  and  machine,  including  belt,  rope,  toothed  chain,  gear-and-pinion 
connections,  and  cushion  and  flange  couplings  for  direct  connections. 

The  transmitting  powers  of  belts  and  ropes  at  various  speeds  are  graphically 
represented  and  designs  of  connections  are  mathematically  analyzed.  It  is 
stated  that  since  the  armature  of  the  average  type  and  size  of  motor  is  com- 
posed of  a  great  number  of  parts  of  little  mechanical  strength  it  is  important 
to  choose  a  method  of  connection  which  will  tend  to  absorb  or  minimize  shock 
and  vibration. 

Installation  and  care  of  storag-e  batteries,  H.  M.  Nichols  (Sci.  Amer.  Sup., 
76  (1913),  No.  1965,  pp.  130,  131).— This  article  considers  the  layout  and  instal- 
lation of  storage  batteries  and  takes  up  in  detail  their  operation  and  mainte- 
nance, including  the  location  and  correction  of  the  most  frequent  troubles. 
These  are  enumerated  as  short-circuiting,  sulphating,  flaking,  disintegration, 
and  warping  of  the  plates.  It  is  stated  that  each  cell  in  a  battery  should  be 
carefully  inspected  and  tested,  when  fully  charged,  once  a  week,  and  that  a 
record  should  be  kept  of  weekly  inspections  of  each  cell  for  comparative 
purposes. 

The  Winnipeg  tractor  trials,  L.  W.  Ellis  (Sci.  Amer.,  119  (1913),  No.  10, 
pp.  201-204). — These  trials,  the  sixth  of  their  kind,  brought  out  the  fact  that 
both  large  and  small  farmers  are  now  more  keenly  interested  in  the  medium  to 
small  general-purpose  tractor. 

The  tests  consisted  of  (1)  a  2-hour  economy  brake  test;  (2)  a  i-hour  maxi- 
mum brake  test;  (3)  a  8  to  5-hour  economy,  efficiency,  and  capacity  plowing 
test;  and  (4)  a  careful  comparison  of  design  and  construction.  Out  of  500 
points  the  first  was  allotted  150,  the  second  50,  the  third  200,  and  the  fourth 
100.  The  highest  net  score  attained  was  4.37.3  points.  The  brake  showings 
were  quite  uniformly  good,  and  little  distinction  was  made  between  the  tractors 
on  design  and  construction.  A  new  feature  was  the  use  of  a  vibration  de- 
tector. The  most  severe  criticisms  on  design  and  construction  were  on  lubri- 
cating systems  and  insufficient  protection  of  working  parts  from  mud  and  dust. 

The  plowing  tests  were  held  on  ground  which  had  been  plowed  before  and 
which  had  a  2  ft.  growth  of  weeds.  The  average  cost  of  plowing  per  acre  for 
steam  engines  was  46.3  cts.,  for  kerosene  50.9  cts,,  and  for  gasoline  62.1  cts. 
The  5-  and  6-plow  tractors  plowed  about  1*  acres  per  hour,  the  4-plow  rigs 
about  1  acre,  8-plow  rigs  behind  large  gas  tractors  2i  acres,  and  10-plow  rigs 
2f  to  3  acres.  Plow  for  plow  the  steam  engines  showed  more  capacity,  largely 
due  to  higher  geared  speed  of  travel. 


RURAL  ECONOMICS.  191 

Revolution  counters  on  both  engines  and  brakes  showed  a  variation  in  belt 
slippage  of  from  0.3  to  1.5  per  cent. 

Gasoline  tractors  average<l  close  to  4  times  as  many  horsepower  hours  per 
unit  of  fuel  as  steam  tractors,  while  kerosene  tractors  secured  about  3  times 
the  fuel  elficiency  of  the  steam  tractors.  Excluding  labor  costs,  however,  the 
steam  tractors  developed  brake  horsepower  at  a  rough  average  of  20  per  cent 
less  than  the  kerosene  engines  and  every  steamer  defeated  every  gasoline 
tractor  on  fuel  cost  per  unit  of  brake  power.  This  is  considered  a  powerful 
factor  in  retaining  the  moderate-sized  steam  tractor  of  from  50  to  75  b.  h.  p. 
wherever  threshing  is  of  greater  importance  than  plowing. 

Tables  of  data  are  appended  showing  the  most  important  points  of  compari- 
son, the  total  scores,  and  the  relative  standings. 

Mechanical  cultivation  in  Germany,  F.  Bornemann  and  B.  Donath  {Die 
Motorkultur  in  Deutschland.  Berlin,  1913,  pp.  VIII +230,  figs.  121).— This  book, 
based  on  the  results  of  extended  experiments,  deals,  in  connection  with  mechan- 
ical cultivation,  with  economy  in  the  purchase  of  motor  cultivating  machinery 
in  Germany,  and  calls  attention  to  the  special  points  to  be  considered  in  the 
judgment  and  choice  of  the  various  types  for  various  classes  of  work.  A  chap- 
ter on  historical  development  is  followed  by  a  discussion  of  the  relation  of 
mechanical  cultivation  to  political  and  actual  working  economy. 

From  a  comparison  of  motor  plows  and  scarifiers  with  steam  tractor  plows 
it  is  concluded  that  the  first  two  are  best  adapted  to  shallow  surface  cultivation 
while  the  last  is  adapted  to  deep  plowing.  A  comparison  of  mechanical  and 
electrical  cultivation  indicates  that  the  first  is  on  the  whole  t